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Theory of Planned Behaviour

and Physical Activity


EPHE 348
Origins
Attitudes were a major focus in psychology
during the 1930s

Evidence was often not supportive of
attitude-behaviour relations
Problems with earlier research

Aggregate assessment

Specificity (action, context, time-frame,
target)
Theory of Reasoned Action
Fishbein & Ajzen (1975) postulated a
theoretical model for understanding
behaviour centered around the attitude
construct

Remains the most influential attitude
model 30 years later
TRA
Attitudes overall evaluation of a
behaviour

Subjective norm overall perceived
expectation to perform the behaviour from
others

Intention summary motivation to enact
the behavior
TRA Principles
Attitude and subjective norm influence
behaviour through intention

Importance of attitude and subjective norm
can differ by behavior or target group
But what makes up an attitude?
Attitudes are a function of underlying
beliefs about the behavior
Weighted Expectancy x Value

Norms are a function of normative beliefs
(norm x value of referent)
Theory of Planned Behaviour
Due to the popularity and demonstrated
importance of self-efficacy, the TRA was
extended to include a control construct

Perceived behavioural control ability of
the individual to carry out the behaviour
(skills, opportunity, resources)
Perceived Behavioural Control
Also an E x V construct:
Belief of capability to overcome an obstacle x
the probability that the obstacle will occur

Ajzen (1991) argues that PBC influences
intention and, to the extent that it
represents real control, behaviour directly
Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1985)
Attitude
Subjective Norm
Intention Behavior
Perceived
behavioral control
Figure 14.1
What causes the beliefs?

Ajzen and Fishbein leave this open but
include personal and observational
experience, personality, demographics,
environment, culture among others
TPB and PA
Over 100 studies with various populations
Intention related to PA large effect size
Attitude and PBC are related to PA with a
medium to large effect size and related to
intention with a large effect size
Subjective norm related to behaviour and
intention with a small effect size


PA Beliefs
Most important behavioural beliefs:
Stress relief, takes too much time, fun thing to do
Most important behavioural value:
Health, physical appearance/weight control
Most important normative beliefs and values:
friends, family, spouse/romantic partner
Most important control beliefs and values
Time
Fatigue

Multi-Component TPB
Attitude, subjective norm, and PBC are multi-faceted:

Attitude = affect, instrumental

Subjective norm = injunctive, descriptive

PBC = skills, opportunity, resources

Rhodes, R.E., Blanchard, C.M. & Matheson, D.H. (2006). A multi-
component model of the theory of planned behaviour. British Journal of
Health Psychology, 11, 119-137.
Rhodes, R.E. & Courneya, K.S. (2003). Investigating multiple components
of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control: An examination of the
theory of planned behavior in the exercise domain. British Journal of Social
Psychology, 42, 129-146.
Intention behavior relations
Intention-behavior asymmetry is from intenders
not acting and not from nonintenders acting

The more one intends to exercise, the more
likely one is to fail at achieving ones intentions
(>3 becomes very problematic)

Rhodes, R.E., Courneya, K.S. & Jones, L.W. (2003).
Translating exercise intentions into behaviour:
Personality and social cognitive correlates. Journal of
Health Psychology, 8, 449-460.
Temporal Profiles of Exercise Behavior Motivation
ACTION PLANNING ACTION CONTROL
Non-
Intenders
Unsuccessful
Intenders
Successful
Intenders
AFFECTIVE EVALUATIONS
CONTROL EVALUATIONS
INSTRUMENTAL EVALUATIONS
SOCIAL NORMATIVE EVALUATIONS
TPB in intervention
Few studies have focused on TPB-based
intervention

Basic premise is that behaviour can be
changed three ways:
Increase or decrease a belief
Create a belief
Increase or decrease a value
Belief Tests
Chatzisarantis & Hagger (2005)

Study of Adolescents and modal vs non
beliefs showed differences in intention via
attitude
Properties of Physical Activity
Attitude
Physical
Activity
Affective
Instrumental
Boring
Unpleasant
Attitude Tests
Conner & Rhodes (2008)
Undergraduate samples given either
completely affective message or
completely instrumental message
Examined effect on attitudes, intention,
and behaviour (2 weeks later)

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Time 1 Time 2
Control
Affective
Cognitive
Effect on Behaviour
Attitude Tests
Parrott et al. (2008)

Persuasive Messages sent to
Undergraduates (3 week follow-up)
Focused on Instrumental followed by
Affective Attitude compared to no
message
RESULTS Dependent on baseline
status.
Making an Enemy an Ally
Can the reinforcing and distracting
properties of video games be used to
facilitate exercise?


UVIC/UBC Gamebike Study
27 sedentary young men randomly assigned to
a stationary bike or video game bike

Advised to attend 30 min sessions 3xweek

6 weeks

Measured on fitness and psychological variables
Physiological Effects
(Warburton et al., 2007)
Experimental Condition
TRADITIONAL VIDEO
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Fitness results were better in the video game condition
Why? Attendance
Training Week
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Traditional
Video
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Gamebike
Fitness
Attendance
What is going on with Attendance?
Participants report lower exertion in the
videobike condition than controls despite
higher power output (Sarkany et al., 2006)

Participants report greater affective
attitude (i.e., enjoyment) in the videobike
condition (Rhodes et al., in press)
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Videobike
Standard Bike
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Mechanism
Gamebike
Affective
Attitude
Attendance
Fitness