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Project Introduction

Problem Statement
Design a car with multiple platforms
integrated into a hybrid chassis

Concept
The concept is a four wheeler, from which a
two wheel vehicle can be detached and
used independently
While the car is powered by a front
mounted, front wheel drive IC engine, the
bike is designed to have a rear wheel
electric drive.

Team Structure
Concept
Design
Structure
Suspension
Engines
Transmission
Tyres
Safety
Structure
Backbone Chassis
Type a chassis that is similar to ladder type. Instead of a two-
dimensional ladder type structure, it consists of a strong tubular
backbone that connects the front and rear suspension attachment
areas.
Advantages
Single point connection which enables easy coupling and
decoupling of the two modules
Flexible design to accommodate design contraptions for
transformations
Suspension
Four-wheeler module
Idea 1- dependent leaf springs
o Lower torsional forces
o Poor road comfort and road holding capability
Idea 2- double wish-bone suspension with Mac-Pherson struts
o Higher torsional forces
o Better comfort, road holding capability

Idea 1 Idea 2
Suspension
Two-wheeler module
Based on independent Mac-Pherson struts
Redesigned to fit in the steering mechanism of the bike
Uni-fork design to act as fixed support for car and steering mechanism for bike


Rear Module Uni-fork design

Transmission
Fuel tank IC Engine Clutch Gear box
Differential
Front wheels Generator Bike battery
Clutch/Controller
Engine stalling rpm 1000
Engine max. rpm 4000
Wheel diameter 0.4826
Reduction at Differential (assumed) 3
First gear ratio 3.5
Second gear ratio 2.5
Third gear ratio 1.6
Fourth gear ratio 1.1
Fifth gear ratio 0.75
Reverse 3.5
first gear second gear third gear fourth gear fifth gear
min max min max min max min max min max
Vehicle wheel speed
(rpm) 95.24 380.95 133.33 533.33 208.33 833.33 303.03 1,212.12 444.44
1,777.7
8
Speed in mps 2.41 9.63 3.37 13.48 5.26 21.06 7.66 30.63 11.23 44.92
Speed in kmph 8.66 34.65 12.13 48.52 18.95 75.81 27.57 110.26 40.43 161.72
Transmission in bike
Battery Motor Wheels
Discharging
Charging
Powering
Braking
Tyres
Motor bike tyres are predominantly bias where-as car tyres are radial
Possible configurations:
All radial
o Improper cornering for the two-wheeler module; leaning the tyre is harder when it is flat
o Tyre strength while cornering is lesser compared to bias
o The fuel efficiency will reduces if the motor-bike has radial tyres
o Symmetry; Better handling characteristics
Front radial, rear bias
o Non-uniform brake forces might lead to oversteer
o Compromise on ride comfort
Final configuration: Front radial and rear bias
Tentative dimensions:
Radial: 140/65 15 (From Toyota Prius)
Bias: 140/50 17 (From Ducati) Outer diameter (Both) ~ 22

Hybrid Convertible- End review
ED09B003 - Meherish
ED09B008 - Bindu Upadhyay
ED09B009 - Keerthana Chilukuri ED09B011 -
Dheeraj Vemula
ED09B014 - Ajay Teja ED09B020 -
Kiran
ED09B023 - Prudhvi Sapatla ED09B030 -
Chandrashekhar
ED09B033 - Vadai Ravi Kumar ED09B035 -
Yeshwanth Reddy Y

CAD Model
Engine - Car
Tractive forces:
1. Aerodynamic Forces(F
ae
) = * C
d
* d*A*V
2
2. Acceleration or Inertial forces(F
acc
) = M*a
3. Rolling resistance(F
r
) = f
rr
* N
4. To overcome gradient = W*sint

Equation of motion:


Maximum Tractive force that can be obtained from the road for a real wheel driven car:


Maximum Force that can be achieved at wheel = 4920 N
Maximum Torque that can be achieved at wheel = 1380 Nm

Mass (kg) 1300
gravity (m/s
2
) 9.8
mass distribution (front:rear) 60:40
rear wheel RR 0.02
front wheel RR 0.012
Drag coefficient (Cd) 0.4
width (m) 1.5
Proj. height (m) 1.2
Center of gravity height (m) 0.5
Tyre Diameter (inch) 22
Mu (friction b/w tyre and road) 0.75
Velocity (m/s) Acceleration (m/s^2) Gradient (deg) Torque at wheel (Nm) rpm of the wheel
0 3 5 1450 0
12 1 12 1360 410
45 0.75 3 760 1540
70 0 0 650 2400
Powertrain Design
Higher Gear (N
t4
) assumed as 1.1 (close to direct drive)

Differential Gear ratio (N
d
) = n
e
* r / (V
max
*N
t4
)

Selecting Lowest Gear (N
t1
) :

Gradient that the car can overcome =

Lowest Gear ratio =

Intermediate Gears: Usually gears are placed so that they are in geometric progression

Engine and Transmission specifications
After several iterations of
1. Looking for available Torque vs rpm and Power vs rpm characteristics of IC engines
2. Trying to fit gears so that torque and rpm needed at wheels matches with that of obtained torque
vs rpm curve


