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IPv6 and Packet Tracer Jim Bergquist <a href=jbergquist@lcsc.org Lakes Country Service Cooperative Karen Alderson kalderso@cisco.com Networking Academy Technical Advocacy © 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 " id="pdf-obj-0-2" src="pdf-obj-0-2.jpg">

IPv6 and Packet

Tracer

Jim Bergquist jbergquist@lcsc.org

Lakes Country Service Cooperative

Karen Alderson kalderso@cisco.com

Networking Academy Technical Advocacy

IPv6 and Packet Tracer Jim Bergquist <a href=jbergquist@lcsc.org Lakes Country Service Cooperative Karen Alderson kalderso@cisco.com Networking Academy Technical Advocacy © 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 " id="pdf-obj-0-18" src="pdf-obj-0-18.jpg">

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Purpose of This Session

To provide a working knowledge to instructors and students for building and troubleshooting simple IPv6

networks

Scope of this session

  • Topics sufficient to give students and instructors a basic knowledge of how IPv6 works

  • Demos, with Packet Tracer files and lab activities

  • Links to resources that cover more IPv6 topics

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Visualizing the

IPv6 Address

Space

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Visualizing the IPv6 Address Space

128 bit addresses 2 128 is a very large number

  • Assign one IPv6 address per grain of sand

  • How many grains of

sand would be needed to

use all IPv6 addresses?

  • Fill Earth-sized containers with the sand

Sand

Grain

Visualizing the IPv6 Address Space 128 bit addresses 2 is a very large number  Assigng credit: htt p ://flickr.com/ p hotos/ontdesign/ http://search.creativecommons.org/ IPv6 & Packet Tracer " id="pdf-obj-3-26" src="pdf-obj-3-26.jpg">

IPv6 address

2009:1:3:4EFF:2C:16BA:3D:B012/112

Visualizing the IPv6 Address Space 128 bit addresses 2 is a very large number  Assigng credit: htt p ://flickr.com/ p hotos/ontdesign/ http://search.creativecommons.org/ IPv6 & Packet Tracer " id="pdf-obj-3-32" src="pdf-obj-3-32.jpg">

Fill here

Hollow Earth-sized container 4 Cisco Public
Hollow
Earth-sized
container
4
Cisco Public

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Visualizing the IPv6 Address Space

The Earth-sized containers would make 20 circles around the outer orbit of our solar system (Pluto)

Our Solar

System

Blue dots are Earth- sized containers

Based on image from public image gallery at

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IPv6 Address

Format and Types

of Addresses

More information is available in the referenced resources

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What IPv6 Addresses Look Like

  • 128 bits are separated into eight blocks of 16 bits

  • Each 16-bit block is represented in hex and delimited with colons:

2001:00D3:0000:2F00:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A

  • In each 16-bit block, leading zeros may be removed:

2001:00D3:0000:2F00:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A

2001:D3:0:2F00:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A

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Zero Compression (or Shortform)

  • Consecutive 16-bit blocks of zeroes can be replaced with a double-colon (::)

  • FE80:0:0:0:2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2 can be compressed to FE80::2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2

  • The multicast address FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 can be compressed to FF02::2

  • Zero compression can only be used once in a given address

  • Otherwise, you could not determine the number of 0 bits represented by each double-colon instance

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Teaching Tip

If students have trouble seeing why only one double colon is allowed, give them an example of what would happen if you allowed it. The following two addresses could both be shortened to the third address, so there

would be ambiguity

2001:0:0:0:355:0:0:7

2001:0:0:355:0:0:0:7

2001::355::7

NOT ALLOWED

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IPv6 Address Prefix Length

  • An address prefix is indicated by the prefix length following a ―/‖ at the end of the address.

  • Example:

2001:DB8:0:2F00:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A/64

  • The prefix length (number of upper bits) is 64

  • This means the lower 64 bits are used for hosts

  • It is used the same way as CIDR in IPv4

  • Subnet masks are not used in IPv6

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Teaching Tips

Why emphasize hexadecimal and hex-to-binary conversion?

