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Susy Kristiani, drg.M.Kes.

Dept. of Oral Biology


OSTEOLOGI

Sistem skeleton/kerangka manusia terdiri dari tulang
( 206 pada dewasa) dan persendian/joints,

AXIAL skeleton :
- Cranium
- Thorax
- Columna vertebralis
APPENDICULAR skeleton :
- Extemitas superior & inferior
- Cingulum extremitas sup & inf
FUNGSI SKELETON
Membentuk tubuh dan sebagai
penyangga tubuh
Melindungi organ tubuh : otak,
jantung, paru-paru, organ
reproduksi
Haemopoetik : membentuk sel-
sel darah, karena mempunyai
sumsum tulang
Untuk pergerakan tubuh, dimana
otot melekat pada tulang
Depo mineral anorganik : kalsium,
fosfor, magnesium, sodium

CLASSIFICATION OF BONES
Ossa longa/tulang panjang
Ossa extremitas
Ossa brevia/tulang pendek
Bentuk kubus, dengan 6
permukaan (ossa carpalia &
ossa tarsalia)
Ossa plana/tulang pipih
Os sternum, os scapula,
sebagian os cranium
Ossa IRREGULARIS
Bervariasi dalam bentuk : Ossa
vertebrae, sebagian os cranium
OSSA PNEUMATICA
- Didalamnya terdapat suatu
rongga/sinus (os Maxilla,
Frontale, Sphenoidale)
ANATOMY of a LONG BONE
BONES GROWTH and REPAIR
OSTEOPROGENITOR CELLS
Sel yang terdapat di bagian dalam periosteum,
endosteum, dan canalis centralis compact bone
OSTEOBLASTS
Berasal dari sel osteoprogenitor, dan bertanggung
jawab terhadap sekresi bahan pembentuk matrix tulang
OSTEOCYTES
Berasal dari osteoblasts. Mempunyai peranan penting
dalam mempertahankan metabolisme tulang.
OSTEOCLASTS
Penting dalam pertumbuhan tulang dan bertanggung
jawab membuang tulang-tulang tua dan
memperbaikinya,/regenerasi tulang
COLUMNA VERTEBRALIS
Dimulai dari basis cranii - pelvis
Terdiri dari beberapa kelompok tulang
VERTEBRAE intervertebral disks (
fibrocartilage )
7 V. CERVICAL ( neck )
12 V. THORACIC ( chest )
5 V. SACRAL membentuk os
SACRUM
5 V. LUMBAR ( lower back )
3 to 5 V. COCCYGEAL
fetus, columna vertebralis membentuk
concave anteriorly curvatura primer
Protects the spinal cord
VERTEBRAL CANAL
OSSA THORACIS
Composed of :
THORACIC VERTEBRAE( 12 )
COSTAE/ RIBS and CARTILAGO COSTAE ( 12 )
12 pasang brhubungan langsung di bagian belakang dengan ke
12 vertebrae thoracalis
7 pasang costae teratas berhubungan langsung dengan sternum
melalui cartilago costae TRUE RIBS / VERTEBROSTERNAL
RIBS
5 pasang costae berikutnya FALSE RIBS
Costae 8, 9, 10 VERTEBROCHONDRAL RIBS, melekat
secara tidak langsung pada sternum melalui cartilago costae 7
Costae 11 ,12 pendek , tidak melekat pada sternum
FLOATING RIBS
STERNUM (dibentuk 3 tulang) :
Manubrium sterni, Corpus sterni dan Processus Xiphoideus
Protects the heart and lung
Support tulang gelang bahu (cingulum extremitas
superior)
CINGULUM EXTREMITAS SUPERIOR &
EXTREMITAS SUPERIOR
CINGULUM
EXTREMITAS
SUPERIOR
Tdd. 5 tulang :
Manubrium sterni
2 Clavicula
2 Scapula

Menyangga lengan atas
dan tempat perlekatan
otot-otot yang
menggerakkan lengan atas

EXTREMITAS
SUPERIOR :
Humerus ( tulang lengan
atas)
Radius & Ulna
( tulang lengan bawah )
Carpalia, Metacarpals,
Phalanges
( tulang pergelangan
tangan, telapak tangan,
jari-jari )

CINGULUM
EXTREMITAS
INFERIOR
Tdd :
2 os coxae
( tulang pantat )
ilium, ischium, pubis
Sacrum & Coccyx
Pelvis/panggul tempat
perlekatan extremitas
inferior
Protects :
Urinary bladder
Internal reproductive
organs
Large intestine
EXTREMITAS
INFERIOR

Femur (tulang tungkai
atas)
Patella (tulang tempurung
lutut)
Tibia & Fibula (tulang
tungkai bawah)
Tarsalia,
Metatarsals,
Phalanges
(tulang pergelangan kaki,
telapak kaki, jari-jari
kaki)

2.3 JOINT ( ARTICULATION )
There are two systems for classification :
According amount of movement they allow
According to their structure ( the convention followed
here )

A joint called :
SYNARTHROSIS ( IMMOVABLE )
AMPHIARTHROSIS ( SLIGHT MOVEMENT )
DIARTHROSIS ( FREELY MOVABLE )
SYNARTHROSIS ( IMMOVABLE )

Occur where fibrous
connective tissue
joints bone to bone
fibrous joint

Sutures, in the
cranial vault and
face; and are
immovable
AMPHIARTHROSIS
( SLIGHT MOVEMENT )

Where bones are joined
by hyalin cartilage or
fibrocartilage
cartilaginous joints

Slightly movable

The pubic symphysis,
the joint between the
two pubic bones
DIARTHROSIS ( FREELY MOVABLE )
Bone ends do not contact
each other, but are enclosed
in a capsule
Generally freely movable

Two bones are separated by
a joint cavity is lined by a
synovial membrane, which
produces synovial fluid, a
lubricant for the joint

Ligament, which are
composed of dense regular
connective tissue, bind the
two bones and add even
more stability
MOVEMENT PERMITTED BY
SYNOVIAL JOINTS
Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons
that cross joint. When a muscle contracts, one
bone moves in elation to another bone

Types of movement :

ANGULAR MOVEMENT
CIRCULAR MOVEMENT
SPECIAL MOVEMENT
ANGULAR MOVEMENT
FLEXION
Decreases the joint
angle
EXTENTION
Increases the joint
angle
ADDUCTION
the movement of
body part toward the
midline
ABDUCTION
The movement of the
body part laterally,
away from midline



CIRCULAR MOVEMENT

CIRCUMDUCTION
The movement of the body
part in a wide, makes arm
circle
ROTATION
The movement of a body part
around its own axis:
The arm is twisted toward
the trunk ( MEDIAL
ROTATION
The arm away from the trunk
( LATERAL ROTATION )
SUPINATION
The rotation of the forearm
the palm in upward
PRONATION
Is the opposite, the movement
of the forearm the palm is
downward
SPECIAL MOVEMENT

INVERSION
Turning the foot so that the sole
faces inward
EVERSION
Turning the foot so that the sole
faces outward
ELEVATION and
DEPRESSION
Refer to the lifting up and down,
respectively, of a body part
Shrug shoulder
Move jaw up and down