Differential gear ratio 2.13
First Gear 3.4
Second Gear 2.3
Third Gear 1.6
Fourth Gear 1.1
Maximum Torque 240 Nm at 3500 rpm
Maximum Power 110 kW at 5500 rpm
Engine capacity 2.9 litres
Engine type V6
Electric Two Wheeler
Mass (kg) 150
Gravity(m.s
-2
) 9.8
Mass distribution [front] 0.5
Mass distribution [rear] 0.5
Rear wheel RR 0.02
Front wheel RR 0.012
Drag coefficient [Cd] 0.7
Width (m) 0.8
Proj. height (m) 1
Length (m) 1.5
Wheel Base (m) 1.4
Proj. area (m
2
) 0.8
Density of air (Kg.m
-3
) 1.22
Height of CG (m) 0.5
Friction b/w tyre n road [] 0.75
Tyre Dia (inch) 22
The two wheeler at the rear when detached from the
car frame runs on an individual electric motor
powered by a battery which derives its charge from
the IC engine.
Maximum torque that can be generated at the wheel
turns out to be 122 N.m based upon the parameters
mentioned. Calculation approach is same as that
used in the four-wheeler.
Torque vs. rpm characteristics at wheel were found
out through the desired vehicle performance
parameters shown in the next slide.
Velocity acceleration grade rpm Torque Power
0 2 10 0 119 0
10 1 5 341.778689531629 98 3.5075161059413
20 0.5 1 683.557379063258 72 5.15390121689334
25 0 0 854.446723829073 66 5.90551181102362
Choosing the Appropriate Motor
Battery
lithium ion battery pack.
20 cell pack
capacity: 70Ah
weight : ~48 kgs


Final drive ratio (chain drive): 2.05
Brake force calculations
Braking Performance





Assumed brake force distribution 78:22
For this condition front wheel locks up and a/g = 0.775
Vehicle parameters
Parameter Symbol Units Value
Mass M kg 1300
Wheel Base l m 2.2
Height of CG above ground h m 0.5
Fixed brake ratio
front
rear

Kbf
Kbr

_

0.78
0.22
Braking force on front axle
Braking force on rear axle
Total Braking force
Fbf
Fbr
Fb

N
7582.08
2138.54
9720.62
Tyre diameter d m 0.5588 (22 in)
Braking Torque on front axle
Braking Torque on rear axle
Tf
Tr
Nm

2118.43
597.51
Stopping distance

Stopping distance =


= 194 m
assumed V1 = 200km/h
Cae = 0.02
Additional stopping distance Sa (brake system response time) = tdV1
assuming td = 0.3 s

Total stopping distance = 210 m
Disc brakes
F = Actuation force
T = Friction torque

re = effective radius

Force location =

r
i
=inner diameter of the pad
r
o
=outer diameter of the pad

1
,
2
=caliper angles


Material Friction
coefficient
(f)
Maximum
Pressure
(Pmax, Mpa)
Max
Instantaneou
s temp(C)
Max
continuous
temp(C)
Rigid Molded
Asbestos
0.31-0.49 5.2 500-700 230-350
Brake pad material taken: Rigid Molded Asbestos













We chose rotor of diameter 260 mm and with piston area 410mm^2

Parameter Symbol Units Value
Inner diameter of the pad
Outer diameter of the pad

ri
ro

m
0.098425(3.875in)
0.1397(5.5 in)
Hydraulic cylinder diameter rc m 0.0381(1.5 in)
Normal pressure(max) pa Mpa 0.87
Actuation force Fa kN 6.59
equivalent radius re m 0.1022096
Reqd hydraulic pressure ph Mpa 5.7
Energy analysis of disc brakes
Braking energy






Braking energy = 2302.4kNm
Average braking power = 131.4kW


Temperature analysis
Mass of disc brake
Temperature Rise for Brake Assembly



Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer

Maximum Temperature of Brake Assembly

Backbone Structure
I frame with hollow circular shafts.


Static loading, acceleration and braking for
front and rear shafts
Shaft-2
Acceleration
Braking
Braking
Structure stresses
Max stress at static loading Max stress at acceleration Max stress at braking
9.92 Mpa 7.16 MPa 1.3 MPa
1.3 MPa 2.1 MPa 1.48 MPa
6.62 MPa 1.27 MPa 6.86 MPa
Final geometry and
material parameters
L1 1.5
L2 3.6
L3 1.5
D1 0.15
d1 0.13
D2 0.15
d2 0.13
D3 0.15
d3 0.13
E1 210000000000
E2 210000000000
E3 210000000000
Cornering Stiffness Selection
Parameters
C-alpha-f(N/rad) 59000
C-apha-r(N/rad) 53000
Wf(N) 7644
Wr(N) 5096
Turning
Radius(m)
30
Lateral Vehicle Dynamics
Lateral Acceleration Gain
Velocity
Curvature Gain
Yaw Rate Gain
Velocity
Velocity
Understeer Coefficient = 0.0334
Critical Speed = 192 kmph
Suspension Characteristics
sprung mass acceleration

sprung mass acceleration suspension deflection
Suspension stiffnesses Ks=11000 to 30000
Damping Coefficient bs= 800 to 1200

Bounce and Pitch Frequencies
Kf = 1250 to 12000 and Kr= 11000 to 22000
For these stiffness values, bounce frequency was
between 1.2 - 1.8 Hz and the pitch frequency 1.8 - 2.3
Hz.
Thank You!