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# ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 1

ME 4175
Machine Design
Dr. The Nguyen
University of Minnesota Duluth
Gear Design
(Chapters 12 & 13)
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 2
Gear Trains
Fundamental law of gearing
External and internal
gear sets
out
in
in
out
V
r
r
m = =
e
e
Angular velocity ratio between the gears
of a gear set must remain constant:
Use negative sign for
external sets
Torque ratio or mechanical advantage is
reciprocal to the velocity ratio:
in
out
out
in
V
A
r
r
m
m = = =
e
e
1
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 3
Gear Trains
Simple gear trains
out
in
out
in
in
out
V
N
N
r
r
m = = =
e
e
Number of teeth
Train velocity ratio:
6
2
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
m
V
+ =
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 4
Gear Trains
Compound gear trains
Train velocity ratio:
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
5
4
3
2
N
N
N
N
m
V
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 5
Gear Trains
Planetary gear trains
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 6
Gear Trains
Planetary gear trains: review Example 12-3
planet sun ring
N N N 2 + =
Number of teeth:
arm First Arm First /
e e e + =
First gear:
arm Last Arm Last /
e e e + =
Last gear:
Velocity ratio:
Velocity difference-equations:
arm Final
arm Last
arm First
arm Last
V
m
e e
e e
e
e

= =
/
/
) ( trains gear simple for slides previous to refer
V V
m m
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 7
Gear
Tooth
Shape
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 8
Spur gears
Nomenclature
N
d
p
c
t
=
Circular pitch:
| = cos
c b
p p
Base pitch:
d
N
p
d
=
Diametral pitch:
N
d
m =
Module:
(d is pitch diameter, and N is number of teeth)
Defines
diametral
pitch
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 9
Spur gears
AGMA specifications
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 10
Spur gears
AGMA specifications
Standard full-depth gears (pinion and gear) have equal addendum
and larger dedendum for clearance
Dedendum
the tooth base
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 11
Spur gears
Contact geometry: involute gear-teeth
Figure 12-4
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 12
Interference and Undercutting
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 13
Profile-Shifted Teeth
To avoid interference
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 14
Spur gears
Length of action: involute gear-teeth
Normals at leaving contact and beginning contact points are the same
Figure 12-5
| | + + | + = cos ) cos ( ) ( ) cos ( ) (
2 2 2 2
C r a r r a r Z
g g g p p p Length of action:
b
p
p
Z
m =
Contact ratio:
(Number of teeth in
contact at one time)
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 15
Spur gears
Center distance: affects pressure angle and pitch diameter
Changing center distance affects pressure angle and pitch diameter
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 16
Spur gears
AGMA specifications
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 17
Gears
Main Classification
Spur
Helical
Straight bevel Spiral bevel
Worm and worm gear pair
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 18
Spur Gears
Teeth are parallel to axis
Least expensive type
Noisier than others
High efficiency (99% / set)
Can be disengaged
Backlash can be a problem
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 19
Helical Gears
Teeth not parallel to axis
More expensive than spur
Quieter than others
Axial force component
Parallel or crossed axes
Stronger tooth section
Harder to disengage
Parallel axes
(e = 96 - 98%)
Crossed axes
(e = 50 - 90% )
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 20
Herringbone Gears
Two opposite-hand helicals back to back
Cancels axial force component
As quiet as helicals
Very expensive to make
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 21
Worm and Wheel
Worm has single tooth or thread
Ratio = no. of teeth on wheel
Worm is helical with big helix angle
Teeth are not involutes
Made and installed as matched pairs
Very expensive to make
Poor efficiency (40 - 85%)
High torque capacity

ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 22
Rack and Pinion
Rotary to linear motion
Can be spur, helical, or herringbone
Involute becomes a straight line trapezoidal teeth
Used in rack and pinion steering
Used as a cutter to make circular gears
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 23
Bevel Gears
Based on rolling cones
Cone apices must intersect
So, axes intersect also
Can turn any corner angle
Low power capacity
Teeth are not involutes
Straight bevels are spur
Spiral bevels are helical
Straight
Bevel
Spiral
Bevel
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 24
Hypoid Gears
Based on rolling
hyperboloids
Non-intersecting axes
Non-involute teeth
High torque capacity
Used in automotive
differentials
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 25
Stresses in Spur Gears
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 26
Spur Gears
Forces on pinion and gear sets time-varying forces
p
p d
p
p
p
p
t
N
T p
d
T
r
T
W
2 2
= = =
Tangential force component:
| = tan
t r
W W
Resultant force:
2 2
t r
W W W + =
Note: for contact ratios > 1, there exists a HIGHEST POINT OF SINGLE-TOOTH CONTACT (HPSTC)
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 27
Gear Teeth
Always
Have
Dynamic
Even if
Applied
Constant
Gear teeth see both bending and
surface stresses
Gears can be designed for infinite
life against bending failure
Gears cannot be designed for
infinite life against surface failure
There is no endurance limit for
surface stress
They will eventually fail in surface
fatigue by pitting and spalling
cause premature failure by
Automobile gears very rarely fail in
the life of the vehicle unless
abused in service.
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 28
Spur Gears
Bending stresses
(note that contact stresses are also generated)
l
t
F
W
t
Tooth is modeled as a Cantilever beam in bending:
2
6
Ft
l W
I
Mc t
b
= = o
Bending stresses:
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 29
Spur Gears
Bending stresses
Y F
p W
x I
x Mc
d t
b
) (
) (
= = o
r
f
W
r
W
t
W
a
x
t
l
y
Gear tooth in
bending:
Bending stresses (Lewis equation):
W
t
is the tangential force
p
d
is the diametral pitch
F is the face width
Y is the geometric factor (Lewis
dimensionless geometric factor)
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 30
Spur Gears
Bending stresses
F is face width (minimum face width is 3 to 5 times p
c
)
J is bending strength geometric factor (AGMA; Tables 12-8 through 12-15; p. 712)
K
v
is dynamic factor (depends on tangential velocity -- Figure 12-22; p. 711)
K
m
is load distribution factor (to account for misalignments -- Table 12-16; p. 715)
K
a
is application factor (application dependent; Shocks -- Table 12-17; p. 715)
K
s
is size factor (similar concept as Equation 6.7b -- AGMA recommends value of 1)
K
B
is rim thickness factor (for gears made of rims and spokes -- Figure 12-23; p. 716)
K
I
is idler factor (set to 1.42 for an idler gear and 1 for a non-idler gear)
m is metric module: m = d
p
(in mm) / N
AGMA bending stress equation:
I B s
m a
d t
b
K K K
K
K K
FJ
p W
v
o = U.S. specifications
I B s
m a t
b
K K K
K
K K
FmJ
W
v
o =
SI specifications - m is the
metric module
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 31
Spur Gears
Bending stresses
(note that contact stresses are also generated)
Contact ratio between 1 and 2 (# of teeth in contact at a given time)

No interference between tips and roots
No teeth are pointed
There is nonzero backlash
Root fillets are standard
Friction forces are neglected (assumed good lubrication)
AGMA standard 2001-B88
is subject to following general constraints:
| cos ;
c b
b
p
p p
p
Z
m = =
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 32
Sharing
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 33
AGMA
Dynamic Factor
I B s
m a
d t
b
K K K
K
K K
FJ
p W
v
o =
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 34
AGMA Geometry Factor J
I B s
m a
d t
b
K K K
K
K K
FJ
p W
v
o =
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 35
Other AGMA Factors
I B s
m a
d t
b
K K K
K
K K
FJ
p W
v
o =
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 36
More AGMA Factors
K
s
= Size factor
- Set to 1
K
B
= Rim thickness factor
- Set to 1 for a solid gear (no rim)
- See text for other cases
K
I
= Idler factor
- Set to 1 for a non-idler gear
- Set to 1.42 for an idler gear
Idler sees fully reversed stress
of twice the range of non-idler
I B s
m a
d t
b
K K K
K
K K
FJ
p W
v
o =
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 37
Surface Stress in Gear Teeth
Can design teeth to never fail in bending
But they will eventually fail in surface fatigue
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 38
Elastic Coefficient C
p
(Table 12-18)
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 39
Surface Geometry Factor I
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 40
Cast Iron
Steel
Bronze
Nonmetallic
- Nylon
- Delrin
- Phenolic
Gear Material Strengths
AGMA has done extensive testing to establish
fatigue strengths for gear materials in both
bending and surface fatigue.