  • To remove the mystery from numbers like B and D3A

  • To see why 32 hex digits represents 128 binary bits

  • To understand where the network and host portion are,

using a classless designation, ―/‖

  • To understand how stateless autoconfiguration is done

Fortunately, hex-to-binary conversion is easy

Consider having students memorize the binary equivalent of the 16 hex digits

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Fun Teaching Facts

  • The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) will allocate from 2001::/16 for the time being

  • Addresses within 2001:db8::/32 are non-routable and should be used in examples given in documentation for

networking scenarios or tutorials

  • Windows 7 Server, when it is released, will have powerful VPN capabilities. IPv6 needs to be deployed

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Types of IPv6 Addresses

Unicast addresses will be used in this session See additional resources for other definitions

  • Unicast (one to one)

  • Multicast (one to many)

  • Anycast (one to ―nearest,‖ according to a metric)

  • No broadcasts in IPv6

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Unicast IPv6 Addresses

Differentiated by their scope, as follows:

  • Link-local addressesonly on single link, not routed

FE80 prefix

  • Unique-local addressesrouted only within private network

FC00 prefix

  • Global unicast addressesglobally routable

2001 prefix currently being issued Global addresses use a 64 bit host portion

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IPv6 Address Assignment

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IPv6 Address Assignment

Addresses can be assigned in these ways

  • Manually (static)

  • Stateless auto-configuration

  • IPv6 dhcp (Stateful autoconfiguration)

  • Link-local addresses are configured automatically

No arp in IPv6. It is replaced by Neighbor Discovery (ND)

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IPv6 Stateless Autoconfiguration

  • 1. Host automatically configures its own link-local address

  • 2. With link-local address, a host discovers connected routers to obtain a global prefix

  • 3. A host then builds its own global unicast address

See the provided Activity:

Build an IPv6 EUI-64 address.doc

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Stateless Autoconfiguration

DHCPv6 is not required

Stateless Autoconfiguration DHCPv6 is not required © 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IPv6 &

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Stateless Autoconfiguration

Only the network part of the address is supplied in the ipv6 address command

Router(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing

Router(config)#int fa0/1 Router(config-if)#ipv6 addr

2001:db8::/64 eui-64

Router(config-if)#ipv6 enable

Router(config-if)#no shut

Because 2001:db8:: ends with ―::‖, it is not an address.

The rest of the address is supplied by the eui-64 process.

eui stands for ―extended unique identifier‖

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Stateless Autoconfiguration

Router’s fa0/1 interface generates its link-local address and global unicast address

ipv6
ipv6

Router#sho

FastEthernet0/0

int bri

[administratively down/down]

FastEthernet0/1

[up/up]

FE80::201:42FF:FE44:3C02

2001:DB8::201:42FF:FE44:3C02

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Stateless Autoconfiguration

Packet Tracer PCs support this

On PC’s Config tab, go to Global Settings and select

Auto Config button to acquire Gateway address. Note: It is the link-local address of the router’s
Auto Config button to acquire Gateway address.
Note: It is the link-local address of the router’s fa0/1
(It begins with FE80)
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Stateless Autoconfiguration

Packet Tracer PC

Select FastEthernet to check if it is set to Auto Config, and has its link-local address and an EUI address.

Stateless Autoconfiguration Packet Tracer PC Select FastEthernet to check if it is set to Auto Config,

Packet Tracer PC line command to obtain both interface and default gateway addresses:

PC> ipv6config autoconfig

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Commands for Students to Compare

show ip interface brief show ip route show ip protocols

show ipv6 interface brief show ipv6 route show ipv6 protocols

Differences in RIP and IPv6 RIP (RIPng)

(see example in this presentation)

Differences in OSPF and IPv6 OSPF (OSPFv3)

(see example in this presentation)

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Ping Command for IPv6

  • In Cisco routers, it is ping

  • In Packet Tracer routers, it is ping

  • In Packet Tracer PCs, it is ping

  • In Windows XP, it is ping6

Note:

With PT PCs, if you type an IPv6 address incorrectly, for example with a semicolon, ping will become unresponsive

• Windows XP will report ―Host not found‖

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Packet Tracer ipv6config Command

Used in Packet Tracer PCs. Similar to ipconfig

Packet Tracer ipv6config Command Used in Packet Tracer PCs. Similar to ipconfig In Windows XP: C:\

In Windows XP:

C:\ ipv6 install C:\ ipconfig

install the protocol stack display IPv4 and IPv6 addresses

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Demo: IPv6 RIP (RIPng)

RIPng (―Next Generation‖) is a name used to describe IPv6 RIP

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Connectivity Using IPv6 RIP

Static addresses are used between routers. Stateless autoconfiguration is used for hosts.

