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MODUL

STATISTIKA BISNIS DAN INDUSTRI

ANALISIS DISKRIMINAN

MODUL STATISTIKA BISNIS DAN INDUSTRI ANALISIS DISKRIMINAN HARYONO, dkk PROGRAM MAGISTER MANAJEMEN TEKNOLOGI PROGRAM PASCA SARJANA

HARYONO, dkk

PROGRAM MAGISTER MANAJEMEN TEKNOLOGI PROGRAM PASCA SARJANA

ITS

1

TUJUAN

Setelah mempelajari modul ini diharapkan peserta

dapat :

  • a) Memahami

konsep

analisis

mampu menerapkannya

diskriminan dan

  • b) Memahami konsep analisis diskriminan multiple dan mampu menerapkannya

MANFAAT

Analisis diskriminan adalah bagian dari Statistika

Multivariate, yang bermanfaat untuk :

  • a) Mangidentifikasi variabel-variabel independen yang “mampu” membedakan 2 (dua) kelompok atau lebih

  • b) Menentukan variabel independen mana yang mempunyai peranan paling penting terhadap perbedaan antar kelompok

  • c) Menentukan suatu sampel akan masuk kelompok mana berdasarkan variabel-variabel independen

LANGKAH-LANGKAH ANALISIS

Analisis Diskriminan

Analisis Diskriminan Mengetahui variabel-variabel yang mampu membedakan 2 kelompok atau lebih Diskriptif Mean dan Variansi Diperkuat

Mengetahui variabel-variabel yang mampu membedakan 2 kelompok atau lebih

Analisis Diskriminan Mengetahui variabel-variabel yang mampu membedakan 2 kelompok atau lebih Diskriptif Mean dan Variansi Diperkuat

Diskriptif Mean dan Variansi

Analisis Diskriminan Mengetahui variabel-variabel yang mampu membedakan 2 kelompok atau lebih Diskriptif Mean dan Variansi Diperkuat

Diperkuat oleh Uji F (Analisis Variasi)

Analisis Diskriminan Mengetahui variabel-variabel yang mampu membedakan 2 kelompok atau lebih Diskriptif Mean dan Variansi Diperkuat

Membuat Fungsi Diskriminan Manfaat :

Mengetahui variabel yang paling dominan Mengetahui besar kontribusi variabel pengelompokkan

Analisis Diskriminan Mengetahui variabel-variabel yang mampu membedakan 2 kelompok atau lebih Diskriptif Mean dan Variansi Diperkuat

Validitas : Tingkat kebenaran dengan melihat klasifikasi

Gambar 1 : Langkah-Langkah Interpretasi Hasil Analisis Diskriminan

4

Contoh 1 : ANALISIS DISKRIMINAN 2 KELOMPOK Andaikan suatu perusahaan ingin mengetahui

karakteristik keluarga yang berkunjung ke daerah wisata

tertentu untuk 2 tahun terakhir ini. Data diberikan pada

Tabel 1. Berdasarkan output komputer yang diberikan, simpulkan variabel-variabel mana yang paling dapat

membedakan antara 2 kelompok pengunjung tersebut.

(Output komputer pada Tabel 1)

Tabel 1 : Data Karakteristik Keluarga yang Berkunjung Ke Daerah Wisata Tertentu

Visit

Income

Travel

Vacation

Hsize

Age

Amount

1

  • 50.2 5

 

8

 
  • 3 43

2

1

  • 70.3 6

7

  • 4 61

3

1

  • 62.9 7

5

  • 6 52

3

1

  • 48.5 7

5

  • 5 36

1

1

  • 52.7 6

6

  • 4 55

3

1

  • 75 8

7

  • 5 68

3

1

  • 46.2 5

3

  • 3 62

2

1

  • 57 2

4

  • 6 51

2

1

  • 64.1 7

5

  • 4 57

3

1

  • 68.1 7

6

  • 5 45

3

1

  • 73.4 6

7

  • 5 44

3

1

  • 71.9 5

8

  • 4 64

3

1

  • 56.2 1

8

  • 6 54

2

1

  • 49.3 4

2

  • 3 56

6

3

Lanjutan Tabel 1

Visit

Income

Travel

Vacation

Hsize

Age

Amount

1

  • 62 5

 
  • 6 2

 

