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Acid-Base Theory

Ms. Murray

Lets start with the theorists!
Lowry Picture Credit:
http://www.geocities.com/bioelectrochemistry/lowry.htm
Bronsted Picture Credit:
http://www.geocities.com/bioelectrochemistry/bronsted.h
tm

Lewis Picture Credit:
http://www.albion.edu/chemistry/CH121/LewisRul
es.htm

How should we
define acids and
bases?
Arrhenius Picture Credit:
http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Arrhenius.html

Arrhenius Model
1884
Acid a substance that produces H+ ions
(protons) when dissolved in water
Sour taste
Low pH
Turns litmus paper red
Base a substance that produces OH- ions
when dissolved in water
Bitter taste
Slippery feel
High pH
Turns litmus paper blue
Arrhenius Picture Credit:
http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Arrhenius.html
Litmus Picture Credit:
http://oldwww.mtlsd.org/senior/science/JPtachcinski/Lab_Proc/Basic%20Science%20La
b%20Techniques.htm

Bronsted-Lowry Model
1923

Acids proton
(H+) donors

Bases proton
acceptors
Bronsted
Lowry
Lowry Picture Credit: http://www.geocities.com/bioelectrochemistry/lowry.htm
Bronsted Picture Credit:
http://www.geocities.com/bioelectrochemistry/bronsted.htm

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Picture Credit: http://www.geocities.com/bioelectrochemistry/bronsted.htm

Painting by Bronsted (1923)
Lewis Model

Early 1920s

Acid electron-
pair acceptor

Base electron-
pair donor

Lewis Picture Credit:
http://www.albion.edu/chemistry/CH121/LewisRules.htm


How do we measure how
acidic or basic a compound is?
We measure its
What is pH?
pH is a number that denotes the hydrogen
(hydronium) ion concentration

pOH is a number that denotes hydroxide ion
concentration

pH + pOH = 14

If were talking about hydrogen ions and
hydroxide ions, which theorist should we be
thinking about?
Picture Credit:
http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Arrhenius.html

pH Scale


Scale from 1-14

Indicates the H+
concentration of a
solution in Moles/L
pH = -log [H+]

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pH = -log[H+]
An example:

Given that [H+] = 1.0 x 10^(-7) M, find pH

pH = - log (1.0 x 10^(-7)) = -(-7.00) = 7.00*

*the number of decimal places here = the
number of significant figures in the original
number

Another example:
pH = -log[H+]

Given a pH of 6.00, calculate [H+] M

[H+] = 10^(-pH)

[H+] =10^(-6.00)

[H+] = 1.0 x 10^(-6.0) M


pH In Your World
The Good - Hydrangea
Picture Credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mshades/168884681/
Acceptable Use Policy: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

Picture Credits: http://www.flickr.com/photos/cvalentine/439024324/
Acceptable use policy: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/


Picture Credits: http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/A/AcidRain.html




1908
1968
The Bad
A castle in Westphalia, Germany. Built in 1702
Picture Credit: http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/A-Bi/Acid-Rain.html
The Really Ugly!
And You Will Know Us by The Trail
of Dead Fish - ldandersen
Picture Credit:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/ldandersen/181358675/
Acceptable Use Policy:
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/
Salton Sea
Acid Rain
Damage
Picture Credit: http://www.eco-systems.org/air_pollution_and_dying_forests.htm
-Shenandoah National Park (1997)
-- Photo by Bob Winterbottom