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Global Commands

Configure IPv6 RIP on each router

ipv6 unicast-routing

(enable IPv6)

ipv6 router rip CIRCUS

(define a process called CIRCUS)

Note: The global command ipv6 router rip CIRCUS

will be automatically configured by the router when

IPv6 RIP is configured on an interface (next slide)

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Interface Commands- Static Address

Configure interconnecting interfaces on the two routers (example, on fa0/0 of Router1)

ipv6 enable ipv6 addr FC00:2::1/112 ipv6 rip CIRCUS enable

no shut

Note: The IPv4 RIP global network command is not used with IPv6 RIP

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Interface Commands- Auto Config

Configure the router LAN interfaces and the PCs with Auto Config (example, on fa0/1 of Router1)

ipv6 enable ipv6 addr FC00:3::/64 eui-64 ipv6 rip CIRCUS enable

no shut

Note: Ensure that the PCs are set for Auto Config in the Config Tab Note: The process name CIRCUS is user-defined and is local to the router. You can use a different process name on a neighboring router

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Ping from PC1 to PC0

Ping from PC1 to PC0 Note: The colon, ―:‖ following the address is merely part of

Note: The colon, ―:‖ following the address is merely part of the ping output

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Demo or Lab:

IPv6 OSPF

(OSPFv3)

Packet Tracer files and labs are included with the conference materials

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Configuring OSPF for IPv6

Based on CCNP- BSI Lab 8-1

Ping

Here

Configuring OSPF for IPv6 Based on CCNP- BSI Lab 8-1 Ping Here IPv6 & Packet Tracer

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Enable IPv6 Routing

A global command

R2(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing

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Configure Loopback Addresses

Needed for OSPFv3

R1(config)# interface loopback0

R1(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.1

255.255.255.0

R1(config-if)# ipv6 address FC00::1:1/112

Note: Both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are needed on the Loopback interfaces

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Configure Serial Addresses

Use static addressing

R1(config)# interface serial0/0/0 R1(config-if)# ipv6 address FC00::12:1/112 R1(config-if)# clockrate 64000 R1(config-if)# no shutdown

Note: The ipv6 enable command is unnecessary if you configure an address on an interface

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Configure EUI addresses

Configure the router FastEthernet interfaces

R2(config)# interface fastethernet0/0 R2(config-if)# ipv6 address FC00:23::/64 eui-64 R2(config-if)# no shutdown

Note: Stateless Autoconfiguration works between two routers or between a router and a host

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Enable OSPFv3

Enable on all interfaces, including Loopback

R2(config)#interface loopback0

R2(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 1 area 0

R2(config-if)#interface serial0/0/0

R2(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 1 area 0

R2(config-if)#interface fastethernet0/0 R2(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 1 area 0

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Verify the Configuration

Use these commands to verify the configuration and to examine tables

From host PC0

PC>ping FC00::12:1

From router R1

R1#show ipv6 ospf neighbor

R1#show ipv6 route

R1#show ipv6 ospf interface R1#show ipv6 protocol

R1#show ipv6 ospf database

R1#show run

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ICMPv6 Packet

Type Numbers

You can look at packet details with Packet Tracer Also see included Activity:

Comparing ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Packet Type numbers.doc

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Some ICMPv6 Type Numbers

Activity: Use Packet Tracer in Simulation mode Click a packet to see type number

  • Router Advertisement (Neighbor Discovery)- 134

Specific to IPv6 Sent periodically to neighbors

  • v6 Echo Request (ping)- 128

Compare with v4: Type 8

  • v6 Echo Reply (ping)- 129

Compare with v4: Type 0

Type 134

Some ICMPv6 Type Numbers Activity: Use Packet Tracer in Simulation mode Click a packet to see
Some ICMPv6 Type Numbers Activity: Use Packet Tracer in Simulation mode Click a packet to see

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Broken Network Example

Let’s fix it!

