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Total Quality Management in

Hospitality Sector
Management at hotels had been defined as
the planning, organizing and controlling
activities, either individual or collective,
aimed at achieving organisational
objectives. Previously, there had been no
incentive in the hotel sector to develop or
use the relevant scientific technology
concerning firm management; instead,
depending on whether the vacancy rate
rose or dropped, the sector concentrated on
keeping the profits steady.
Management was carried out mainly by these
successful and experienced in hospitality. The
reputation of the hotel was directly related with
that of the owner. Among the most successful
hotel managers can be cited Conrad Hilton,
Howard Johnson, Ralph Hitz, Cesar Ritz.
Especially between the years of 1920 and 1950,
costs were sharply increased, employee unions
were started to make pressure to the managers,
vacancy rates were decreased, and competition
gained importance. All these effects made the
managers think about the problems. They realised
that they have to change the management
philosophy, which based on scientific techniques.
After Second World War tourism has developed
very fast in all over the world. Chain hotel
numbers have been increased. Nowadays lots of
hotel chains are giving services to its employees
in all over the world with standard service
qualities. The sector is getting dynamic as time
passes and competition gains importance. With
globalises and technological improvement guests
point of view has changed and their demands
have changed too. Besides guests improving
needs, also employees started to demand more
from their managers. All these changes made
hotel managers found alternative management
techniques to satisfy both their guests and
employees. Managers realised that they have to
enlarge their market shares with new approaches.
All the researches, that were done to understand the
guests, needs and wants states that; tourists needs
companies which take cares the nature, and they want to
accommodate in luxury places with good quality of
services and with experienced staff.During last 20 years
quality gain importance. Managers understand that if they
want to compete in all over the world they have to obtain
quality standards too. In hospitality sector, tourists spend
money mostly for fun, so they refuse to have unqualified
goods and services. There are lots of options for them to
accommodate, if they cant be satisfied they immediately
change the hotel. During the improvement period
companies realised the importance of the satisfaction of
their guests and employees.

In hospitality sector the definition of the
quality is very clear, quality means to
obtain goods and services which can satisfy
the guests needs and also these services
must be more than they deserve and at the
same time these goods and services have to
make the company profitable. So quality
concept is essential for hospitality sector.

After some changes in the sector, Total
Quality Management approach has started
to be well known. Total quality
management offers quality control, quality
circles, standard quality, satisfaction of
employees, satisfaction of guests, high
profit margins and modernisation of the
company. Concept means getting improved
and education all the time.
Problems are occurred cause of hospitality sectors
characteristics. Hospitality is a service sector. It directly
serves to guests. Service is intangible, can not be kept in
stock and is an activity or process. Services can not be
controlled as effectively due to the difference in nature or
services and physical goods. The delivery and
consumption takes place at the same time. It causes more
difficulties to companies to conceal the mistakes and
shortcomings. The consistency of the service delivered is
affected by existence of factors related to human beings
involved in the process. Feedback of the problems is
given to employees at the same guests takes services.
Because of these facts, education and the training
programs gain more importance in the hospitality sector.

The other difficulty meet in the hospitality
sector is, guests needs and wants. In this
sector there is no standards. The demands
of the guests change people to people.
An application can satisfy one guests
needs at the same time that can cause
problem to the other. Employee of the hotel
must be well educated and have to answer
all needs and wants of the guests. Total
quality management applications have to
be totally analyzed by all the employees to
obtain maximum guest satisfaction.

In hospitality sector the high turnover rates of the
employees reduce the cost of Total Quality Management
approach. Most of the hotels except, business type city
hotels hire seasonal employees. After peak seasons they
have to lay off the seasonal employees. This fact increases
the training program costs also it is somehow a loss for
the company. They educate the employee then have to lay
off. It is loose of time for managers. Also training
programs cant be efficient for the employees. They start
to apply the techniques of Total Quality Management,
they start to educate themselves and feel themselves as a
part of the team then after mostly 6 months they have to
leave the hotel. It also decreases the motivation of the
employees. Because they know they will leave the hotel,
some of them never care about this approach.

Historical Development of
Total Quality Management in
Turkey
In Turkey the quality control applications started
to apply by Istanbul Technical University,
Industrial Engineering Institution at the end of
1950s. Prof. Dr. Faruk Akgun gave lectures
about quality control in 1962. Dr. smet Ayter
gave symposiums to the company of Unilever; by
this symposium first statistical data application in
quality control is done.
During 1960s, in Turkey different
industrial sectors started to improve.
Engineers worked on this field. They aim
to reach the world standards and try to
increase the production.
Total Quality Management applications were
started to be well known in the world first in Japan
in 1960-1970s. Besides this fact Turkey met this
approach in last 30 years. Although still there are
lack of knowledge of applying of this approach,
some sectors have improved themselves perfectly in
last 5 years. Like automotive, press and banking
sectors.
In 1990s only big Turkish companies had
ISO 9000 rules. As time passes ISO 9000
has taken by small companies too.
Nowadays most companies can compete in
world standards. In 1990s counselling
firms have started to be active and they
start to give services to companies. They
give professional training to managers and
try to educate them about Total Quality
Management approach. These firms aim is
to improve the quality, employee
satisfaction and profit margin in the firm.

Total Quality Management In
Hospitality Sector In Turkey
Istanbul Technical University, Total
Quality Management Research Committee,
made a research between the years of 1993-
1994. They made interviews with the upper
level managers, instructors about Total
Quality Management applications and
according to this research some problems
stated as:

v Managers do not give enough importance to
the organizational culture of the firm and human
resource management applications.
v Setting TQM approach is a long process for
companies, during this period managers have to
motivate the employees but mostly they can not
motivate them properly.
v Managers do not plan leadership and
motivation factors in an appropriate way.
v TQM comes from Japan. Turkish
companies try to copy this approach without
adapting to Turkish culture.
v Most managers could not analyze TQM and
analyze this approach as if it is only fashion.
v Still classical approach is common thats
why managers can not apply some characteristics
of TQM. For example, departments can not see
each other as an independent entity. They can not
act as a team for improving the companys
quality bases.
v Lack of Leadership skills of the top
managers.
v Strict hierarchy
v Carrier worries of middle
management
v During economical crisis managers
directly start using classical approach.
v Lack of education about TQM
v Not using standards
v Inadequacy of carrier planning,
technical knowledge and education.

KALDER
Founded in 1991 by representatives of prominent
Turkish Industrialists Groups, KalDer is an
independent, non-profit organization, aiming to
expand the awareness of total quality in industry,
service and public sectors. To realise this aim,
KalDer promotes the effective use of Business
Excellence Model as the framework for Business
Excellence in organizations.

Vision:To become an exemplary
organization in the world by the efficient
deployment and efficient use of the
Business Excellence Model throughout
Turkey.
Mission:To motivate and prepare an
appropriate environment for all
organizations public, private or non-profit,
in which these organizations can reach
world-class quality level and increase their
competitiveness.


Main activities of KalDer, aside from
general promotion of TQM throughout
Turkey, are organisation of working-
groups, quality related training, the
National Quality Congress, Quality Award,
Quality and Management Systems Fair,
Seminars, Panels, Branch offices,
Publications and Library Services
KalDer has started the National Total Quality
Movement with the cooperation and support of
local leaders such as role model companies, Total
Quality Management believers throughout the
country. KalDer will improve strategic relations
with international bodies such as national quality
organizations to promote and benchmark its
activities and share Total Quality Management
culture worldwide.