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LTE eRAN6.

0 MIMO
Feature

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Copyright 2013 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Foreword

LTE MIMO feature include:

Benefits Provided by MIMO

Classification of MIMO in eRAN2.1

UL MIMO

DL MIMO

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Page2

Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:

Describe the benefits provided by MIMO

Describe the function of UL MRC and IRC receiver

Describe the function UL MU-MIMO

Describe the DL MIMO mode

Describe adaptive switch of DL MIMO

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Page3

Contents
1. MIMO Feature Overview
2. UL MIMO in eNodeB
3. DL MIMO in eNodeB

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Page4

Introduce of MIMO

Trend : Desire of higher throughput

Solution:

Higher bandwidth: Now 20MHz is supported and further


100Mhz can be achieved in LTE advanced, but it will be limited

Higher MCS scheme: Now 64 QAM is used and further 256


QAM will be introduced in LTE advanced, but it will be limited

MIMO is technology based on spatial domain, achieve the

obvious improvement of throughput

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Page5

Benefit of MIMO

Spatial multiplexing gain

Diversity gain

Decrease probability of deep path feeding, thus get the additional gain

Array gain

Improve system peak throughput

Improve SINR of cell edge

Co-channel interference reduction gain

Applicable for high interference scenario, gain is achieved from

interference mitigation

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Page6

Spatial Multiplexing Gain

Spatial multiplexing gain is a throughput gain achieved by

adding spatial channels (that is, by adding antennas)


without increasing the total bandwidth and total TX power.

TX

RX

RX

TX

MultiPath
Scatter

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Diversity Gain

The probability of deep fading after signal combining is

reduced greatly, and the diversity gain is achieved.

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Array Gain

Array gain is a power gain achieved by combining signals

from different antennas based on the correlation between


signals and the non-correlation between noises.

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Page9

Co-channel Interference Reduction


Gain

Interference mitigation methods can achieve the co-

channel interference reduction gain by minimizing the


interference gain and maximizing the signal gain.

Co-channel interference reduction gain is achieved by using

interference rejection combining (IRC) or other interference


mitigation methods.

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Page10

Classifications of MIMO

LTE support variable MIMO scheme with different aspect

Based on whether the transmitter feedback channel


information:

Open-loop MIMO : Just feedback CQI and rank(Optional)

Closed-loop MIMO: Beside CQI and rank, PMI is also required

Based on the number of spatial data streams transmitted at


the same time:

Spatial diversity: only 1 data stream for each user, rank=1

Spatial multiplexing: 1 or more streams for each user,


rank=1,2,3,4

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Page11

MIMO Modes Supported by


eRAN6.0(FDD)

UL MIMO:

Receive diversity:

1x2 (Basic feature)

1x4

MU-MIMO :2x2 or 2x4

DL MIMO:

Open-loop transmit diversity (OL-TD)

Closed-loop transmit diversity (CL-TD)

Open-loop spatial multiplexing (OL-SM)

Closed-loop spatial multiplexing (CL-SM)

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Page12

Device Configuration

RRU Configuration

Sector Configuration

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Page13

Contents
1. MIMO Feature Overview
2. UL MIMO
3. DL MIMO

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Page14

Contents
2 . UL MIMO
2.1 Receive Diversity
2.2 MU-MIMO

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Page15

Principle of Receive Diversity

Receive diversity is a diversity scheme in which each UE

uses one antenna for transmission and occupies a time


domain resource different from other UEs while the eNodeB
uses multiple antennas for reception and combines signals

from these antennas.

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Page16

Signal Combining in Receive Diversity

The algorithms of signal combining in receive diversity

include MRC and IRC. Both provide the diversity gain and
array gain.

The MRC receiver and the IRC receiver are applications of

a theoretical model named MMSE receiver in different


interference environments.

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Page17

MRC and IRC


MRC

IRC

The MMSE receiver is MRC receiver

The MMSE receiver is IRC receiver when

when the interference and noise are

there is high interference in the

spatially white.

environments.

Assuming that both interference and

noise are spatially white, the MRC

Assuming that colored interference exists,

receiver meets the MMSE criterion by

the IRC receiver meets the MMSE criterion

using the maximum ratio combining

by mitigating interference during signal

algorithm.

combining.

When there is no spatially colored

When there is spatially colored interference,

interference, the eNodeB selects MRC.

the eNodeB selects IRC.

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Page18

MRC/IRC Adaptive Switch

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Page19

Contents
2 . UL MIMO
2.1 Receive Diversity
2.2 MU-MIMO

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Page20

Principle of MU-MIMO

The number of UEs cannot exceed the number of eNodeB

RX antennas in MU-MIMO mode.

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Page21

UE Pairing in MU-MIMO

UE pairing in MU-MIMO is a process in which the eNodeB

scheduler tries to select a pair of most appropriate UEs for


transmission.

The eNodeB performs UE paring in each TTI. The phases

are as follows:
SINR measurement
Candidate UE selection
UE pairing

Scheduling

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Page22

Adaptive Mode Selection and


Switching

If the channel SINRs are high and the channels are

approximately orthogonal, the eNodeB selects MUMIMO. Otherwise, the eNodeB selects receive
diversity.