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This Network has a Problem

Uses IPv6 RIP Static IPv6 addresses between routers Stateless autoconfiguration for hosts What IPv6 address is assigned to each PC?

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This Network has a Problem

Problem is in Router1 or Router2

What do you think we should do first?

A. sho

ipv6 protocol on Routers 1 and 2

B. sho ipv6 route

on Routers 1 and 2

C. sho ipv6 int

brief on Routers 1 and 2

D. ping from PC1 to PC0 in Simulation mode

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This Network has a Problem

What should we do next?

A. sho run

on Routers 1 and 2

B. sho ipv6 route

on Routers 1 and 2

C. sho ipv6 int D. sho ipv6 rip

brief on Routers 1 and 2 database on Routers 1 and 2

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This Network has a Problem

Which of these is the problem?

A. Missing RIP enable command on an interface

  • B. Missing IPv6 address on a serial interface

  • C. ipv6 rip is not enabled globally on a router

  • D. Clock not set on a serial DCE interface

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Another Broken Network

Example

Let’s fix this one, too!

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This Network has a Problem

Problem is in Router0 or Router1

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This Network has a Problem

What should we do first? A. sho ipv6 protocol on Routers 0 and 1 B. sho ipv6 route on Routers 0 and 1

C. sho ipv6 int

brief on Routers 0 and 1

D. ping from PC1 to PC0 in Simulation mode

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This Network has a Problem

What should we do next?

A. sho run

on Routers 0 and 1

B. sho ipv6 route

on Routers 0 and 1

C. sho ipv6 int D. sho ipv6 rip

brief on Routers 0 and 1 database on Routers 0 and 1

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This Network has a Problem

Which of these is the problem? A. Missing ipv6 rip CIRCUS enable command on an interface B. Missing IPv6 address on an interface C. ipv6 rip is not enabled globally on a router D. Interface is shut down

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Now You Can Configure a

Network

Use your knowledge to create a working network

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Configure this Network in Packet Tracer

  • Routers and hosts need to be configured

  • Use the suggested networks, and IPv6 RIP

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DCE
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What You Can Do To Help

Contribute your work

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Share Your Packet Tracer Files and Activities

  • Login to http://cisco.netacad.net >> Instructor Home Page >> Forums and Chat

  • In Instructor Community, click Packet Tracer

  • If you have a Packet Tracer file (.pkt), click Discuss Best Practices

Best Practices for teaching and using PT in the classroom

  • If you have a Packet Tracer Activity (.pka), click Activity Wizard

Author and share activities within your postings

  • Add a Discussion, describe your Packet Tracer file or Activity and attach it

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Communicating Between IPv4

and IPv6

One example of several technologies

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Communicating Between Protocols

Students will ask ―Can you communicate between IPv4 and IPv6 networks?‖

  • Dual Stack (dual OSI stack)

―Dual stack where you can; tunnel where you must.‖ 1

  • Tunneling

See CCNP- BSI, Labs 8.2 and 8.3 Note: PT Routers do not have the tunnel command

  • Address Translation

Address translation may not become widely used 1

1 Scott Hogg , Network World , 09/05/2007

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Dual Stack Example

  • Dual stack means configuring IPv4 and IPv6 on at least one router interface

  • No special router commands needed

Works on any router that supports IPv6

  • Main tasks:

Configure IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses on appropriate interfaces

Enable RIP and IPv6 RIP routing protocols (or OSPF and OSPFv3)

Note: The routing tables are separate

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Dual Stack Example

IPv4 host can ping

IPv4 host

IPv6 host can ping IPv6 host

Dual Stack Example IPv4 host can ping IPv4 host IPv6 host can ping IPv6 host Dual

Dual stack implemented here

IPv4 and IPv6 host

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IPv4 Routing Table, Router0

Router0#sho ip route

<output omitted>

Gateway of last resort is not set

IPv4 Routing Table, Router0 Router0#sho ip route <output omitted> Gateway of last resort is not set
  • C 192.168.0.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

R

192.168.1.0/24 [120/1] via

192.168.2.1, 00:00:19, FastEthernet0/1

IPv4 Routing Table, Router0 Router0#sho ip route <output omitted> Gateway of last resort is not set
  • C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1

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IPv6 Routing Table, Router0

Router0#sho ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table - 6 entries

