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Geologi Struktur

(Pengukuran & Analisis Struktur Geologi)




Oleh :
Irvani
Universitas Bangka Belitung Jurusan Teknik Pertambangan
Referensi :
Van Der Pluijm, B. A. and Marshak, S. 2004. Earth Structure. 2nd Edition. W. W.
Norton & Company, Inc., USA.
Rowland, S.M., Duebendorfer, E.M. and Schiefelbein, I.M. 2007. Structural Analysis
and Synthesis : A Laboratory Course in Structural Geology. 3th Edition. Blacwell
Publishing Ltd. Voctoria, Australia.
Bates, R.L. and Jackson, J.A., 1987. Glossary Geology. 3th Edition. American
Geological Institute Elexandria, Virginia.
Davis, G.H. 1984. Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions. John Wiley & Sons,
New York.
Ragan, D.M. 2009. Structural Geology : An Introduction to Geometrical Techniques.
4th Edition. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Twiss R.J. And Moores, E.M. 2007. Structural Geology. 2nd Edition. W.H. Freeman
and Company, USA.
Ramsey J. and Huber, M. 1983. The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology :
Strain Analysis. Vol. 1. Academic Press, Inc., London.
Ramsey J. and Huber, M. 1987. The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology : Fold
and Fractures. Vol. 2. Academic Press, Inc., London.
Ramsey J. and Huber, M. 2000. The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology :
Applications of Continuum Mechanics in Structural Geology. Vol. 3. Elsevier
Academic Press, Inc., California.
Cox, A. and Hart, R.B. 1986. Plate Tectonics : How It Works. Blacwell Scienific
Publications, Inc., California.
Trouw, R.A.J. and Passchier, C.W. 1996. Microtectonics. Springer Verlag Berlin
Heidelberg, Germany.
DLL.
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Pokok Bahasan :

I Pendahuluan (P.1)

II Tektonika & Orogenesa (P.2-3)
a. Tektonik lempeng
b. Orogenesa

III Gaya, Tegangan, Strain &
Deformasi (P.4-5)
a. Gaya & Tegangan
b. Strain & Deformasi

IV Struktur Geologi (P.6-9)
a. Unsur struktur
b. Lipatan
c. Kekar
d. Sesar/Patahan

V Identifikasi Struk. Geologi (P.10-11)
a. Pengukuran dan analisis
struktur geologi
b. Analisis geofisika struktur
geologi

VI Aplikasi Struk. Geologi (P.12-13)
a. Mineralisasi
b. Migas
c. Kebencanaan geologi

