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SHELL BALANCE

AND
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
IN
LAMINAR FLOW
contd (Example 2)
EX-2: Flow Of Incompressible Fluids Through A Circular Tube
Differences in Problem Definition as compared to Flat Plate
Flat plate Circular tube
Laminar flow Laminar flow
No end effects No end effects
Rectangular Cylindrical
Gravity as the
driving force
Gravity force &
Pressure force
The procedure of solving the flat plate problem is used here to
solve this problem.
Example-2: Flow Through A Circular Tube, contd. -2
Step 1: Draw the physical diagram
0
z
r
r
r+Ar
L
R
Direction of transport
Shell z z+Az
Example-2: Flow Through A Circular Tube, contd. -3
Step 2: Transport mechanism
1. Transport of rate of momentum in the r-direction.
2. Transport of rate of momentum in the z-direction.
Step 3: Frame of coordinates
Chosen as shown in the diagram
Typical for any system having cylindrical geometry
Step 4: Draw a shell
Shell in this case is an annulus having surfaces perpendicular to
the direction of momentum transport.
Shell is at the position (r,z) and has thicknesses r and z in the
r and z coordinates, respectively.
Example-2: Flow Through A Circular Tube, contd. -4
Step 5: Momentum shell balance
Rate of z-momentum in the shell across the cylindrical surface at r =
( ) ( )
2 ,
rz
r z r z t t A
Surface contact area shear (force/area) at the
surface r
Rate of z-momentum out across the cylindrical surface at r+ r =
( ) ( )
2 ,
rz
r r z r r z t t +A A +A (

Surface contact area
shear (force/area) at the
surface r + r
Example-2: Flow Through A Circular Tube, contd. -5
Rate of z-momentum in across the annular surface at z =
( ) ( ) ( )
2 v , ) v , )
z z
r r r z r z t A ( (

Cross-sectional area
Volumetric flow rate
Mass flow rate
Rate of z-momentum out across the annular surface at z+Az =
( ) ( ) ( )
2 v , ) v , )
z z
r r r z z r z z t A +A +A ( (

Example-2: Flow Through A Circular Tube, contd. -6
Pressure force acting on the z surface:
( ) ( )
2 r r p z t A (

Cross-sectional area Pressure along z
Pressure force acting on the z+Az surface:
( ) ( )
2 r r p z z t A +A (

Gravity force acting on the shell volume along z direction:
( )( )
2 cos r r z g t | A A (

Volume of the shell Weight force of the fluid in shell
Example-2: Flow Through A Circular Tube, contd. -7
1. Add all the terms
2. Divide through out by the volume of shell
3. Take the limits by making the shell as thin as possible
Momentum balance equation after the shell is made as thin as
possible
( )
( )
2
z
v
1
cos 0
rz
p
r g
r r z z

t |
c
c c
+ =
c c c
equal to zero as v
z
is independent of z
1. the fluid is incompressible
2. The tube area is constant
Independent of r
First-order ODE in terms of shear
stress
Example-2: Flow Through A Circular Tube, contd. -8
Final momentum balance equation
( )
1
cos 0
rz
p
r g
r r z
t |
c c
| |
+ =
|
c c
\ .
( )
1
cos
rz
p
r g
r r z
t |
c c
| |
= +
|
c c
\ .
1
1
cos
2
rz
C dp
g r
dz r
t |
| |
= + +
|
\ .
C
1
is zero because the shear
stress must be finite at r=0
applicable to any fluids
shear stress is a linear function of r
1
cos
2
rz
dp
g r
dz
t |
| |
= +
|
\ .
Example-2: Flow Through A Circular Tube, contd. -9
Step 6: Newtonian law
z
v
rz
d
dr
t =
1
cos
2
rz
dp
g r
dz
t |
| |
= +
|
\ .
Step 7: Physical constraints
z
v
at = 0, 0
d
r
dr
=
z
at = R, v 0 r =
Step 8: Velocity distribution
Example-2: Flow Through A Circular Tube, contd. -10
( )
2
2
z
v 1
4
o L
P P R
r
L R
(

| |
=
(
|
\ .
(

Parabolic profile
Volumetric
flow rate
Average
velocity
Maximum
velocity
Force of fluid
on wetted wall
Step 9: Useful quantities
( )
4
8
o L
P P R
Q
L
t

