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SWITCHGEAR
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Presentation outline
Basics of switchgear
Components and Classification
Basic design aspects
Breakers, relays and fuses
Typical parameters
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What is a Switchgear ?
The apparatus used for Switching, Controlling and Protecting
the Electrical Circuits and equipment.

Need of Switchgear :
* Switching during normal operating conditions for the
purpose of Operation and Maintenance.

* Switching during Faults and Abnormal conditions and
interrupting the fault currents.

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SWITCHGEAR
Historical background :
up to 1875 : knife switches
1885 : Bulk Oil circuit breaker
1900 : Arc extinction devices, MOCB
1930s : ABCB
1950s : SF6
1960s : Vacuum CB

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PARTS OF SWITCHGEAR
Switching device

Power circuit

Control circuit

Measurement and display

Protection
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Switching devices :
Circuit breakers / contactors
Isolators
Earthing switch
Control Circuit :
service / test /isolated position selectors
Tripping and closing circuit
Spring charging, anti pumping arrangement
Supply monitoring , space heaters , indications
Measurement :
Ammeter, voltmeter, energy meter
Protection :
Relays, CT, PT,
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SWITCHGEAR Various symbols :

Isolator / Disconnecting switch

Circuit Breaker

Earthing switch

Lightening Arrestor

CT PT


Ammeter Voltmeter


V
A
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SWGR : CIRCUIT BREAKERS
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CLASSIFICATION OF SWITCHGEARS :
Method of arc quenching :
Bulk oil, Min. oil, Air Break, Air Blast, SF6 , Vacuum
Working voltage :
440 v, 6.6 kV, 11 kV, 400 kV etc.
Indoor / out door


SOME INTERLOCKS :
Check synchronisation for closing
Master relay contacts for trip and close
HV & LV Breaker interlocks
Main / Reserve supply change over
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Swgr: Basic Design Aspects
The Auxiliary power system in a power plant must form a
RELIABLE source of power to all unit and Station
auxiliaries. The basic function of Switchgear is to control
supply of electric power and to protect the equipment in the
event of abnormal conditions.Hence the Switchgears have
to be RELIABLE , SAFE, and ADEQUATE .

Defining the reliability, safety aspects and adequacy
aspects in terms of Quantitative parameters forms the
essential part in SPECIFICATIONS

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Swgr: Basic Design Aspects

33 KV, 11 KV, 6.6 KV and 3.3 KV Switchgears

Indoor, metal clad single front and fully
Compartmentalized , with degree of protection IP42
and IP52 for metering compartments. For 33 KV the
switchgears can be metal enclosed either.

Circuit Breakers of either SF6 or Vacuum type. They
shall comprise of three separate identical single pole
interrupting units operated through a common shaft by
a sturdy mechanism.


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Basic Design Aspects
Breakers are suitable for Switching transformers and
motors at any load and also for starting 3.3 KV -
Above 200 KW to 1500 KW , 11 KV- above 1500 KW for
500 MW units and 6.6 KV- above 200 KW for 210 MW
units.
Surge arresters are provided for all motor feeders to limit
the over voltages
For Coal handling plant Motors where frequent start/stop of
motors is called for HRC fuse backed contactors are
provided.
Suitable Interlocks are provided to ensure that Breaker
is off before opening the rear doors/covers.


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Basic design features:
Control and Safety
VSTPP -II onwards all Circuit Breakers/contactors are being
controlled normally from remote through DDCMIS/PLC. The control
Switch located on the Switchgear is normally used only for testing.
All the logic for incomers, buscouplers , ties, transformer feeders
and motor feeders is being generated in DDCMIS only . The
reverse blocking schemes are still incorporated in Swgr(hardwired)
In earlier projects these logics were generated in Swgr / remote
panel (HARDWIRED).
Such a type of control has facilitated Flexibility ,simpler wiring and
helped in standardizing interface requirements . A typical Control
scheme being implemented in Talcher-II is as displayed.
Isolation Transformers for Lighting distribution to limit the fault of
lighting Boards to 9 KA.
Safety Measures for Switchgear include provision of insulated mats
in front.
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Typical Control Scheme
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STN Supply
6.6 KV

415 V
DC Chargers
Unit Supply One Line Diagram
STN
Supply
400KV Bus Bar
GT
20.5 KV
6.6KV Unit Bus
6.6KV

415 V
6.6 KV Unit Bus-2
6.6 KV

415V
Motors
Motor
Feeders
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Relays
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Relay :
A device that detects the fault and initiates the operation
of the Circuit breaker to isolate the defective element
from the rest of the system.
The relay detects the abnormal conditions in the electrical
circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities
which are different under normal and faulty conditions.