R D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external 2009:1:1::/64 [120/1] via FE80::230:F2FF:FE0D:A6CE, Serial0/0/0 C 2009:1:3::/64 [0/0]
R
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external
2009:1:1::/64 [120/1]
via FE80::230:F2FF:FE0D:A6CE, Serial0/0/0
C
2009:1:3::/64 [0/0]
via ::, FastEthernet0/1
L
2009:1:3:0:20A:41FF:FE5C:E602/128 [0/0]
via ::, FastEthernet0/1
C
FC00:2::/112 [0/0]
via ::, Serial0/0/0
L
FC00:2::2/128 [0/0]
via ::, Serial0/0/0
L
FF00::/8 [0/0]
via ::, Null0
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Ping from PC0 to the IPv4 PC (PC1)

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Ping from PC0 to the IPv6 PC (PC2)

Ping from PC0 to the IPv6 PC (PC2) IPv6 & Packet Tracer © 2009 Cisco Systems,

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Q and A

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List of Activities

and Provided Worksheets

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List of Included Activities

Packet Tracer files accompany most Activities

  • Stateless Autoconfiguration

Stateless Autoconfig.pkt Build an IPv6 EUI-64 Address.doc (A separate activity)

  • IPv6 RIP

IPv6 RIP.pkt

  • IPv6 OSPF

IPv6 OSPF CCNP Lab 8-1.pkt

  • Comparing ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Packets

Comparing ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Packet types.doc Comparing ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Packet types_ANSWERS.doc ICMPv4 ICMPv6 packets.pkt

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List of Included Activities

Packet Tracer files accompany most Activities

  • Broken Networks

3 Router-IPv6 RIP-broken1.pkt

IPv6 RIP-broken2.pkt

  • Unconfigured Network

Unconfigured.pkt

(Configured.pkt included for reference)

  • Dual Stack

Dual stack-both IPv6 and IPv4.pkt

  • Upgrade IOS for PT 2620XM to support IPv6

Upgrading IOS of Packet Tracer 2620XM router.doc Upgrading IOS of Packet Tracer 2620XM router_ANSWERS.doc No pkt file

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Links to Additional

Information

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Topics Covered in Other Resources

See the links to resources and additional information

  • Why IPv6, and why not NAT?

  • Time frame for implementation

  • Details of the parts of the address

  • Special addresses

  • Type and scope of addresses

  • Details of packet header

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Topics Covered in Other Resources

See the links to resources and additional information

  • Neighbor discovery

  • IPv6 ACLs

  • Security with IPv6

  • Mobility with IPv6

  • IPv4 to IPv6 migration: dual stack, tunneling, translation

  • Current deployment status of IPv6

  • Some IPv6 sites on internet

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Additional Information

Books and Google Books

  • Deploying IPv6 Networks, Ciprian Popoviciu, Eric Levy- Abegnoli, Patrick Grosstete, Cisco Press (go to)

Guide to IPv6 concepts, service implementation, and interoperability

  • Cisco Self-Study: Implementing Cisco IPv6 Networks, Regis Desmeules, Cisco Press (go to)

Design, build, configure, and support IPv6 networks

  • Configuring IPv6 for Cisco IOS, Sam Brown, Eric Knipp, et al, Callisma (go to)

Everything you need to monitor and troubleshoot IPv6 networks

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Additional Information

Books and Google Books

  • Running IPv6, Iljitsch van Beijnum (go to)

How to install and operate IPv6 for Windows, Linux, Mac OS

  • IPv6: Theory, Protocol and Practice, Peter Loshin (go to)

Guide to implementation and deployment of IPv6

  • IPv6 Advanced Protocols Implementation, Qing Li, Tatuya Jinmei, Keiichi Shima (go to)

Advanced IPv6 implementation of routing, multicasting, DHCPv6, DNS, security, mobility

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Additional Information

IPv6 documentation at cisco.com

  • Introduction to IPv6 Why IPv6? (go to)

Overview and In-depth sections

Technology information, Design and Configuration Guides

  • Cisco IOS IPv6 Command Reference (go to)

Excellent source for learning and troubleshooting

  • Cisco IPv6 Quick Start Trial (go to)

A how-to, using equipment

  • List of RFCs for IPv6 (go to)

