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# Fluid Biomechanics

## • The study of forces that develop

when an object moves through a
fluid medium.

## • Two fluids of interest

• Water

• Air
Fluid forces
• Four major fluid forces of interest:
• Weight

• Buoyant Force

• Drag

• Lift

• Other Forces
Floatation

• Equilibrium:
• weight of object = buoyant force
• Floatation:
• specific gravity < 1
• weight of object < max. buoyant force
• Specific gravity:
S = Wbody
Wwater

• Center of buoyancy:
The point that is CG of volume of water
equal to the volume and shape of the
submerged body

## CB is closer to the chest region

CG is closer to the pelvic region
Natural
floater
True
floater
True sinker
Buoyant Force
• Archimedes’ Principle:
• Object in a fluid is acted on a buoyant force.

the object

## “A body that is partially or totally immersed in

a fluid will experience an upward buoyant
force that is equal to the weight of the
volume of fluid displaced by that body”
Center of buoyancy &
swimming performance
Vwater = +10
Vboat –Vwater = 0 – 10 = –
Vwater = +10
Vboat –Vwater = 10 – 10 = 0
Vwater =0
Vboat –Vwater = 10 – 0 = 10
Drag Force
• Along the direction of motion
• Opposite of relative flow
• Slows down the speed
• Resistance
• Affected by cross-section area
• Affected by surface smoothness

FD = ½ CDAρ V2
Skin Friction / Surface Drag
• Boundary layer: layer of affected
air
• Depends on
• relative velocity
• surface area
• smoothness of surface
• fluid (viscosity)
• fabric (swim suit), shaving body in
swimming
Profile Drag/Form Drag

## • Due to separation of the fluid

from the boundary of the object
• Eddy currents

• Streamlining
Profile Drag/Form Drag

• depends on
• cross-section
• shape of the body
• smoothness of the surface
• bicyclist in upright v. crouched position
Wave Drag
• Resistance at the interface, due to wave
Lift
• Perpendicular to the direction of motion
• Created by different pressures on opposite
sides of an object due to fluid flow past the
object

## • Bernoulli’s principle: velocity is inversely

proportional to pressure
Bernoulli’s Law

## “Where the flow velocity is fast, the

pressure is low; where the flow
velocity is slow, the pressure is high”

FL = ½ CLAρ V2
Effect of Lift in Sport
Variables influencing aerodynamic
lift force
• Angle of Projection; angle between
horizontal and CG of projectile
• Line of Flight
• Attitude Angle; angle between horizontal
and long axis of projectile
Effect of Lift in Sport

• Center of Pressure
• Angle of Attack at Release; angle
between projectile’s long axis and
projection angle
The Magnus Effect

## • The Magnus effect

describes the curved

## path that is observed

by spinning

projectiles
The Magnus Effect

• Explained by
Bernoulli’s principle
and the pressure
differences caused
by relative
differences in flow
velocities
Top Spinning

## • Velocity of superior boundary

layer decrease
• Velocity of inferior boundary
layer increase
• NET Force; Downward
Back Spinning
• Velocity of superior boundary layer
increase
• Velocity of inferior boundary layer
decrease
• NET Force; upward
• Rebound
NET FORCE (up)

flow
Side Spinning
• Lt. spin
Rt. side – low pressure zone
Lt. side – high pressure zone
NET Force; to Rt. side

• Rt. Spin
Lt. side – low pressure zone
Rt.side – high pressure zone
NET Force; to Lt. side