These data were generated with proper size,
geometry, surface finish, etc., and so are partially
corrected fatigue strengths.

They are stated at 1E7 cycles (unlike other data at
1E6 or 5E8) and are at 99% reliability level.

The test load was fluctuating, containing the
mean stress component, so these data can be
compared directly to the alternating stress on the
tooth.

A Goodman line analysis is not needed here as
the strength data already are in the Goodman
domain.
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 41
Gear Bending Fatigue Strength
Formulae are defined based on Brinell hardness

Tabular data are also published (see Table 12-20)
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 42
Correcting Gear Bending Fatigue
Note that these are different factors
than in Chapter 6 because these data
are based on 99% reliability not 50%
Reliability Factor
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 43
Bending Strength Life Factor K
L
Modifies strength based on your cycle life
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 44
Gear Surface Fatigue Strength
AGMA has done extensive testing on gears
Formulae are defined based on Brinell hardness

Tabular data are also published (see Table 12-21)
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 45
Correcting Gear Surface Fatigue
C
T
is the same as K
T
defined earlier
C
R
is the same as K
R
defined earlier

ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 46
Surface Strength Life Factor C
L
Modifies strength based on your cycle life
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 47
Hardness Ratio Factor C
H
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 48
Lubrication
Gears need lubrication
Oil bath is best
Grease lubrication is a poor substitute
Hypoid oils are needed where sliding component of
velocity is high
- Hyperboloidal (hypoid) gears
- Wormsets
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 49
Stresses in Helical Gears
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 50
Helical Gears
Forces on pinion and gear sets time-varying forces
p
p d
p
p
p
p
t
N
T p
d
T
r
T
W
2 2
= = =
Tangential:
| = tan
t r
W W
n
cos cos |
=
t
W
W
Axial:
tan
t a
W W =
cos
tan
tan tan
n
t
|
= | = |
Pressure angles:
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 51
Helical Gears
Other quantities
b
p
p
Z
m =
cos
n
c t
p
p p = =
Transverse pitch: Axial pitch: Normal dimetral pitch:
cos
d
nd
p
p =
Dimetral pitch:
t c
d
p p d
N
p
t t
= = =
sin
n
x
p
p =
cos cos cos
2
3 3 2
N
p
d
p
d
p
r
N
t n n
e
e
= = = =
t t t
Virtual number of teeth:
Transverse contact ratio:
t
tan
d
x
F
Fp
p
F
m = =
Axial contact ratio:
Should be at least 1.15
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 52
Helical Gears
Stresses
AGMA bending stress equation:
I B s
m a
d t
b
K K K
K
K K
FJ
p W
v
o =
f s
v
m a t
p c
C C
C
C C
FId
W
C = o
AGMA surface stress equation:
N p
g p
m d
I
|
|
.
|

\
|
1

1
|
=

cos
Geometry factor J:
tables 13.1 13.6 or AGMA standards
Geometry factor I:
min
L
F
m
N
=
Base helix angle:
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
=

cos
cos
cos cos
n
1
b
ME 4175, Spring 2011 - 53
Spur and Helical Gears
Surface geometrical factor I

| |
+
| |
=
gears internal
1 2
sin cos
gears external
1 2
sin cos
G
G
N
t t
G
G
N
t t
m
m
m
m
m
m
I
1 =
N
m
for spur gears
P
G
P
G
G
d
d
N
N
m = =
Gear ratio:
P G
G
N
t t
N N
N
m
I

| |
=
2
sin cos