RELAY
CT
CB
Load
Source
PT
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Requirements of Protecting relaying :
Selectivity
- Ability to select the faulty part and isolate that part
without disturbing the rest of the system.
Speed
- Ability to disconnect the faulty part at the earliest
possible time.
Sensitivity
- Ability of the relay to operate with low value of
actuating quantity.
Reliability
- Ability of the system to operate under pre-determined
conditions

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Simplicity
- Should be simple so that it can be easily maintained.
- The simpler the protection scheme, the greater is the
reliability
Economy
- Availability at lower cost.
- Generally, the protective gear should not cost more than 5% of
the total cost. However, when the apparatus to be protected is of
utmost importance (e.g. Generator, GT
etc) economic conditions are subordinated to reliability.

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Classification of Relays based on Design :
RELAYS
Electromagnetic
&
Electro thermal
Static
Microprocessor
based Numerical
* Attracted Armature
* Induction disc
* Printed disc dynamometer
* Permanent magnet
* Moving coil
* Polarised moving Iron

* Bimetallic Strip
* Relay consists of
Electronic circuitry
such as Transistors,
ICs, Diodes etc
* Uses VLSI technology
* Can be Programmed
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Basic classification of Relays based on Function :


* Current based, with and without directional feature.
* Voltage based
* Impedance based
* Frequency based
* Power based, with and without directional feature

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Circuit Breakers
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Main Parts of a Circuit Breaker :

* Fixed Contact

* Movable Contact

* Operating Mechanism and control circuit

* Arc extinguishing medium
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Basic trip circuit :
CT
CB
PT
RELAY
DC supply
Bus
Line
Trip Coil
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Few definitions :
Breaking Capacity: Max fault current at which a CB is
capable of breaking.
Making Capacity: Max current a CB can withstand if it
closing on existing Short circuit.
Restriking Voltage: After the arc has been extinguished,
the voltage across the breaker terminals does not normalize
instantaneously but it oscillates The transient voltage which
appears across the breaker contacts at the instant of arc being
extinguished.
Recovery Voltage: Power frequency voltage which
appears across the breaker contacts after the arc is finally
extinguished and transient oscillations die out.
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Fault clearing process :

During any Fault..
* Fault impedance will be low, so fault current will
increase and relay senses this increase in current.
* Relay contacts closes and sends trip signal to circuit
breaker and the trip coil of the circuit breaker will get
energized.
* Operating mechanism of the circuit breaker will
operate and separate the contacts.
* Arc will be initiated between the contacts and it is
extinguished by suitable methods.
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Arcing phenomenon :
- When a fault occurs, heavy current flows through the
contacts of the circuit breaker before they are opened by the
protective system.
- At the instant when the contacts begin to separate, the
contact area decreases rapidly and current density (I/A)
increases and hence rise in temperature.
-The heat produced is sufficient to ionise the medium
between the contacts. This ionised medium acts as conductor
and an arc is struck between the contacts.
- The potential difference between the contacts is very
small and is sufficient to maintain the arc.
- The current flow depends upon the Arc resistance.
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Events/Timings
during fault clearing process
Fault clearing
Time
Relay time
Circuit breaker
Time
Instant
Of
Fault
Closure of
Trip
Circuit
Final arc
Extinction
Circuit breaker
Time
Closure of
Trip
Circuit
=
+
=
=
to
to Relay time
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Various types of CBs :

(i) Miniature CB
(ii) Air Break CB
(iii) Air Blast CB
(iv) Oil CB
(v) SF6 CB
(vi) Vacuum CB

Bulk Oil CB
Minimum Oil CB
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Air Break CB :

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Air Blast CB :

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ABCB- Principle of arc quenching
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Bulk Oil CB :
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Minimum Oil CB :

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SF6 CB :
1. Op mechanism
2. Interrupter
3. Support
4. Op rod
5. Linkage
6. Terminals
7. Filters
8. Puffer cylinder
9. Nozzle
10. Fixed position
11. Fixed contact
12. Moving contact
13. Gas inlet
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* Inert gas with high dielectric strength.
* Colour less and odour less.
* Non-toxic and non- inflammable.
* Sf6 is blown axially to the arc, hence it removes the heat by axial
convection and radial dissipation. As a result the arc dia reduces
and comes to zero at current zero.
* Gas pressure in the chamber is at 5 ksc.
* SF6 is filled at a pressure of 12 ksc in the tank and maintained by
means of an individual or a common compressor.
* The decomposition products of arcing are not explosive hence no
chance of fire.
Disadvantages
* SF6 gas condensates at low temperature & high pressure
Advantage of SF6
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Vacuum CB :
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* Used up to 66 KV.
* Vacuum is of the range of 106 to 108 torr.
* Vacuum is highly dielectric, so arc cant persists.
* Separation of contacts causes the release of metal vapour
from the contacts, the density of vapour depends on the
fault current.
* At current zero the vapour emission will tends to zero and
the density will becomes zero and dielectric strength will
build up and restriking will be prevented.
* No emission to atmosphere, hence pollution free.
* Non- explosive and silent operation.
* Compact size.