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Page23

Receiver Technology for MU-MIMO

For 2x2 MU-MIMO

Default receiver: MRC

Optional receiver: PSIC (Parallel Soft Interference


Cancellation)

For 2x4 MU-MIMO

Same as UL diversity receive, both MRC and IRC could be


used

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Page24

PSIC Advanced Receiver (eRAN6.0


Enhancement)

Gain of PSIC receiver

IUI(inter user interference) cancellation: Reduce the


interference between paired UEs. The interference cancellation
effect depends on the correlation between users as well as the
detection and decoding performance.

ISI(inter symbol interference) cancellation: PSIC reduces ISI,


which is caused by frequency selective fading, to improve
demodulation performance. The interference cancellation effect
depends on the ISI degree as well as the equalization and
decoding performance.

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Page25

Contents
1. MIMO Feature Overview
2. UL MIMO
3. DL MIMO

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Page26

Contents
3 . DL MIMO
3.1 DL MIMO Implementation
3.2 DL MIMO Introduction
3.3 Adaptive Switch

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Page27

DL OFDM Signal Generation


Codewords

Scrambling

Layers
Modulation
Mapper
Layer
Mapper

Scrambling

Antenna
Ports
Resource
Element
Mapper

OFDM
Signal
Generation

Resource
Element
Mapper

OFDM
Signal
Generation

Precoding

Modulation
Mapper

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Page28

Layer Mapping
Codeword
Rank 1
1

Rank 2
1

Rank 3
1

Rank 4
2

1 Layer

2 Layers

3 Layers

4 Layers

1, 2 or 4
Antenna
Ports

2 or 4
Antenna
Ports

4 Antenna
Ports

4 Antenna
Ports

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Page29

Why Precoding

In ideal conditions, the


layer data, after being
precoded and passed
through spatial channels, is
equivalent to a group of
independent parallel data
without interfering with each
other

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Page30

Transmission Modes

Mode 1 - Single-Antenna transmission, port 0, no MIMO

Mode 2 - Open-loop transmit diversity

Mode 3 - Open-loop spatial multiplexing

Mode 4 - Closed-loop spatial multiplexing

Mode 5 - Multi user MIMO (more than one UE is assigned to


the same resource block)

Mode 6 - Close-loop transmit diversity

Mode 7 - Single-antenna port, port 5 (beam forming)

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Page31

Transmission Modes (Cont.)


Mode
No.

Name

Mode 2 OL-TD

Description

In OL-TD mode, the diversity gain can be achieved. Spacefrequency block coding (SFBC) is used in the case of two TX
antennas. The combination of SFBC and frequency switched
transmit diversity (FSTD) is used in the case of four TX
antennas.

In OL-SM mode, the UE does not need to report precoding


information. When the rank is equal to 1, OL-SM is equivalent to
Mode 3 OL-SM OL-TD. When the rank is equal to 2, 3, or 4, OL-SM maps data
streams onto different layers and performs large-delay cyclic
delay diversity (CDD) precoding.
Mode 4 CL-SM In CL-SM mode, the UE needs to report precoding information.
It performs zero-delay CDD precoding.
Mode 6 CL-TD

CL-TD is equivalent to CL-SM (rank = 1, precoding).

Copyright 2013 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page32

Contents
3 . DL MIMO
3.1 DL MIMO Implementation
3.2 DL MIMO Introduction
3.3 Adaptive Switch

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Page33

Overview of Transmit Diversity

Transmit diversity is a diversity scheme in which multiple


antennas are used for signal transmission and multiple
versions of the same signal with different fading degrees are
combined at the RX end.

Transmit diversity is classified into OL-TD (mode 2) and CLTD (mode 6) based on whether the channel information
reported by the UE is used.

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Page34

Transmit Diversity Layer Mapping


Number
of
Layers

Number
of Code
words

Codeword to Layer Mapping i 0,1,..., M sylaymerb 1

x ( 0 ) (i ) d ( 0) ( 2i )

lay er
( 0)
M sy
m b M sy m b 2

x (1) (i ) d ( 0) ( 2i 1)

x (0) (i ) d (0) (4i )


x (1) (i ) d (0) (4i 1)
x ( 2) (i ) d (0) (4i 2)
x (3) (i ) d (0) (4i 3)

(0)
)

if M sy( 0mb
mod 4 0
M sy mb 4
M
(0)
(0)

M sy mb 2 4 if M sy mb mod 4 0
( 0)
If M symb
mod 4 0 two null symbols are
lay er
sy mb

( 0)
appended to d (0) (Msymb
1)

Layer means the transmit antenna number in the transmit


diversity mode.

Rank must be one.

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OL TD SFBC (2 ANTs)

Open-loop transmit diversity uses the SFBC technique in the case


of two TX antennas.

Transmits signals x1 on subcarrier f1 of antenna TX1

Transmits signals x2 on subcarrier f2 of antenna TX1

Transmits signals x2* on subcarrier f1 of antenna TX2

Transmits signals x1* on subcarrier f2 of antenna TX2

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OL TD SFBC + FSTD (4 ANTs)

Open-loop transmit diversity uses SFBC+FSTD technique in the case of four


TX antennas.