Useful for understanding Cisco IPv6 implementations

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Additional Information

IPv6 documentation at cisco.com

  • Cisco IOS IPv6 Configuration Library (go to)

Guides for implementing many IPv6 functions and protocols

Describes many different tunneling protocols

  • Tunneling IPv6 through an IPv4 Network (go to)

Five-router example with configurations

  • ICMPv6 Packet Types and Codes TechNote (go to)

All of the types and codes for ICMPv6 packets

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Additional Information

Portals, Forums, information sites

General IPv6 information, FAQ, links

  • go6, (―The IPv6 portal‖) (go to)

Upcoming events, blog, wiki, newsletter, member area

  • IPv6 Task Force (―The IPv6 Portal‖) (go to)

Introduction, news, pressroom, RSS, IPv6 Guide, and Portal

Events, news, book recommendations, government news,

competitions, and an ―IPv4 Exhaustion Counter‖!

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Additional Information

Useful RFCs and lists

Find an RFC if you know its number

  • networksorcery.com list of IPv6 RFCs (go to)

Excellent searchable list, including obsoleted RFCs

  • Microsoft IPv6 implementation (go to)

RFCs used to implement IPv6 in Windows 2003 Server and XP

  • RFC 2460 IPv6 Specification (1998)

  • RFC 4291- IPv6 Addressing Architecture (2006)

  • RFC 2462- IPv6 Stateless Autoconfiguration (1998)

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Additional Information

Online resources

  • IPv6 Deployment Guide (go to)

Detailed and indexed, 14 chapters

  • IPv6 Concepts from Cisco Networkers 2006 (go to)

Still useful information

  • IPv6-Intro.ppt and IPv6-Using_in_the_Network.ppt

Including Lesson Plans for each. At Academy Connection, click File Sharing, use keyword ipv6

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Additional Information and a Thank You

Online resources

Address ranges, ICMPv6 type numbers, header structure, more

  • Technical Facts at European IPv6 Task Force (go to)

Brief summary of key information. See RFC2460 for full specs.

  • A big ―thank you‖ to Dallas Shiroma, manager of

Emerging Technologies, Pacific Center for Advanced

Technology Training, Honolulu, HI, for permission to use of some slides in this session

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FAQ Area

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Where is IPv6 covered in Exploration?

  • Network Fundamentals

6.3.6

  • Routing Protocols and Concepts

1.1.3, 3.1.1, 5.1.1, 10.2.3, 11.1.1, 11.7.1

  • LAN Switching and Wireless

no coverage

  • Accessing the WAN

7.0.1, 7.3, 7.5.1

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Where is IPv6 covered in Discovery?

  • Networking for Home and Small Businesses

No coverage

  • Working at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP

4.1.6

  • Introducing Routing and Switching in the Enterprise

5.2.1

  • Designing and Supporting Computer Networks

6.3

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What are the IPv6 Goal Areas in the

CCNA Certification Exam?

  • Use the Cisco Learning Network (go to)

  • Find CCNA Exam Topics (login required). IPv6 topics are:

Describe the technological requirements for running IPv6 in conjunction with IPv4 (including: protocols, dual stack, tunneling, etc) Describe IPv6 addresses

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Where is IPv6 covered in CCNP?

CCNP: Building Scalable Internetworks

  • Module 8: IPv6

    • 8.1 Explaining IPv6

    • 8.2 IPv6 Addressing

    • 8.3 Dynamic IPv6 Addresses

    • 8.4 IPv6 Routing

    • 8.5 Implementing and Verifying OSPFv3

    • 8.6 Using IPv6 and IPv4

    • 8.7 IPv6 Challenge Labs

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What are the IPv6 Goal Areas in the

CCNP Certification Exams?

  • Use the Cisco Learning Network (go to)

  • Find CCNP Exam Topics (login required). IPv6 topics are:

  • BSCI Exam:

Describe IPv6 addressing operations Describe IPv6 interoperation with IPv4 Describe, configure or verify OSPF routing with IPv6 addressing

  • BCMSN Exam: None explicitly listed

  • ISCW Exam: None explicitly listed

  • ONT Exam: None explicitly listed

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How can I keep all the IPv6 addressing rules straight?