Advantage of vacuum CB
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* High initial cost.
* Surge suppressors (R or RC combination) are to be
connected at load side for limiting switching over-
voltage while switching low pf loads.


Disadvantage of vacuum CB
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Few definitions :
Rated current :
- Current which can be carried without fusing
Minimum fusing current :
- Min value of the rms current at which the fuse melts.
Fusing factor :
- FF = Min fusing current / Rated current
Prospective current :
- Current which would have flown if the fuse is absent.
Cut-off current :
- Maximum value of fault current actually reached
before the fuse elements melts.

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Cut-off current
Fault occur
Pre-arcing time Arcing time
Total operating time
Prospective current
t
I
Characteristics of Fuse :
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Characteristics of Fuse element :
- Low melting point. (Tin, Lead)
- High conductivity (Silver, Copper)
- Free from deterioration due to Oxidation (Silver)
- Low cost (Lead, Tin, Copper)

Outstanding feature of a Fuse element is that it isolates the
circuit well before the fault current reaches its first peak current.
This gives the fuse a great advantage over a Circuit breaker
since the most severe thermal and electromagnetic effects of
Short-circuit currents (which occurs at the peak value of the
Prospective current) are not experienced with fuses.

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Types of Fuses :
LV fuses

Semi-enclosed rewirable fuse :
- consists of porcelain base and a fuse carrier.
- used where low currents are to be interrupted.
- used in domestic and lighting applications
HRC cartridge fuse :
- consists of heat resistant ceramic body and the
cartridge is filled with filler material such as chalk,
plaster of Paris, quartz or marble dust which acts as
arc quenching and cooling medium.
- when fuse element (silver) melts, high resistance
substance is formed due to the chemical reaction
between the silver vapor and the filling powder. Thus
Arc is quenched.

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HV fuses
(i) Expulsion type :
- consists of hollow tube made of synthetic-resin
bonded paper in which fuse wire is placed
- when fuse element melts, it causes decomposition of
the inner coating of the tube resulting in formation
of gases which extinguishes the arc.
- used in the level of 11 KV, 250 MVA and generally
used for protection of distribution transformers.
(ii) Drop-out fuse :
- Expulsion type fuse.
- when fuse melts, the fuse element carrying tube drops
down due to gravity, so that, can be spotted easily.
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Coordination between Fuses and a O/C
protection devices:


Capacity of Circuit breaker
Char of
Fuse
Char of O/C prot
devices
I
t
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STAGE-I
RATING MAKE QUENCHING MEDIUM
6.6 KV ASEA MOCB
415V NGEF AIR
STAGE-II
RATING MAKE QUENCHING MEDIUM
6.6 KV
SIEMENS VACUUM
11KV SIEMENS VACUUM
415V EE AIR
Details of various CBs in RSTPS
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OS I
LOCATION RATING MAKE MEDIUM
SLURRY P/H-1 415 V NGEF AIR
RAW WATER P/H 6.6 KV
ASEA/
ABB
MOCB/
VACCUM

COMPR: - 1 6.6 KV ASEA MOCB
COLONY S/S 11 KV GEC MOCB
CW P/H 1 6.6 KV
ASEA/
ABB
MOCB/SF
6
/
VACUUM

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LOCATION RATING MAKE MEDIUM
SLURRY P/H - 2
415V&
6.6 KV
EE/
SIEMENS
AIR/
VACUUM
CW P/H - 2 415V EE AIR
DM PLANT MCC 415V EE AIR
33 KV S/S
1 & 2
33 KV MG SF
6
OS II & 33KV
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Make
Voltage Rating
(KV)
Operating Mechanism
Arc Ext
Medium
AEG 400
CENTERALISED AIR
COMPRESSOR SYSTEM
SF
6
NGEF 220 & 400
INDIVIDUAL AIR
COMPRESSOR SYSTEM
SF
6

BHEL 220 & 400
HYDRAULIC
SF
6

ABB 220 & 400
INDIVIDUAL AIR
COMPRESSOR SYSTEM
SF
6

BHEL 132
MOTORISED
OIL
S/Y
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Make Rated Pr Low Pr Alarm
Functional
Lock out
AEG 8.0 7.0 6.5
NGEF 8.0 7.0 6.5
BHEL 7.5 6.7 6.5
ABB 7.0 6.2 6.0
SF6 gas pressures of CBs : (bar)
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Make
AEG
(Air)
NGEF
(Air)
BHEL
(Hydr)
ABB
(Air)
Operating
Pr:
37 30.6 303 31.5
A/R
Lock out

34 28 30 30
Operation
Lock out
30 27.3 253 23
Safety Valve
Open
42 42 NA 33
Operating medium parameters of CBs : (bar)
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