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Cellular Transport

Dra. Rini Indyastuti, M.Si.


About Cell Membranes
1.All cells have a cell
membrane
2.Functions:
a.Controls what enters
and exits the cell to
maintain an internal
balance called
homeostasis
b.Provides protection and
support for the cell
TEM picture of a
real cell membrane.
Semua sel memiliki
membran sel
Fungsi:
Kontrol apa yang masuk
dan keluar dari sel untuk
menjaga keseimbangan
internal yang disebut
Homeostasis
Memberikan
perlindungan dan
dukungan bagi sel
3.Structure of cell membrane
Lipid Bilayer -2 layers of
phospholipids
a.Phosphate head is polar
(water loving)
b.Fatty acid tails non-polar
(water fearing)
c.Proteins embedded in
membrane
About Cell Membranes (continued)
Phospholipid
Lipid Bilayer
Struktur membran sel
-2 Lapisan ganda lipid
lapisan fosfolipid
Fosfat kepala polar
(air cinta)
Asam lemak ekor
non-polar (air takut)
Protein tertanam
dalam membran
Proteins
Membrane
movement
animation
Polar heads
love water
& dissolve.
Non-polar
tails hide
from water.
Carbohydrate cell
markers
Fluid Mosaic
Model of the
cell membrane
4. Cell membranes have pores (holes) in it
a.Selectively permeable: Allows some
molecules in and keeps other molecules out
b.The structure helps it be selective!
About Cell Membranes (continued)
Pores
4. Membran sel
memiliki pori-pori
(lubang) di dalamnya
Selektif permeabel:
Memungkinkan
beberapa molekul
dalam dan membuat
molekul lainnya
keluar
Struktur membantu itu
selektif!
Outside of cell
Inside of cell
(cytoplasm)
Lipid
Bilayer
Proteins
Transport
Protein
Phospholipids
Carbohydrate
chains
Structure of the Cell Membrane
Go to
Section:
Animations
of membrane
structure
Types of Cellular Transport
Passive Transport
cell doesnt use energy
1. Diffusion
2. Facilitated Diffusion
3. Osmosis

Active Transport
cell does use energy
1. Protein Pumps
2. Endocytosis
3. Exocytosis
high
low
This is
gonna
be hard
work!!
high
low
Weeee!!
!
Animations of Active
Transport & Passive
Transport
Passive Transport
cell uses no energy
molecules move randomly
Molecules spread out from an area of
high concentration to an area of low
concentration.
(HighLow)
Three types:

sel tidak menggunakan energi
molekul bergerak secara acak
Molekul menyebar keluar dari daerah
konsentrasi tinggi ke daerah konsentrasi
rendah.
(High Rendah)
Tiga jenis:
3 Types of Passive Transport
1. Diffusion
2. Facilitative Diffusion diffusion with
the help of transport proteins
3. Osmosis diffusion of water

Difusi
Fasilitatif Difusi - difusi dengan bantuan
protein transpor
Osmosis - difusi air
Passive Transport:
1. Diffusion
1. Diffusion: random movement
of particles from an area of
high concentration to an
area of low concentration.
(High to Low)
Diffusion continues until all
molecules are evenly spaced
(equilibrium is reached)-Note:
molecules will still move around
but stay spread out.

http://bio.winona.edu/berg/Free.htm
Simple Diffusion
Animation
Difusi: pergerakan acak
partikel dari daerah
konsentrasi tinggi ke
daerah konsentrasi
rendah.
(Tinggi ke Rendah)
Difusi berlanjut sampai
semua molekul merata
jarak (ekuilibrium
tercapai)-Catatan:
molekul akan masih
bergerak di sekitar tetapi
tinggal menyebar.
2. Facilitated diffusion:
diffusion of specific particles
through transport
proteins found in the
membrane
a.Transport Proteins are
specific they select
only certain molecules
to cross the membrane
b.Transports larger or
charged molecules
Facilitated
diffusion
(Channel
Protein)
Diffusion
(Lipid
Bilayer)
Passive Transport:
2. Facilitated Diffusion
Carrier Protein
A B
http://bio.winona.edu/berg/Free.htm
2. Difasilitasi difusi: difusi
partikel tertentu melalui
transportasi protein yang
ditemukan di dalam
membran
Transport Protein adalah
spesifik - mereka "pilih"
hanya molekul-molekul
tertentu untuk
menyeberangi membran
Transports molekul yang
lebih besar atau
dibebankan
High Concentration
Low Concentration
Cell Membrane
Glucose
molecules
Protein
channel
Passive Transport: 2. Facilitated Diffusion
Go to
Section:
Transport
Protein
Through a
Cellular Transport From a-
High
Low
Channel Proteins
animations
3.Osmosis: diffusion of
water through a
selectively permeable
membrane
Water moves from high
to low concentrations


Water moves freely
through pores.
Solute (green) to large
to move across.
Osmosis
animation
Passive Transport:
3. Osmosis
3.Osmosis: difusi
air melalui
membran
permeabel selektif
Air bergerak dari
konsentrasi tinggi
ke rendah
Osmosis: Solutions
Active Transport
cell uses energy
actively moves molecules to where they are
needed
Movement from an area of low concentration
to an area of high concentration
(Low High)
Three Types:

sel menggunakan energi
molekul bergerak secara aktif di mana
mereka dibutuhkan
Gerakan dari daerah konsentrasi rendah
ke daerah konsentrasi tinggi
( Rendah Tinggi)
Tiga Jenis:
Types of Active Transport

