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# Hydrostatic Forces on Curved, Submerged Surfaces

## Pressure is always acting

perpendicular to the solid surface
since there is no shear motion in
static condition.
P
P
x

P
z

x
Z
u
x
x
P=Pcos( )i+Psin( )j
Integrate over the entire surface
dF=dF
(Pcos( )i+Psin( )j)dA
dF cos( )
sin( )
z
x
z z
i dF j PdA
PdA PdA
dF PdA PdA
u u
u u
u
u
+ =
=
= =
= =
u
u
dA
x
=dAcos(u)
dA
z
=dAsin(u)
Projected Forces
x
x z
dF cos( ) , sin( )
Integrate over the entire surface:
F , F
x Z Z
x x x z z z
PdA PdA dF PdA PdA
dF PdA ghdA dF PdA ghdA
u u

= = = =
= = = = = =
} } } } } }
x
Z
Integrated over
all elements
h
dA
z

where is the fluid volume enclosed
between the curved surface and the
free surface. The force is equal to the
weight of the total colume of fluid
directly above the curved surface.
The li
z z
F g hdA g = =

}
ne action passes through the
center of gravity of the volume
of liquid being displaced.
Buoyancy
Force acting down F
D
= gV
1
from
Force acting up F
U
= gV
2
from

Buoyancy = F
U
-F
D

=g(V
2
-V
1
)=gV
V: volume occupied by the object
Horizontal Forces
x
Z
Integrated over
all elements
h
dA
z

x
F
x x x
dF PdA ghdA = = =
} } }
h
dA
x

Equivalent system:
A plane surface perpendicular
to the free surface
Projected
area A
x

Finding F
x
is to determine the force acting
on a plane submerged surface oriented
perpendicular to the surface. A
x
is the
projection of the curved surface on the yz
plane. Similar conclusion can be made to
the force in the y direction F
y
.
x
F
x x x
dF PdA ghdA = = =
} } }
Examples
Determine the magnitude of the resultant force acting on the hemispherical surface.
2 m R=0.5 m
z
x
x
x
2 2
x
F
A is the projection of the sphere along the x direction
and it has a shape of a circle A = (0.5) 0.785( )
(1000)(9.8)(2)(0.785) 15386( )
( )
(1000)
x x C x
x
z z z
PdA g ydA gh A
m
F N
F PdA g zdA g g

t

+
= = =
=
= =
= = = =
=
} }
} }
( ) ( )
3
1 4
(9.8) 2564( )
2 3
R N t =
minus equals
15386 2564
The line of action of the force
must go through the center of the
hemisphere, O (why?)
x z
F F i F k i k = + =
Line of Action
Horizontal direction: line of action goes through z
z
z
C

4

2
4
' (2)
(2)
2.03125( )
xx
C
C
R
I
z z
Az R
m
t
t
= + = +
=
Vertical direction: the line of action is 3R/8
away from the center of the hemisphere
Projection
in x-direction
location of the centroid for a hemisphere
is 3R/8=0.1875(m) away from the equator plane
The resultant moment of both forces with respect to the
center of the hemisphere should be zero:
F
x
(2.03125-2)-F
z
(0.1875)
=15386(0.03125)-2564(0.1875)=0
z