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Past Continuous

We use the past continuous with When to talk about un


activity that was already in progress when something else
happened .
Notice that we use the simple past after When.
Examples:
- I was studying when she called
- They were dancing in the hall when their father arrived.
Examples:
- When Bob was painting windows, Mary was working in the
kitchen.
- When the mother came home, her husband was playing
with the kids.
- When the parents arrived home, the children were
watching TV



Modals of permission
May, Could and Can
May is more formal.
Questions:
May I use a calculator on the test, please? Yes, sure
May I please have another piece of cake? Yes, you may.
Could I have some more juice? Of course.
Could I bring a friend to the party? certainly
Can I play music? Go ahead
Can I wear shorts? Yes, you can.
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Sentences.
You may sleep on the sofa.
You can wear my jacket.
You may go when you've finished
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Do you mind: is very polite and we do not use please. The expressions are
followed by if.
Examples:




1) ___________ if I smoke in here?
Do you mind

2) ____________ I borrow your car tonight, Dad?
Could

3) ___________ I have a look at your photo album?
Can
4) ___________ if I opened the window?
Do you mind

5) ___________I have some more candy, Mommy?
Could
6) ____________ if I invited them to dinner?
Do you mind
7) ____________I use your phone charger, please?
May
8) ______________ if I check my e-mail first?
Do you mind

9) _______________ they stay over tonight?

Can
10) ________________ I please take the day off tomorrow?
May
Comparisons with As + Adjective+ As
When we want to talk about ways 2 people or things are the same, we
want to talk about a similarity, we use as + adjective + as.
For example:
Peter is 24 years old. John is 24 years old. Peter is as old as John.
Moscow is as cold as St. Petersburg in the winter.
Ramona is as happy as Raphael.
Einstein is as famous as Darwin.
A tiger is as dangerous as a lion.
When we want to talk about ways 2 people or things are different, we
use not as + adjective + as.
For example:
Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everest
Norway is not as sunny as Thailand
A bicycle is not as expensive as a car
Arthur is not as intelligent as Albert

1) The blue car is as fast as the red car. (fast)
As fast as
2) Peter is not as tall as Fred. (not tall)
Is not as tall as
3) The violin is not as low as the cello.(not/ low)
Is not as low as
4) This copy is as bad as the other one. (bad)
As bad as
5) Oliver is as optimistic as Peter. (optimistic)
As optimistic as
6) Today it's not as windy as yesterday. (not/ windy)
Not as windy as
7) The tomato soup was as delicious as the mushroom soup. (delicious)
As delicious as
8) Grapefruit juice is not as sweet as lemonade. (not/sweet)
Not as sweet as
9) Nick is as brave as Kevin. (brave)
As brave as
10) Silver is not as heavy as gold. (not/heavy)
Not as heavy as
Inseparable Phrasal verbs
Phrasal verbs are verbs that have more than one
word. They are formed by two parts a verb + a
particle.

Look after : take care of
My mother promised to look after my dog while I was
gone.
Look into: investigate
The police will look into the possibilities of
embezzlement.
Wait on: serve
It seemed strange to see my old boss wait on tables.

break down: stop functioning
That old Jeep had a tendency to break down just when I needed
it the most.
catch on: become popular
Popular songs seem to catch on in California first and then
spread eastward.
come back: return to a place
Father promised that we would never come back to this
horrible place.
come in: enter
They tried to come in through the back door, but it was locked.
come over: to visit
The children promised to come over, but they never do.
drop by: visit without appointment
We used to just drop by, but they were never home, so we
stopped doing that.
3 part verbs. Inseparables:
break in on interrupt (a conversation)
I was talking to Mom on the phone when the operator broke in on our call.
catch up with keep abreast
After our month-long trip, it was time to catch up with the neighbors and the
news around town.
check up on examine, investigate
The boys promised to check up on the condition of the summer house from time
to time.
come up with to contribute (suggestion, money)
After years of giving nothing, the old parishioner was able to come up with a
thousand-dollar donation.
cut down on curtail (expenses)
We tried to cut down on the money we were spending on entertainment.
drop out of leave school
I hope none of my students drop out of school this semester.
get along with have a good relationship with
I found it very hard to get along with my brother when we were young.
get away with escape blame
Janik cheated on the exam and then tried to get away with it.
Gerunds and Infinitives
Gerund: verb +ing
Infinitive: to +verb
Some verbs are followed by gerunds.

