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Kekebalan Tubuh

&
Imunisasi
By : DRG. FANI T.H. Dentistry - UNSOED
BAKTERI DI UJUNG JARUM
BAKTERI DI PERMUKAAN
GIGI ( baru disikat ! )
VIRUS EBOLA VIRUS INFLUENZA


Anak laki-laki lahir pada tahun 1971, tanpa kekebalan tubuh.
Sistem Kekebalan / Sistem Imun :
* Sistem kekebalan atau sistem imun adalah
sistem perlindungan pengaruh luar biologis
yang dilakukan oleh sel dan organ khusus
pada suatu organisme.
* Fungsi Primer sistem imun melenyapkan
agen infeksi dan meminimalkan kerusakan
yang terjadi
MEKANISME PERTAHANAN TUBUH :
DIBAGI MENJADI 2 KELOMPOK FUNGSIONAL :
MEKANISME PERTAHANAN NON SPESIFIK /
ALAMIAH
MEKANISME PERTAHANAN SPESIFIK /
DIDAPAT
PERTAHANAN NON SPESIFIK :
Bawaan (innate) / Alamiah
secara alamiah ada & tidak adanya dipengaruhi
secara intrinsik oleh kontak dengan agen infeksi
sebelumnya
berperan sbg garis pertahanan pertama dan
penghambat kebanyakan patogen potensial sebelum
menjadi infeksi yg tampak

Meliputi : kulit & membran mukosa, sel fagosit, NK,
komplemen, lisozim, interferon, faktor humoral lain
PERTAHANAN SPESIFIK :
Meliputi : sistem produksi antibodi oleh sel B dan
imunitas seluler oleh sel T.

Bersifat adaptif dan didapat
Menghasilkan reaksi spesifik pd setiap agen
infeksi yg dikenali krn telah terjadi pemajanan thd
mikroba / determinan antigenik tsb sebelumnya.
sangat efektif dlm memberantas infeksi serta
mengingat agen infeksi tertentu shg dpt mencegah
terjadinya penyakit di kemudian hari menjadi
dasar imunisasi.
Di dalam tubuh
PERTAHANAN
SPESIFIK
PERTAHANAN
NON SPESIFIK
BEKERJA SAMA
MELENYAPKAN
INFEKSI
Why vaccines are vital to
the public health....??
History of Immunization
In China in approximately 600 BC, smallpox material was
inoculated through the nostrils. Inoculation of healthy people with a
tiny amount of material from smallpox sores was first attempted in
England in 1718 and later in America. Those who survived the
inoculation became immune to smallpox.
A significant breakthrough came in 1796 when British physician
Edward Jenner discovered that he could immunize patients
against smallpox by inoculating them with material from cowpox
sores. Cowpox is a far milder disease that, unlike smallpox, carries
little risk of death or disfigurement. Jenner inserted matter from
cowpox sores into cuts he made on the arm of a healthy eight-
year-old boy. The boy caught cowpox. However, when Jenner
exposed the boy to smallpox eight weeks later, the child did not
contract the disease. The vaccination with cowpox had made him
immune to the smallpox virus. Today we know that the cowpox
virus antigens are so similar to those of the smallpox virus that
they trigger the body's defenses against both diseases.
In 1885 Louis Pasteur created the first successful vaccine against
rabies for a young boy who had been bitten 14 times by a rabid
dog. Over the course of ten days, Pasteur injected progressively
more virulent rabies organisms into the boy, causing the boy to
develop immunity in time to avert death from this disease.
Another major milestone in the use of vaccination to prevent
disease occurred with the efforts of two American physician-
researchers. In 1954 Jonas Salk introduced an injectable vaccine
containing an inactivated virus to counter the epidemic of
poliomyelitis. Subsequently, Albert Sabin made great strides in
the fight against this paralyzing disease by developing an oral
vaccine containing a live weakened virus. Since the introduction of
the polio vaccine, the disease has been nearly eliminated in many
parts of the world.
Immunization is.
a method of stimulating resistance in the
human body to specific diseases using
microorganismsbacteria or viruses
that have been modified or killed
Is the process whereby a person is made
immune or resistant to an infection
Immunization, also called vaccination or
inoculation
These treated microorganisms do not cause the
disease, but rather trigger the body's immune
system to build a defense mechanism that
continuously guards against the disease.

If a person immunized against a particular
disease later comes into contact with the
disease-causing agent, the immune system is
immediately able to respond defensively
Types of Immunization :
Active Immunization
Passive Immunization
Active Immunization :
provides long-lasting immunity
all or part of a disease-causing
microorganism or a modified product of
that microorganism is injected into the
body to make the immune system respond
defensively
The active components of the vaccinations
are antigens
Passive Immunization :
gives temporary immunity
Passive immunization is performed without
injecting any antigen. In this method,
vaccines contain antibodies obtained from
the blood of an actively immunized human
being or animal. The antibodies last for two
to three weeks, and during that time the
person is protected against the disease.
Vaccines, how it infects cells and
how the immune system responds
to it, as well as practical
considerations, such as regions of
the world where the vaccine
would be used. The following are
some of the option that
researchers might pursue :
Vaccines...
Live, attenuated vaccines (MMR)
Inactivated vaccines (booster)
Subunit vaccines (Hepatitis B)
Toxoid vaccines (DT)
Conjugate vaccines (Hib)
DNA vaccines
Recombinant vector vaccines
Imunisasi yang diwajibkan di Indonesia :
BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Gurin)
Hepatitis B
DPT
Polio
Campak
Imunisasi yang disarankan di Indonesia :
MMR
Hib (Haemophilus influenzae tipe b)
Demam tifoid
Hepatitis A
Varisela