58

3

2

  • 32.1 5

  • 4 3

58

1

2

  • 36.2 4

  • 3 2

55

1

2

  • 43.2 2

  • 5 2

57

2

2

  • 50.4 5

  • 2 4

37

2

2

  • 44.1 6

  • 6 3

42

2

2

  • 38.3 6

  • 6 2

45

1

2

  • 55 1

  • 2 2

57

3

 

7

Lanjutan Tabel 1

Visit

Income

Travel

Vacation

Hsize

Age

Amount

2

  • 46.1 3

 
  • 5 3

 

42

1

2

  • 35 6

  • 4 5

64

1

2

  • 37.3 2

  • 7 4

54

1

2

  • 41.8 5

  • 1 3

56

2

2

  • 57 8

  • 3 2

36

2

2

  • 33.4 6

  • 8 2

50

1

2

  • 37.5 3

  • 2 3

48

1

2

  • 41.3 3

  • 3 2

42

1

 

8

Visit

Income

Travel

Vacation

Hsize

Age

Amount

1

50.8

 
  • 4 7

3

45

2

1

63.6

  • 7 4

7

55

3

1

54

  • 6 7

4

58

2

1

45

  • 5 4

3

60

2

1

68

  • 6 6

6

46

3

1

62.1

  • 5 6

3

56

3

2

35

  • 4 3

4

54

1

2

49.6

  • 5 3

5

39

1

2

39.4

  • 6 5

3

44

3

2

37

  • 2 6

5

51

1

2

54.5

  • 7 3

3

37

2

2

38.2

  • 2 2

3

49

1

 

9

Tabel 1 RESULT OF TWO-GROUP DISKRIMINANT

ANALYSIS

Group Statistics

   
   
     

Total

INCOME

51.2167

12.79523

30

30.000

TRAVEL

4.8667

1.97804

30

30.000

VACATION

4.9333

2.09981

30

30.000

HSIZE

3.5667

1.33089

30

30.000

AGE

51.9333

8.57395

30

30.000

Total INCOME 51.2167 12.79523 30 30.000 TRAVEL 4.8667 1.97804 30 30.000 VACATION 4.9333 2.09981 30 30.000
Total INCOME 51.2167 12.79523 30 30.000 TRAVEL 4.8667 1.97804 30 30.000 VACATION 4.9333 2.09981 30 30.000
Total INCOME 51.2167 12.79523 30 30.000 TRAVEL 4.8667 1.97804 30 30.000 VACATION 4.9333 2.09981 30 30.000
15 7.55115 15 15.000 1.95180 15 15.000 2.05171 15 15.000 .94112 15 15.000 8.27101 15 15.000
15
7.55115
15
15.000
1.95180
15
15.000
2.05171
15 15.000
.94112
15
15.000
8.27101
15
15.000
9.83065
Valid N (listw ise)
15.000
1.91982
15
15.000
1.82052 15
15.000
1.23443
15
15.000
8.77062
15
15.000
Std. Deviation
Unw eighted
Weighted
41.9133 4.3333 4.0667 2.8000 50.1333 60.5200 5.4000 5.8000 VACATION 4.3333 53.7333 AGE HSIZE Mean 2.00 INCOME
41.9133
4.3333
4.0667
2.8000
50.1333
60.5200
5.4000
5.8000
VACATION
4.3333
53.7333
AGE
HSIZE
Mean
2.00 INCOME
TRAVEL
VISIT
1.00 INCOME
TRAVEL
VACATION
HSIZE
AGE

Tests of Equality of Group Means

df1

TRAVEL F Lambda .824 5.990 .657 14.636 Wilks' .954 1.338 INCOME HSIZE VACATION AGE .453 33.796
TRAVEL
F
Lambda
.824
5.990
.657
14.636
Wilks'
.954
1.338
INCOME
HSIZE
VACATION
AGE
.453
33.796
.925
2.277
df1 TRAVEL F Lambda .824 5.990 .657 14.636 Wilks' .954 1.338 INCOME HSIZE VACATION AGE .453
df1 TRAVEL F Lambda .824 5.990 .657 14.636 Wilks' .954 1.338 INCOME HSIZE VACATION AGE .453
1 1 1 1 1 df2 28 .021 28 .257 28 .001 28 .143 28 .000
1
1
1
1
1
df2
28 .021
28 .257
28 .001
28 .143
28 .000
Sig.