Examples:

admit He admitted cheating on the test.
advise The doctor generally advised drinking low-
fat milk.
allow Ireland doesn't allow smoking in bars.
appreciate I appreciated her helping me.
avoid He avoided talking to her.
Would you mind (not)repeating that?

Verbs Followed by an Infinitive
She agreed to speak before the game.
agree
aim
appear
arrange
ask
attempt
be able
beg
begin
care
choose
condescend

consent
continue
dare
decide
deserve
detest
dislike
expect
fail
forget
get
happen

have
hesitate
hope
hurry
intend
leap
leave
like
long
love
mean
neglect

offer
ought
plan
prefer
prepare
proceed
promise
propose
refuse
remember
say

shoot
start
stop
strive
swear
threaten
try
use
wait
want
wish
Examples:

agree Sarah agreed to help me.
appear His health appeared to be better.
arrange Peter arranged to stay with his uncle in
Paris.
ask She asked to leave.
begin He began to talk.
care He doesn't care to participate in the
charity run
choose I chose to help.
claim She claimed to be a doctor.
continue She continued to talk.
decide We decided to go to Paris.
demand He demanded to speak to the manager.
Future time Clauses
Future time clauses begin with time words like
when, after, before, as soon as, until, and while.
We use future time clauses with main clauses to
talk about what is going to happen in the future.
Examples:
WHEN
When I finish writing the reports, I will go out with my
friends.
She will move to London when she finds a good job.
When the party is over, well clean the house.
BEFORE
Before I go to Bodrum, Ill book a room.
Murat will visit all his relatives before he joins the
army.
They wont transfer any players before they sign
the advertising agreement.
AFTER
After her sister prepares dinner, theyll invite
their neighbours.
My father will buy a new car after he saves
enough money.
What will you do after you finish the French
course?
AS SOON AS
They will go to the beach as soon as they have
their breakfast.
All the players in the national team will go on
holiday as soon as the Europian Championship is
over.
Dont worry mom. I will phone you as soon as I
arrive Paris.
UNTIL
You can go out. I will wait until she calls.
They wont start the match until the rain stops.
I wont buy anything new until I pay all my debts.
Infinitives of purpose
Infinitives of purpose are used to give the reason
for something. They answer the question Why?
Why are you taking that apple to school?
I am going to give it to the teacher
Why are you going to the supermarket?
To buy some milk and some bread.
Why did Tonny go to France?
To attend and international conference
Why was Talia hurrying Monday at exactly 8:00am?
To get ready for work.
In order to to give reasons
in order to + the base form of the verb to give
reasons. This form is more formal.
Example:
She studies for hours in order to get a high grade
in the exam.
To talk about a negative purpose, we use in
order not to plus the base form of the verb.
Example:
They came here in order not to attend the
meeting.

Modals of necessity
Must/Have To/Have Got To
You have to get a passport.
You must get a visa for some countries.
You need to take money.
For some countries, you don't have to get any
vaccinations.



In some situations, must is more urgent or
stronger than have to:
Examples:
- You must be here for your appointment on
time. I have a busy schedule today.
You have to take another course next year.
Dont have to and doesnt have to talk about
things that are not necessary.
She doesnt have to buy a new dress.
I dont have to speak English all the time.

