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Section 1

Fundamentals of Nutrition

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Chapter 2

Planning a Healthy Diet

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Objectives
 Define a balanced diet
 List the U.S. government’s Dietary
Guidelines for Americans and explain
the reasons for each
 Identify the food groups and their
placement on the Food Guide Pyramid

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Objectives
 Describe information commonly found
on food labels
 List some food customs of various
cultural groups
 Describe the development of food
customs

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Balanced Diet

Includes all the essential nutrients in


appropriate amounts
Preserves and promotes good health

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Stop and Share

Divide into groups of 2.


Answer the following question:
How do you know you eat a balanced diet?
Share your answer with your partner.

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Stop and Share
Meal Planning Simple system
• Cumbersome and • Dietary Guidelines
time-consuming if for Americans
tables have to be developed by
followed for each USDA and DHHS
meal • Food Guide
• Tables provide Pyramid developed
Dietary Reference by USDA
Intakes (DRIs).

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Dietary Guidelines for Americans

Aim for a healthy weight.


Be physically active each day.
Let the Pyramid guide your food choices.
Choose a variety of grains daily, especially
whole grains.

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Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables
daily.
Keep food safe to eat.
Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat
and cholesterol, and moderate in total fat.

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Dietary Guidelines for Americans

Choose beverages and foods to moderate


your intake of sugars.
Choose and prepare foods with less salt.
If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in
moderation.

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Food Guide Pyramid

Bread, cereal, rice, pasta


Vegetable
Fruit
Milk, yogurt, cheese
Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, nuts
Fats, oils, sweets

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Food Guide Pyramid

(Courtesy of the USDA and DHHS, 1992, The food guide pyramid: A guide to daily food choices. Leaflet no. 572, Washington, D.C.)

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Mediterranean Diet Pyramid

Developed by World Health Organization


(WHO) and Harvard’s School of Public
Health

Encourages monounsaturated fats

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Food Labeling

Mandatory labeling for nearly all


processed foods started in May, 1994 as a
result of the Nutrition Labeling and
Education Act (NLEA).
Primary objective is to ensure that labels
on most foods provide consistent nutrition
information.

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Food Labeling
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sets
health claims allowed and serving sizes.

Descriptive terms standardized

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Food Labeling:
Nutrition Facts Required
Total calories Dietary fiber
Calories from fat Sugars
Total fat Protein
Saturated fat Vitamin A
Cholesterol Vitamin C
Sodium Calcium
Total carbohydrates Iron

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Food Labeling

(Courtesy of the FDA)

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Food Customs

Food habits may be based on nationality,


culture, and religion.
Foods available in a certain area may be
favored for economic reasons.
Economic status and social status
contribute to food habits.

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Stop and Share

Consider the following questions:


How can a health care professional gain
knowledge regarding a patient’s dietary
preferences?
Why is it important for a health care
professional to understand food patterns
unique to different cultures?

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Stop and Share

Talking with the Plan nourishing


patient and learning meals consisting of
about his or her foods that appeal to
background will the patient.
help the health care Adjustments in diet
professional gain can be made
knowledge gradually and
regarding food effectively.
preferences.
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Native American
Approximately half of the edible plants
commonly eaten in the United States today
originated with the Native Americans.
Corn, potatoes, squash, cranberries,
pumpkins, beans, wild rice, and cocoa
beans
Wild fruits, game, and fish
Foods were commonly prepared as soups,
stews or were dried.
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Native American

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U.S. Southern

Popular foods: corn bread, biscuits, grits,


rice, sweet potatoes, squash, watermelon,
oranges, peaches, fried fish, lima beans,
green beans cooked with pork, barbecued/
stewed meats and poultry
Diet may be high in fat and carbohydrates;
limited in protein, iron, calcium, and
vitamins A and C.

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Mexican

Popular foods: beans, rice, chili peppers,


tomatoes, tortillas made of corn meal or
flour
Beans and corn make a complete protein.
Milk, green and yellow vegetables, and
vitamin C-rich foods would improve these
diets.

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Puerto Rican

Popular foods: rice,


beans, peppers,
plantains, tomatoes,
bananas, pineapple,
mangoes, papayas,
chicken, beef, pork
Lacking milk
nutritionally

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Italian

Popular foods: pastas, tomato sauces,


cheese, fish, meat, root vegetables
Excellent sources of nutrients include:
eggs, cheese, tomatoes, green vegetables,
and fruits.
Fat-free milk and low-fat meat would
improve diet.