=
Example-2: Flow Through A Circular Tube, contd. -11
Maximum velocity, at r = 0
( )
2
z
max, 0
v
4
o L
r
P P R
L
=

=
Volumetric flow rate
Integrate the differential
volumetric flow rate
differential volumetric flow rate
( ) ( )
z
2 v dQ rdr r t =
( ) ( )
z
0
2 v
R
Q dQ rdr r t = =
} }
Can be measured easily
Calculated
Measured
Example-2: Flow Through A Circular Tube, contd. -12
( )
4
8
o L
P P R
Q
L
t

=
Famous Hagen-Poiseuille equation
Often used to determine fluid viscosity
Average velocity
( )
2
2
z
2
v
8 8
o L
P P R
Q dP R
R L dz t

( ) = = =
Force exerted by the flowing fluid on the walls of tube
z
v
surface area on which
dr
this shear force acts
rz
r R
r R
d
F t
=
=
| |
= =
|
\ .
Example-2: Flow Through A Circular Tube, contd. -13
( )
( )
2
2
o L
P P R
F RL
L
t

=
Inner Surface area of tube Shear Stress at the wall
Results obtained are for Newtonian fluids.
For non-Newtonian fluids, substitute the appropriate model equation
after step-5.
Step 6: Apply the Appropriate Non-Newtonian model
Let us try the Ostwald-de Waele model for non-Newtonian fluids
FOR NON-NEWTONIAN FLUIDS
Example-2: Flow Through A Circular Tube, contd. -14
1
cos
2
rz
dp
g r
dz
t |
| |
= +
|
\ .
1
1
1
z
v 1
1 2
n
n n
n
n
o L
P P n R r
n m L R
+
+
(
(

| | | |
=
(
(
| |
+
\ . \ .
(


1
v v
n
z z
rz
d d
m
dr dr
t

=
For n = 1
1
v v
n
z z
rz
d d
m
dr dr
t

=
For n = 1
2
2
z
1
v 1
2 2
o L
P P R r
m L R
(
(
| | | |
=
(
| | (
\ . \ .
(

Compare with
Example-2: Flow Through A Circular Tube, contd. -15
Try the Bingham model for non-Newtonian fluids
v
;
v
; 0
z
rz o o
z
rz o
d
dr
d
dr
t t
t t
=
< =
The shear is zero at center of the
tube and maximum at surface of the
tube; thus, one expects a plug flow
region in the central part of the tube.
o
t
o
r
z
v
= 0
d
dr
zero slip at wall
Max finite shear at wall r=R
zero shear at r=0
shear
stress
profile
Velocity
profile
Physical Constraints of Bingham fluids
Example-2: Flow Through A Circular Tube, contd. -16
Velocity distribution of a Bingham fluid flow in a circular tube
( )
2
2
>
z
v 1 1
4
o L
o
o o
P P R
R r r
L R R
t

(

(
| | | |
=
(
| |
(
\ . \ .
(

Critical radius r
o
and t
o
where dv
z
/dr=0
( )
o
2
r
o
o L
L
P P
t
=

FOR, r > r
o

( )
2
2
<
z
v 1
4
o L
o
o
P P R
r
L R

(
=
(

FOR, r s r
o

( )
o
r
2
o L
o
P P
L
t

=
Example-2: Flow Through A Circular Tube, contd. -17
For Volumetric flow rate
2
< >
z z z
0 0 0
v 2 v 2 v
o
o
r
R R
r
Q r dr d rdr rdr
t
u t t = = +
} } } }
( )
4
4
4 1
1
8 3 3
o L
o o
R o
o R R
P P R
Q for
L
t
t t
t t
t t
(
| | | |
( = + >
| |
(
\ . \ .

For practice do examples of
1. Annular flow
2. Flow of two immiscible liquids