Pooled Within-Groups M atrices

Correlation -.014 -.197 INCOME TRAVEL VACATION HSIZE AGE .089 INCOME TRAVEL 1.000 .197 -.017 .197 1.000
Correlation
-.014
-.197
INCOME
TRAVEL
VACATION
HSIZE
AGE
.089
INCOME
TRAVEL
1.000
.197
-.017
.197
1.000
.091
.084
Correlation -.014 -.197 INCOME TRAVEL VACATION HSIZE AGE .089 INCOME TRAVEL 1.000 .197 -.017 .197 1.000
Correlation -.014 -.197 INCOME TRAVEL VACATION HSIZE AGE .089 INCOME TRAVEL 1.000 .197 -.017 .197 1.000
1.000 .070 .084 .091 VACATION .017 .070 1.000 -.043 -.043 HSIZE .089 -.017 1.000 -.197 .017
1.000 .070
.084
.091
VACATION
.017
.070
1.000 -.043
-.043
HSIZE
.089
-.017
1.000
-.197
.017
-.014
AGE

Summary of Canonical Discriminant Functions

Eigenvalues

  • 100.0 .801

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Canonical

Correlation

100.0

a 1.786 1
a
1.786
1
Function Eigenvalue
Function
Eigenvalue
100.0 .801 % of Variance Cumulative % Canonical Correlation 100.0 a 1.786 1 Function Eigenvalue
  • a. First 1 canonical discriminant functions w ere used in the analysis.

Wilks' Lam bda

  • 1 .359

26.130

  • 5 .000

Test of Function(s) Wilks' Lambda Chi-square df Sig.
Test of Function(s)
Wilks'
Lambda
Chi-square
df
Sig.

andardized Canonical Discrim inant Function Coefficient

.209 .469 .233 .096 .743
.209
.469
.233
.096
.743
AGE VACATION TRAVEL INCOME HSIZE
AGE
VACATION
TRAVEL
INCOME
HSIZE
Function 1
Function
1
.209 .469 .233 .096 .743 AGE VACATION TRAVEL INCOME HSIZE Function 1

Structure Matrix

Function

1

 

.822

.541

.346

.213

.164

AGE TRAVEL VACATION INCOME HSIZE
AGE
TRAVEL
VACATION
INCOME
HSIZE

Pooled w ithin-groups correlations betw een discriminating variables and standardized canonical discriminant functions Variables ordered by absolute size of correlation w ithin functio

anonical Discrim inant Function Coefficient

.085 .050 .120 .427 .025 -7.975 1 Function
.085
.050
.120
.427
.025
-7.975
1
Function

TRAVEL

INCOME

VACATION

HSIZE

AGE

(Constant)

Unstandardized coefficients

unctions at Group Centroids

Function

1

1.291

-1.291

2.00 1.00 VISIT
2.00
1.00
VISIT

Unstandardized canonical discriminant functions evaluated at group means

Classification Statistics

lassification Function Coefficients

   

.678

.459

1.509

1.381

.938

.628

3.322

2.218

.832

.768

-57.532

-36.936

(Constant) AGE HSIZE VACATION TRAVEL INCOME
(Constant)
AGE
HSIZE
VACATION
TRAVEL
INCOME
VISIT 2.00 1.00
VISIT
2.00
1.00
.678 .459 1.509 1.381 .938 .628 3.322 2.218 .832 .768 -57.532 -36.936 (Constant) AGE HSIZE VACATION

Fisher's linear discriminant functions

Class ification Re sults b,c

 

VISIT

1.00

2.00

Total

Original

Count

1.00

12

3

15

 

2.00

0

15

15

 

%

1.00

80.0

20.0

100.0

 

2.00

.0

100.0

100.0

Cross-validated a

Count

1.00

11

4

15

 

2.00

2

13

15

 

%

1.00

73.3

26.7

100.0

 

2.00

13.3

86.7

100.0

Predicted Group Membership
Predicted Group Membership

Predicted Group

Membership

 
Predicted Group Membership
Predicted Group Membership
Predicted Group Membership
  • a. Cross validation is done only for those cases in the analysis. In cross validation, each case is classified by the functions derived from all cases other than that case.

  • b. 90.0% of original grouped cases correctly classified.

  • c. 80.0% of cross-validated grouped cases correctly classified.