Transmits signals x1 and x2 on subcarriers f1 and f2 of antenna TX1


respectively

Transmits signals x3 and x4 on subcarriers f3 and f4 of antenna TX2


respectively

Transmits signals x2* and x1* on subcarriers f1 and f2 of antenna TX3


respectively
Transmits signals x4* and x3* on subcarriers f3 and f4 of antenna TX4
Page37
respectively

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Close-Loop Transmit Diversity

Closed-loop transmit diversity (CL-TD) (mode 6) is equivalent

to CL-SM (rank = 1)

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Page38

Overview of Spatial Multiplexing

Spatial multiplexing is a technique in which multiple antennas

are used to transmit spatial data streams in the same time


domain and frequency domain.

Spatial multiplexing increases the system capacity and

provides the spatial multiplexing gain.

Spatial multiplexing is classified into OL-SM (mode 3) and


CL-SM (mode 4) based on whether precoding information is

reported by the UE.

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Page39

Spatial Multiplexing Layer Mapping


Number
of Layers

Number of
Codewords

Codeword to Layer Mapping i 0,1,..., M sylaymerb 1

x (0) (i) d (0) (i)

lay er
(0)
M sy
m b M sy m b

x (0) (i) d (0) (i)

lay er
( 0)
(1)
M sy
m b M sy m b M sy m b

x (1) (i) d (1) (i)

x ( 0) (i ) d (0) (2i )
x (1) (i ) d (0) (2i 1)

layer
(0)
M symb
Msymb
2

x (0) (i) d (0) (i)

lay er
(0)
(1)
M sy
m b M sy m b M sy m b 2

x (1) (i ) d (1) (2i )


x ( 2) (i ) d (1) (2i 1)

x ( 0) (i ) d (0) (2i )
x (1) (i ) d (0) (2i 1)

lay er
( 0)
(1)
M sy
m b M sy m b 2 M sy m b 2

x ( 2) (i ) d (1) (2i )
x (3) (i ) d (1) (2i 1)

One layer means an independent data steams. Through layer


mapping data streams are divided into many different parallel data
steams.

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Page40

Precoding for CL- SM

CL-SM uses zero-delay CDD precoding, according to 3GPP

specifications

The precoding matrix is reported by UE

Precoding provides the spatial multiplexing gain if the interval

between UE reports on the precoding information (for example,


precoding matrix indication (PMI) is not too long. CL-SM is
applicable to slowly moving UEs.

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Page41

Codebook for Zero-Delay CDD

For open-loop use


For closed-loop use

Codebook for 4 ANTs,


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Codebook for 2 ANTs


Page 42
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OL-SM Precoding Large Delay CDD

OL-SM provides the diversity gain in addition to the spatial multiplexing gain
because it uses large-delay CDD precoding, according to 3GPP specifications.

y(i ) W (i ) D(i )Ux(i )

The purpose of large delay CDD precoding and unitary matrix is to

make radio condition of each layer to be equal which can reduce


uplink feedback signaling. It is applicable for high movement
scenarios that which can overcome the feeding caused by the delay.
Both multiplexing gain and diversity gain can be achieved.

It is only valid in case of rank= 2, 3 or 4

When the rank is equal to 1, OL-SM is same as of OL-TD

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Page43

Large-Delay Cyclic Delay Diversity

j denotes the sub-carrier index. Different sub-carrier uses


different phase shift. In the time domain, the time delay will
be different.
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Page44

Contents
3 . DL MIMO
3.1 DL MIMO Realization
3.2 DL MIMO Introduction
3.5 Adaptive Switch

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Page45

Application Scenarios of MIMO Modes


Moving Speed

OL-TD (mode 2)

OL-SM (mode 3)

CL-TD (mode 6)

CL-SM (mode 4)

SINR
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Page46

Selection & Switch of MIMO Scheme

The eNodeB can select the most appropriate MIMO mode

based on actual conditions and switch one mode to another.


There are four selection and switching schemes:

Open-loop and closed-loop adaptive scheme

Open-loop SM/TD adaptive scheme

Closed-loop SM/TD adaptive scheme

Fixed scheme

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Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Adaptive


Scheme

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Maximum Rank Configuration


(eRAN6.0 Enhancement)

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MIMO Adaptive Switch Configuration

Open loop and closed loop adaptive switch, rank adaptive among rank 1,2,3 or 4

Closed loop adaptive switch, rank adaptive among rank 1,2,3 or 4

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Page50

Related Command (Cont.)

Open loop adaptive switch, rank adaptive among rank 1, 2, 3 or 4

Fixed MIMO scheme

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Page51

Summary

The benefit of MIMO

UL MIMO receiver technologies

DL transmission mode

MIMO adaptive switching principle

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Page52

Abbreviation

IRC: Interference Rejection Combing

MMSE: Minimum Mean Square Error

MIMO: Multiple Input Multiple Output

MRC: Maximum Ratio Combining

PSIC: Parallel Soft Interference Cancellation

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Page53

Thank you
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