  • Hosts should have globally routable addresses created with stateless autoconfiguration

Use 2001 prefix

Use /64 eui-64 to create them

  • Serial links between routers should not use globally routable addresses

Use FC00 prefix and static addressing Use a prefix length /64 However, the prefix length could also be, for example, /112

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More about Stateless Autoconfiguration:

eui-64 process

  • Cisco uses the EUI-64 process to perform stateless auto-configuration

  • EUI stands for ―extended unique identifier‖

  • This process expands the 48 bit MAC address to 64 bits by inserting FFFE (16 bits)

  • If the chosen address is from a unique Ethernet MAC

address, the universal / local (―u‖ bit) is set to 1 for global

scope

  • Other interfaces, such as serial (no MAC address), use a different method to build the address and have the u bit set to 0 for local scope

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More about Stateless Autoconfiguration:

IPv6 Interface Identifier

Uses MAC Address

  • 48 bit MAC Address

More about Stateless Autoconfiguration: IPv6 Interface Identifier Uses MAC Address 48 bit MAC Address 64 bits
  • 64 bits become part

of IPv6 address

00 90 27 17 FC 0F 00 90 27 17 FC 0F FF FE
00
90
27 17
FC
0F
00
90
27
17 FC
0F
FF
FE
00 90 27 FF FE 17 FC 0F 1 = Unique 000000U0 Where U= 0 =
00
90
27 FF
FE
17
FC
0F
1
= Unique
000000U0
Where U=
0
= Not Unique
U = 1
02
90
27 FF
FE
17 FC
0F

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What is subnetting like in IPv6?

A similar concept, but many bits available

  • Sixteen subnet bits, from /49 to /64 are given to a site

  • With the 16 subnet bits, a company can have 65,535 LANs

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Does BGP Support IPv6?

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Teaching Tips

  • Routers will accept more than one IPv6 address on an interface. An error is generated only if a network overlaps with another one on the router

  • Students may make typos and enter an erroneous address, then forget to remove it

  • Ask students to use the show ipv6 interface brief command frequently to check for this

  • Unless you need IPv4 configured on an interface, use

only IPv6 in your initial examples so students clearly see what protocol is allowing traffic to move

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What IOS do I need to run IPv6?

  • You need 12.0(21)T, or later, or 12.2(2)T or later

  • Not all functionality is included in these releases

Example: 12.3(2)T does not support IPv6 DHCP

  • To find out when a command was introduced, see the Cisco IOS IPv6 Command Reference (go to). Locate the command. The listing will show when it was introduced

  • Also see Cisco IOS Software Release Specifics for IPv6 Features (go to)

  • The Packet Tracer 2620XM router does not support IPv6 unless you upgrade the IOS image

See the Activity included with this session: Upgrading IOS of Packet Tracer 2620XM router.doc

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One Interface, Several Addresses

Example, of IPv4 address and four IPv6 addresses, in addition to link-local address (not shown)

Router#show run (part of output) ipv6 unicast-routing

interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0 duplex auto

speed auto

ipv6 address 2001:1:1::/64 eui-64

ipv6 address 2001:DB8:2::1/112 ipv6 address FC00:1:3::1/112

ipv6 address FC00:1:4::1/112

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How well does Packet Tracer 5.1 Handle

IPv6?

A few issues If you discover one, please report it

Packet Tracer Issues

  • When creating a new network, if IPv6 RIP routing does not work, save the file, close and open PT

  • Static IPv6 assignments may not work reliably with hosts. They may be lost when PT file is re-opened. Use stateless autoconfiguration for all router interfaces to hosts

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Tunneling Conceptual Diagram

Islands of IPv6 can communicate through the

more common IPv4 cloud

Tunneling Conceptual Diagram Islands of IPv6 can communicate through the more common IPv4 cloud IPv6 &

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Tunneling Conceptual Diagram

IPv6 packet can be encapsulated in an IPv4 packet

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IPv4 / IPv6 Translation

IPv4 Network
IPv4
Network
IPv6 Network
IPv6
Network

IP and ICMP Translator

  • Translates packet headers from IPv6 to IPv4 (or vice versa)

  • Translates the addresses in the headers from IPv6 to IPv4 (or vice versa)

  • Implementation is more complex than this

  • See, for example,

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