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Northern and Western European

Popular foods: beef, pork, cooked


vegetables, breads, cakes, and dairy
products
Fewer green vegetable salads and greater
use of dark breads, potatoes, and fish than
U.S. Midwest; otherwise similar.
Fresh vegetables and fruits would add
vitamins, minerals, and fiber to these diets.

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Central European

Popular foods: potatoes, grain (especially


rye and buckwheat), pork, cooked
cabbage, carrots, onions, and turnips
Eggs and dairy products used abundantly.
To improve diet, limit number of eggs, use
fat-free or low-fat dairy products, and add
fresh vegetables and fruits.

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Middle Eastern

Popular foods:
grains, wheat, rice,
chickpeas in the
form of hummus,
lamb, yogurt,
cabbage, grape
leaves, eggplant,
tomatoes, dates,
olives, and figs
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Middle Eastern
May contain insufficient amounts of protein
and calcium depending on the amounts of
meat and calcium-rich foods eaten.
Fresh fruits and vegetables should be added
to increase vitamins, minerals, and fiber.
Black, very sweet coffee is a popular
beverage.

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Chinese

Popular foods: rice,


soybeans, eggs,
pork, and tea
Low-fat diet
Soy sauce is high in
salt–problematic for
patients on low-salt
diets.

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Japanese

Popular foods: rice, soybean paste and


curd, vegetables, fruits, fish
Tempura style (fried)
Soysauce (shoyu) and tea are common.
Diet lacks milk.
May be deficient in calcium and excessive
in salt.

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Indian

Popular foods: eggs, dairy products, rice,


peas, beans, spices (curry)
Diet may be vegetarian.
Eating with fingers is acceptable.

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Thai, Vietnamese, Laotian,
Cambodian
Popular foods: rice,
curries, vegetables,
fruit
Fish and meats are
used in small
amounts.
Diet may lack
adequate protein
and calcium.

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Jewish

Orthodox follow
dietary rules
Conservative follow
rules in home
Reform may not
follow dietary laws

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Jewish Dietary Laws
Kosher–foods prepared following rules
• Qualified person slaughters animals.
• Meat not prepared with milk or milk
products.
• Dishes used for meat and dairy kept
separate.
• Dairy and meat not eaten together.
• Mouth rinsed between fish and meat.
• Observe days for fasting.
• No cooking on Sabbath.
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Roman Catholic and Eastern
Orthodox
Roman Catholic
• Meat not allowed Ash Wednesday and
fridays during Lent
Eastern Orthodox
• Includes Christians from the Middle East,
Russia, and Greece
• Meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products
restricted wednesdays, fridays, and during
Lent and Advent
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Seventh Day Adventist and
Mormon
Seventh Day Adventist
• Lacto-ovo vegetarians: use milk products
and eggs, but no meat, fish, or poultry
• Nuts, legumes and meat substitutes, tofu
• Coffee, tea, and alcohol considered
harmful
Mormon
• Coffee, tea and alcohol prohibited

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Islamic and Hindu

Islamic
• Adherents of Islam are called Muslims
• Pork and alcohol prohibited; other meat
slaughtered by specific laws
• During the month of Ramadan, Muslims
do not eat or drink during daylight hours
Hindu
• All life sacred; animals and eggs not eaten

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Vegetarians

Lacto-ovo: use dairy products and eggs,


but no meat, poultry, or fish
Lacto: use dairy products but no meat,
poultry, or eggs
Vegans: avoid all animal foods
Diets should be carefully planned to
include essential amino acids.

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Zen-Macrobiotic Diets

Developed from Zen Buddhism


System of 10 diet plans
Gradually give up foods as follows:
desserts, salads, fruits, animal foods,
soups, and ultimately vegetables, until
only cereals–usually brown rice–are
consumed.

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Conclusion
Tools can be used to help patients plan a
healthy diet.
Individual food customs must be
respected.
A registered dietitian can help plan diets.
Gradual corrections in dietary habits are
easier to make and more effective when
the reasons for the food habits are
understood.
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