1. Protein Pumps -
transport proteins that
require energy to do
work
Example: Sodium /
Potassium Pumps
are important in nerve
responses.
Sodium
Potassium Pumps
(Active Transport
using proteins)
Protein changes
shape to move
molecules: this
requires energy!
1. Pompa-transportasi protein protein yang
membutuhkan energi untuk melakukan
pekerjaan
Contoh: Natrium / Kalium Pompa sangat
penting dalam respons saraf
Sodium Potassium Pumps
Types of Active Transport
2. Endocytosis: taking
bulky material into a cell
Uses energy
Cell membrane in-folds
around food particle
cell eating
forms food vacuole &
digests food
This is how white blood
cells eat bacteria!
2. Endositosis:
mengambil bahan tebal
ke dalam sel
Menggunakan energi
Membran sel di-lipatan
sekitar partikel makanan
"Cell makan"
bentuk makanan vakuola
& mencerna makanan
Ini adalah bagaimana sel-
sel darah putih makan
bakteri!
Endocytosis
Endocytosis is the process of taking
materials into the cell that are too large to
pass through the cell membrane
(phagocytosis), liquids that can not
diffuse through the membrane
(pinocytosis), or special molecules which
bind to surface receptors on the cell
membrane (receptor-mediated
endocytosis).
Endositosis adalah proses mengambil ke
dalam sel bahan yang terlalu besar untuk
melewati membran sel (fagositosis), cairan
yang tidak dapat menyebar melalui
membran (pinocytosis), atau khusus untuk
molekul yang mengikat reseptor pada
permukaan membran sel (reseptor
ditengahi endositosis).
Types of Active Transport
3. Exocytosis: Forces
material out of cell in bulk
membrane surrounding the
material fuses with cell
membrane
Cell changes shape
requires energy
EX: Hormones or
wastes released from
cell
Endocytosis &
Exocytosis
animations
3. Exocytosis: Pasukan
materi keluar dari sel
dalam massal
Membran yang
mengelilingi materi
berfusi dengan membran
sel
Sel berubah bentuk -
membutuhkan energi
EX: Hormon atau limbah
dibebaskan dari sel
Exocytosis
Exocytosis is the
movement of
materials out of the
cell for secretion or
getting rid of cellular
waste. It is the
reverse of
phagocytosis or
receptor- mediated
endocytosis.
Exocytosis adalah
pergerakan material
keluar dari sel untuk
membuang sekresi
atau limbah seluler.
Ini adalah kebalikan
dari fagositosis atau
endositosis yang
diperantarai reseptor.

Effects of Osmosis on Life

Osmosis- diffusion of water through a
selectively permeable membrane


Water is so small and there is so much
of it the cell cant control its movement
through the cell membrane.

Difusi-osmosis air melalui membran
permeabel selektif


Air adalah begitu kecil dan ada begitu
banyak sel itu tidak dapat mengendalikan
gerakan ini melalui selaput sel.
Hypotonic Solution
Hypotonic: The solution has a lower concentration of
solutes and a higher concentration of water than
inside the cell. (Low solute; High water)
Result: Water moves from the solution to inside the
cell): Cell Swells and bursts open (cytolysis)!
Osmosis
Animations for
isotonic, hypertonic,
and hypotonic
solutions
Hipotonik: Solusi memiliki konsentrasi yang lebih
rendah zat terlarut dan konsentrasi yang lebih
tinggi air daripada di dalam sel. (Rendah terlarut;
Tinggi air)
Hasil: Air bergerak dari larutan ke dalam
sel): Cell membengkak dan pecah terbuka
(sitolisis)!
Hypertonic Solution
Hypertonic: The solution has a higher concentration
of solutes and a lower concentration of water than
inside the cell. (High solute; Low water)
Result: Water moves from inside the cell into the
solution: Cell shrinks (Plasmolysis)!
Osmosis
Animations for
isotonic, hypertonic,
and hypotonic
solutions
shrinks
Hipertonik: Solusi memiliki konsentrasi yang lebih
tinggi zat terlarut dan konsentrasi yang lebih
rendah daripada air di dalam sel. (High terlarut;
Rendah air)
Hasil: Air bergerak dari
dalam sel ke dalam larutan:
Cell menyusut
(Plasmolisis)!
Isotonic Solution
Isotonic: The concentration of solutes in the solution
is equal to the concentration of solutes inside the cell.
Result: Water moves equally in both directions and
the cell remains same size! (Dynamic Equilibrium)
Osmosis
Animations for
isotonic, hypertonic,
and hypotonic
solutions
Isotonik: Konsentrasi zat terlarut dalam larutan
sama dengan konsentrasi zat terlarut di dalam sel.
Result: Water moves
equally in both directions
and the cell remains same
size! (Dynamic Equilibrium)
What type of solution are these cells in?
A
C B
Hypertonic Isotonic Hypotonic
How Organisms Deal
with Osmotic Pressure
Paramecium
(protist) removing
excess water
video
Bacteria and plants have cell walls that prevent them
from over-expanding. In plants the pressure exerted on
the cell wall is called tugor pressure.
A protist like paramecium has contractile vacuoles that
collect water flowing in and pump it out to prevent them
from over-expanding.
Salt water fish pump salt out of their specialized gills so
they do not dehydrate.
Animal cells are bathed in blood. Kidneys keep the
blood isotonic by remove excess salt and water.
Bakteri dan tumbuhan memiliki dinding sel yang
mencegah mereka dari atas-berkembang. Pada
tumbuhan tekanan yang diberikan pada dinding sel
disebut tekanan tugor.
Sebuah Protista seperti paramecium memiliki vakuola
kontraktil yang mengumpulkan air yang mengalir di
dalam dan pompa itu untuk mencegah mereka dari atas-
berkembang.
Pompa ikan air garam garam keluar dari insang khusus
mereka sehingga mereka tidak mengalami dehidrasi.
Sel-sel hewan yang bermandikan darah. Ginjal membuat
darah isotonik dengan menghilangkan kelebihan garam
dan air.
Thank You