Contoh

2

:

ANALISIS

DISKRIMINAN

2

KELOMPOK

Lihat kembali Contoh 1. (Output komputer pada Tabel 2)

Tabel 2 : Result of Three-Group Discriminant Analysis

Group Statistics

50.3000 50.1100 4.0000 4.2000 49.5000 3.4000 38.5700 4.5000 4.7000 3.1000 VACATION 1.00 INCOME TRAVEL HSIZE AGE
50.3000
50.1100
4.0000
4.2000
49.5000
3.4000
38.5700
4.5000
4.7000
3.1000
VACATION
1.00 INCOME
TRAVEL
HSIZE
AGE
2.00 INCOME
TRAVEL
VACATION
HSIZE
AGE
Mean
AMAOUNT
50.3000 50.1100 4.0000 4.2000 49.5000 3.4000 38.5700 4.5000 4.7000 3.1000 VACATION 1.00 INCOME TRAVEL HSIZE AGE
10.000 8.61434 10 10.000 1.19722 10 10.000 30 30.000 1.66333 10 10.000 1.13529 10 1.97804 7.60117
10.000
8.61434
10
10.000
1.19722 10
10.000
30 30.000
1.66333
10
10.000
1.13529
10
1.97804
7.60117
10
10.000
12.79523 30
30.000
8.57395
30 30.000
1.33089
30 30.000
2.09981
30 30.000
50.3000 50.1100 4.0000 4.2000 49.5000 3.4000 38.5700 4.5000 4.7000 3.1000 VACATION 1.00 INCOME TRAVEL HSIZE AGE
50.3000 50.1100 4.0000 4.2000 49.5000 3.4000 38.5700 4.5000 4.7000 3.1000 VACATION 1.00 INCOME TRAVEL HSIZE AGE
50.3000 50.1100 4.0000 4.2000 49.5000 3.4000 38.5700 4.5000 4.7000 3.1000 VACATION 1.00 INCOME TRAVEL HSIZE AGE
50.3000 50.1100 4.0000 4.2000 49.5000 3.4000 38.5700 4.5000 4.7000 3.1000 VACATION 1.00 INCOME TRAVEL HSIZE AGE
HSIZE 5.9000 64.9700 6.1000 3.00 INCOME TRAVEL VACATION HSIZE INCOME TRAVEL VACATION 4.8667 AGE Total AGE
HSIZE
5.9000
64.9700
6.1000
3.00 INCOME
TRAVEL
VACATION
HSIZE
INCOME
TRAVEL
VACATION
4.8667
AGE
Total
AGE
4.2000
56.0000
51.2167
51.9333
3.5667
4.9333
10 8.09732 10 10.000 6.00231 10 10.000 2.35702 10 10.000 2.48551 10 10.000 1.50555 10 10.000
10
8.09732 10
10.000
6.00231
10
10.000
2.35702
10
10.000
2.48551
10
10.000
1.50555
10
10.000
9.25263
Valid N (listw ise)
10.000
5.29718 10
10.000
1.71594
10
10.000
1.88856
10
10.000
1.19722
10
10.000
Std. Deviation
Unw eighted
Weighted

Tests of Equality of Group Means

df1

TRAVEL F Lambda .881 1.830 .874 1.944 Wilks' .882 1.804 INCOME HSIZE VACATION AGE .262 37.997
TRAVEL
F
Lambda
.881
1.830
.874
1.944
Wilks'
.882
1.804
INCOME
HSIZE
VACATION
AGE
.262
37.997
.788
3.634
df1 TRAVEL F Lambda .881 1.830 .874 1.944 Wilks' .882 1.804 INCOME HSIZE VACATION AGE .262
df1 TRAVEL F Lambda .881 1.830 .874 1.944 Wilks' .882 1.804 INCOME HSIZE VACATION AGE .262
2 2 2 2 2 df2 27 .180 27 .184 27 .163 27 .040 27 .000
2
2
2
2
2
df2
27 .180
27 .184
27 .163
27 .040
27 .000
Sig.