Must and cannot: prohibited
Examples:
Jenny, you must not play in the street!
You must not swim in that river. It's full of
crocodiles.
You must not forget to take your malaria
medication while your are in the tropics
You cant park here, sir.
You can wear jeans but you cant wear trainers
in that bar.
Questions that express necessity : have to.
Do I have to pay in advance?
Does your father have to travel a lot at his job?
We use must and have got to in present and
future necessity.
Examples:
Present:
We must show our passport at the airport.
I have got to pay my phone bill soon.
Future
I must be on time for the next meeting
I have got to take a quiz in two monts.

Participial Adjectives
Present participle adjectives (ending with -ing) have an active
meaning.
Past participle adjectives (ending with -ed) have a passive meaning.
They describe feelings and reactions.
Examples.
amazing amazed exciting excited
Boring bored exhausting exhausted
baffling baffled fascinating fascinated
compelling compelled frightening frightened
confusing confused invigorating invigorated
consuming consumed moving moved
demoralizing demoralized stirring stirred
disappointing disappointed tiring tired
disturbing disturbed troubling troubled
enriching enriched upsetting upset
entertaining entertained

ed- someone feels
Examples:
Anne is very interested in the lesson. Anne est muy interesado en la leccin.
I was really bored during the flight. Yo estaba realmente aburrida/o durante el
vuelo
John's frightened of spiders. John es miedoso a las araas
We usually use the present participle (ending in -ing) to talk about the person,
thing, or situation which has caused the feeling:
It was such a long, boring flight. Fue un largo, vuelo tan aburrido.
I read a really interesting book about history. Le un libro muy interesante sobre
la historia.
Many people find spiders frightening. Muchas personas encuentran las araas
aterradoras

Present Perfect Continuous wit for and
since.
Began in the past and is still happening
The structure of the present perfect continuous tense is:
S+ have/has+ been + ing verb.
Examples:
I have been waiting for one hour.
You have been talking too much.
It has not been raining.
We have not been playing football.
Have you been seeing her?
Have they been doing their homework?
For: We use for to talk about a period of time -
5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years.

I have been studying for 3 hours.
Tara hasn't been feeling well for 2 weeks.
He has been playing football for a long time.
We've been planning our vacation for over a
month.
We use since to talk about a point in past time
- 9 o'clock, 1st January, Monday.
Examples:
I have been watching TV since 7pm.
Tara hasn't been visiting us since January.
He has been living in Bangkok since he left
school.
John has been working at the bank since 2003
Separable phrasal verbs
blow up explode
The terrorists tried to blow up the railroad station.
bring up raise children
It isn't easy to bring up children nowadays.
call off cancel
They called off this afternoon's meeting
do over repeat a job
Do this homework over.
fill out complete a form
Fill out this application form and mail it in.
fill up fill to capacity
She filled up the grocery cart with free food.
find out discover
My sister found out that her husband had been planning a surprise party
for her.
give away give something to someone else for free
The filling station was giving away free gas.
Separable Phrasal Verbs (los separables). Son aquellos phrasal
verbs en los cuales se puede poner una persona del
predicado, en medio de la accin y la preposicin.
Ex:
-take back
Max took the defective radio back to the store where he
bought it.

Max devolvi la radio defectuosa a la tienda donde lo compro
Write down
- The professor instructed us to write the information down.
Work out (resolve)
- The couple is attempting to work their problems out with a
marriage counselor.




Superlative Adjectives
We can form the superlative in several ways:
For short adjectives, we use the + adjective + -est.
For example: small the smallest.
Sometimes, when we add est, there are spelling
changes. For example: nice the nicest, big the
biggest, crazy the craziest.
A few adjectives have irregular superlative forms.
For example: good the best, bad the worst.
For long adjectives, we usually form the
superlative with the most. For example: interesting
the most interesting, popular the least popular.


Examples:
- John is the smartest boy in the class.
- Mary is the youngest person in the room.
- My brother is the least responsible person of the family.
- Some people think that Russian is the most difficult
language.
- Albert Einstein was the most intelligent person in
history.
- My most enjoyable class is English.
- You are the most irritating person I have ever met!
- The richest people are not always the happiest.
- Which do you think is the easiest language to learn?
- She's the luckiest person I know.