VII Geologi Struk. Indonesia (P.14)
a. Umum
b. Sumatra&Jawa
c. Bangka Belitung

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Arah (bearing): sudut horisontal antara garis dengan arah koordinat tertentu,
biasanya utara atau selatan.
Azimuth: bearing yang diukur dari utara searah jarum jam.
True dip (kemiringan sebenarnya): sudut kemiringan terbesar yang terbentuk
oleh
suatu bidang dengan bidang datar, diukur tegak lurus perpotongan bidang.
Apperent dip (kemiringan semu): sudut yang terbentuk antara suatu bidang
dengan bidang horisontal yang diukur tidak tegaklurus perpotongan bidang.
Jurus (strike): arah garis horisontal yang terbentuk oleh bidang miring dengan
bidang horisontal.
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Rowland et al., 2007
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Stereographic Projection
Objective : Use stereographic projection to quantitatively
represent three-dimensional, orientation data (such as the
attitudes of lines and planes) on a two-dimensional piece
of paper.
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Nets used for stereographic projection. (a) Stereographic net
or Wulff net. (b) Lambert equal-area net or Schmidt net.
Rowland et al., 2007
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Main elements of the equal-area projection.
Rowland et al., 2007
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Oblique lower-hemisphere view of the projection of a plane striking
northsouth and dipping 50
o
west. (a) Oblique view. (b) Equal-area
projection.
Rowland et al., 2007
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Pole of a plane
Projection of a plane (NS,
40
o
W) and the pole to the
plane. (a) Oblique view. (b)
Equal-area projection.
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Projection of a pole to a plane.
Rowland et al., 2007
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I. LIPATAN
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Foto singkapan struktur
antiklin pada perlapisan
batupasir dan sketsa
lapangan yang
dibuat untuk mempermudah
identifikasi unsur-unsur
struktur geologi (McClay,
1987).
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An asymmetric, plunging fold (the Sheep Mountain Anticline
in Wyoming, USA).
Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
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Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
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Chevron folds in Franciscan chert of California, USA (Marin County)
Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
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Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
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Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
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Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
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Flexural Slip/Flow Folding
Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
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Shear Folding
Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
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Rowland et al., 2007
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Rowland et al., 2007
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(a) Geologic map, (b) corresponding structure section,
(c) stratigraphic column
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Sambungan.......
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Geologic map with two contrasting interpretations of structure section AA.
Generalized from Dibblee (1966). (a) Geologic map. (b) Original structure section
in which the northern serpentinite block is interpreted as the exposed core of an
anticline. (c) Revised structure section in which the northern exposure of
serpentinite is interpreted as a landslide block.
Rowland et al., 2007
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Example of a structure section with intrusive bodies. After Huber
and Rinehart (1965)
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Stereographic Analysis of Folded Rocks
Rowland et al., 2007
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Rowland et al., 2007
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Rowland et al., 2007
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Joint Spacing in Sedimentary Rocks
Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
II. KEKAR
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Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
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Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
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III. Faults
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Pengukuran Bidang Sesar
1. Data Orientasi kemiringan bidang sesar (strike/dip)
2. Data Pitch : merupakan besarnya sudut runcing
yang dibentuk antara strike dengan slicken line.
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Rowland et al., 2007
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Shiny slickensided surface
Slip fibers on a fault surface
Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
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Analisis struktur geologi
Analisis patahan menggunakan program proyeksi
stereografi Dips V-3.0, sehingga diketahui jenis
dan pola pergerakan patahan.
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Tabel hubungan nilai pitch dengan jenis patahan (Ragan, 1973)
Nilai Pitch
Jenis Patahan
0
0
-10
0
10
0
-80
0
80
0
-90
0
80
0
-90
0
Patahan Mendatar
Patahan Obliq
Patahan Naik, Slicken line halus ke atas
Patahan Normal, Slicken line halus ke bawah
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Fault Geometry and Displacement
Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
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Extensional and contractional faulting
Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
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(a) Geologic map showing the difference between offset and strike
separation. (b) Vertical structure section showing the heave and
throw components of dip separation
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Diagrams showing the solution of a slip problem. (a) Geologic map. (b) Block
diagram. (c) Equal-area plot of the fault plane and bedding plane. (d) Orthographic
projection of the fault plane showing the pitch of bedding. The slip is 280 m in the
same direction as the dip (direction indicated by slickenside lineations).
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Dynamic and Kinematic Analysis of Faults
Dynamic analysis
Dynamic analysis seeks to reconstruct the orientation and
magnitude of the stress field that produced a particular fault or
a population of faults.
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Block diagrams and equal-area plots of three classes of faults predicted by E. M.
Anderson. The equal-area sterograms show typical fault and slickenline orientation
data for a set of faults within each class. For normal faults and thrust faults, the
arrows on the great circles of the stereograms point in the direction of the hanging-
wall motion. For strike-slip faults, the arrows on the great circles indicate the sense
of shear. After Angelier (1979) in Suppe (1985).
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Map view of a mine adit, showing the attitude and sense of motion
on eight faults. For use in Problem 10.3. D, down; U, up.
Shows a map of a mine adit and a series of minor faults
that occur in a homogeneous rock unit. Plot the fault
planes on the equal-area net and determine the orientation
of the stress ellipsoid.
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Kinematic analysis
Kinematic analysis is a graphical technique for analyzing
fault data (Marrett & Allmendinger, 1990). It allows the
structural geologist to quantitatively characterize the
overall deformation or movement pattern resulting from
cumulative fault motions in a region and to determine the
direction of bulk shortening or extension (i.e., strain).
As with dynamic analysis, the basic data necessary for
kinematic analysis of faults are: (1) the strike and dip of
the fault surface, (2) the pitch of slickenlines within the
fault plane, and (3) the sense of movement on the fault.
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(a) Cross-section diagram of a normal fault dipping 30
o
to the east. (b) Equal-area projection, showing the pole to the
fault, 90
o
pitch of slickenlines, and corresponding slip-direction arrow. (c) Cross-section diagram showing the
shortening and extension axes, which are perpendicular to one another and 45
o
from the pole to the fault. (d) Equal-
area projection showing the movement plane and projection of the shortening and extension axes. The movement
plane lies on the great circle defined by the pole to the fault and the pitch of the slickenlines. The slipdirection arrow
points toward the extension axis and away from the shortening axis.
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Equal-area plot of five reverse faults, showing the pitch of slickenlines, slip-
direction arrows, extension axes, and shortening axes. The faults dip 20
o
to 30
o
to
the northwest. The direction of tectonic transport is east-southeast. Consistent
with this transport direction, the shortening axes trend east-southeast and are
subhorizontal; the extension axes are nearly vertical.
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(a) Equal-area plot of 10 faults,
including the fault plane, pitch of
slickenlines, and slip direction. (b)
Contour diagram of the extension
axes; the squares indicate individual
extension axes. (c) Contour diagram
of the shortening axes; the dots
indicate individual shortening axes.
Contouring was done following the
method of Kamb (1959).
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Two-dimensional relationship between a plane and its state of stress
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Mohr circle solution to a sample problem requiring the determination of sn and ss
on a particular plane. (a) Block diagram. (b) Mohr circle solution.
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Strain Measurement
. Measure longitudinal and shear strain from deformed
objects.
. Determine the orientation and relative dimensions of
the strain ellipse from deformed objects.
. Determine in which of three strain fields a particular
structure developed.
Longitudinal strain
Shear strain
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Noncoaxial strain demonstrated with a stack of cards. (a) Before
deformation. (b) After deformation, showing angular shear.
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Noncoaxial total strain ellipse showing four zones. Notice the
asymmetric arrangement of the zones compared with those in the
coaxial ellipse. After Ramsay (1967).
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Rowland et al., 2007
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Rowland et al., 2007
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Common symbols used on geologic maps
Rowland et al., 2007
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Subsidiary Fault and Fracture Geometries
Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
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Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
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Pluijm & Marshak, 2004
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Terima Kasih
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