Pooled Within-Groups M atrices

Correlation -.209 -.340 INCOME TRAVEL VACATION HSIZE AGE .380 INCOME TRAVEL 1.000 .051 .005 .051 1.000
Correlation
-.209
-.340
INCOME
TRAVEL
VACATION
HSIZE
AGE
.380
INCOME
TRAVEL
1.000
.051
.005
.051
1.000
.307
.036
Correlation -.209 -.340 INCOME TRAVEL VACATION HSIZE AGE .380 INCOME TRAVEL 1.000 .051 .005 .051 1.000
Correlation -.209 -.340 INCOME TRAVEL VACATION HSIZE AGE .380 INCOME TRAVEL 1.000 .051 .005 .051 1.000
1.000 .221 .036 .307 VACATION -.013 .221 1.000 -.025 -.025 HSIZE .380 .005 1.000 -.340 -.013
1.000 .221
.036
.307
VACATION
-.013
.221
1.000 -.025
-.025
HSIZE
.380
.005
1.000
-.340
-.013
-.209
AGE

Summary of Canonical Discriminant Functions

Eigenvalues

Cumulative %

Correlation Canonical
Correlation
Canonical

93.9

  • 93.9 .890

6.1

  • 100.0 .445

  • 1 3.819 a

.247 a

2

Function Eigenvalue
Function
Eigenvalue
% of Variance
% of Variance
  • a. First 2 canonical discriminant functions w ere used in the analysis.

Wilks' Lam bda

4 .238 .166 44.831 10 .000 2 .802 5.517 1 through 2 Test of Function(s) Wilks'
4 .238 .166 44.831 10 .000 2 .802 5.517 1 through 2 Test of Function(s) Wilks'
4 .238 .166 44.831 10 .000 2 .802 5.517 1 through 2
4 .238
.166
44.831
10 .000
2 .802
5.517
1 through 2
Test of Function(s) Wilks' Lambda Chi-square df Sig.
Test of Function(s)
Wilks'
Lambda
Chi-square
df
Sig.

andardized Canonical Discrim inant Function Coefficient

 

2

   
INCOME TRAVEL VACATION HSIZE AGE
INCOME
TRAVEL
VACATION
HSIZE
AGE
1 Function
1
Function
2 INCOME TRAVEL VACATION HSIZE AGE 1 Function

Structure Matrix

.856 * -.278 .193 * .077 .219 .588 * .149 .454 * .166 .341 *
.856 *
-.278
.193 *
.077
.219
.588 *
.149
.454 *
.166
.341 *
  • 1 2

Function

VACATION INCOME HSIZE TRAVEL AGE
VACATION
INCOME
HSIZE
TRAVEL
AGE
.856 * -.278 .193 * .077 .219 .588 * .149 .454 * .166 .341 * 1

Pooled w ithin-groups correlations betw een discriminating

variables and standardized canonical discriminant functions

Variables ordered by absolute size of correlation w ithin functio

*.

Largest absolute correlation betw een each variable and

any discriminant function

anonical Discrim inant Function Coefficient

HSIZE

INCOME

VACATION

TRAVEL

(Constant)

AGE

   

.154

-.062

.187

.422

.261

-.127

.100

.059

.063

-11.094

-3.792

Function 2 1
Function
2
1
HSIZE INCOME VACATION TRAVEL (Constant) AGE .154 -.062 .187 .422 .261 -.127 .100 .059 .063 -11.094

Unstandardized coefficients

Functions at Group Centroids

  • 1 2

Function

AMAOUNT

.240 -2.041 .418 -.405 -.659 2.446
.240
-2.041
.418
-.405
-.659
2.446
1.00 2.00 3.00
1.00
2.00
3.00

Unstandardized canonical discriminant functions evaluated at group means

Classification Statistics

Classification Results b,c

0

  • 1.00 9

1

Predicted Group Membership

  • 1.00 2.00

0

10

  • 2.00 1

9

AMAOUNT

10

  • 3.00 0

2

8

10

Count

  • 3.00 Total

   
 

100.0

100.0

100.0

2.00

 
 

90.0

10.0

.0

10.0

90.0

.0

.0

20.0

80.0

7

3

0

4

5

1

0

2

8

70.0

30.0

.0

40.0

50.0

10.0

.0

20.0

80.0

Cross-validated a

Cross-validated a Original
Cross-validated a Original
Original
Original
0 1.00 9 1 Predicted Group Membership 1.00 2.00 0 10 2.00 1 9 AMAOUNT 10
  • a. Cross validation is done only for those cases in the analysis. In cross validation,

each case is classified by the functions derived from all cases other than that case.

  • b. 86.7% of original grouped cases correctly classified.

  • c. 66.7% of cross-validated grouped cases correctly classified.