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Characterization of pedological

environment and its products-


• Soil Formation—The transformation of
rock into soil.
• The rock may be gneiss, limestone,shale,
sand, loess, peat, etc.
• Parent material———————> Soil
Soil formation
• s = f' ( cl', o', r' p, t )
• Joffe-passive and active.

• The passive soil formers are represented by the constituents

that serve as the source of the mass and by the conditions
that affect the mass.

• They comprise the parent material, the topography, and the

age of the land.

• The active soil formers are the agents that supply the energy
that acts upon the mass furnishing reagents for the process of
soil formation.

• The elements of the biosphere, the atmosphere, and partly

the hydrosphere are representative of this class i.e climate
and organisms
• The most important are moisture (m) and temperature (T).

• s =f (m, T) o, r, p, t, . . . .

• split into two formulas,

• Soil properties as functions of moisture
• s =f (m) T, o, r, p, t, . . . .
• soil properties as functions of temperature
• s =f (T) m, o, r, p, t, . . . ..
• E greater than P: arid regions,
• E equal to P: arid-humid boundary,
• E smaller than P: humid regions.
Soil formation in relation to
• Excess-humid region
– Leaching –lateritic soil
– Runoff-(50%) –steep slopes-prevent soil
• Scanty-arid region
– Evapotranspiration –E>P-high soluble salts
concentration-calcic/gypcic horizon-no distinct
Moisture in relation to soil
• Nitrogen content increases with increasing
Moisture in relation to nature of
adsorbed ions of surface soils
Moisture-clay content
Effect of moisture on
exchangeable H ions
Distribution pattern of
exchangeable ions on soil
Effect of rainfall on
exchangeable ions
Relative rates of soil formation in
the arid-humid transition region.
• The mean annual air temperatures are
highest in equatorial regions and gradually
decline toward the poles.
• Van't Hoff's Temperature Rule —For every
10°C. rise in temperature the velocity of a
chemical reaction increases by a factor of
two to three.
• Ramann's Weathering Factor—Ramann emphasizes the
connection between dissociation of water and temperature

• Dissociation Of Water Into H And OH Ions (Ramann)

Temperature in relation to weathering
Depth of Weathering
• Humid warm regions the rocks had weathered to
much greater depths than in the cold zones

• The weathered mantle of subtropical and tropical

regions achieves huge thicknesses.

• Depths of from 130 to 160 ft. have been

frequently observed
Soil Color
• In humid regions of the cold and temperate zones, the
soils are grayish color, which is often modified toward
black or brown, according to the amount and nature of
organic matter and iron hydroxide.

• In tropical soils, those derived from igneous and

metamorphic rocks, are characterized by brilliant yellow
and dark-red colors.

• If the color of the soil appears to be associated with a

given climate rather than with the parent rock or specific
local conditions, it is customarily spoken as climatic soil
• Red strata are commonly assumed to be the result of
tropical weathering.
Functional Relationships
between Temperature and Soil
Effect of temperature on soil