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IP Addressing

IP Address
Unique Address assigned to the Device connected to
the Network for communication
Address consists of 32 Bits
Represented in A.B.C.D where A represent Decimal
Value of 8 Bits or 1 Byte
A range from 0-255.
Binary Understanding
Few Examples of Binary conversions
Binary to Decimal
Decimal to Binary
Ways of Communication
Unicast
One to One Communication
Multicast
One to Many Communication
Broadcast
One to All Communication


Type of Communication
(Contd)
IP Address Classes
A Class
B Class
C Class
D Class (Reserve for Multicasting)
E Class (Reserve for Scientific Research)

IP Classes
Understanding IP Address
IP Address
Network Bits
Common among all the users on same Network
Host Bits
Unique Bits to Identify the Host on the LAN segment

Addresses
Network ID
Represent all the Host on the Network
Cannot be assigned to Users
Broadcast ID
Address to send Packet to all the Host on the
Network
Cannot be assigned to the Users
Host ID
Address assigned to Host on the Network
All Host must have the Unique Host-ID
Subnet Mask
Subnet Mask:- It is used to represent the Network
bits in the IP address.
1 represent the corresponding bit in IP address is
Network Bit
0 represent the corresponding bit in IP address is
Host Bit
Subnet Mask Helps to identify the Host in the Given
Network-Id
Ex.192.168.0.0 255.255.255.0

CIDR
Class Less Inter domain Range
It is the Decimal representation of the no. of
Network bits in the IP Address


For Example
192.168.0.0 /24
172.16.0.0 /16
10.0.0.0 /8

Subnetting
Subnetting:- Is concept to break down the bigger
Network into two or more than two smaller Network.
Subnetting Review
To identify subnets, you will borrow bits from the host
ID portion of the IP address:

The number of subnets available depends on the number
of bits borrowed.
The available number of subnets = 2
s
, I which s is the number of
bits borrowed.
The number of hosts per subnet available depends upon
the number of host ID bits not borrowed.
The available number of hosts per subnet = 2
h
-2, in which h is the
number of host bits not borrowed.
One address is reserved as the network address.
One address is reserved as the broadcast address.

Possible Subnets and Hosts for a
Class C Network
Possible Subnets and Hosts for a
Class B Network
Possible Subnets and Hosts for a
Class A Network
Subnetting Review Exercise
Subnet a network with a private network address of
172.16.0.0./16 so that it provides 100 subnets and
maximizes the number of host addresses for each
subnet.
How many bits will need to be borrowed?
What is the new subnet mask?
What are the first four subnets?
What are the range of host addresses for the four
subnets?


VLSM
Subnetting has limitation of only Splitting the network
into smaller symmetrical networks.
Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM)
VLSM Provides the use of Subnetting in more effective
way.
Allow to splitting the network into smaller asymmetrical
networks.
Ex :-
192.168.1.0/25, 192.168.1.128/26,
192.168.1.192/27, 192.168.1.224/28,
192.168.1.240/29
What Is a Variable-Length Subnet
Mask?
Subnet 172.16.14.0/24 is divided into smaller subnets.
Subnet with one mask (/27).
Then further subnet one of the unused /27 subnets into multiple /30 subnets.
A Working VLSM Example
A Working VLSM Example (Cont.)
A Working VLSM Example (Cont.)
A Working VLSM Example (Cont.)
Understanding Route
Summarization
Routing protocols can summarize addresses
of several networks into one address.
Classful Routing Overview
Classful routing protocols do not include the subnet mask
with the network in the routing advertisement.
Within the same network, consistency of the subnet
masks is assumed, one subnet mask for the entire
network.
Summary routes are exchanged between foreign
networks.
Examples of classful routing protocols include:
RIPv1
IGRP

Note: Classful routing protocols are legacy routing protocols typically
used to address compatibility issues. RIP version 1 and Interior
Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) are introduced to provide examples.
Classless Routing Overview
Classless routing protocols include the subnet mask
with the network in the advertisement.
Classless routing protocols support VLSM; one
network can have multiple masks.
Summary routes must be manually controlled within
the network.
Examples of classless routing protocols include:
RIPv2, EIGRP, OSPF
RIPv2 and EIGRP act classful by default, and
summary routes are exchanged between foreign
networks.
The no auto-summary command forces these protocols to
behave as if they are classless.

Summarizing Within an Octet
Summarizing Addresses in a
VLSM-Designed Network
Route Summarization Operation in
Cisco Routers
192.16.5.33 /32 Host
192.16.5.32 /27 Subnet
192.16.5.0 /24 Network
192.16.0.0 /16 Block of Networks
0.0.0.0 /0 Default
Supports host-specific routes, blocks of networks,
and default routes
Routers use longest prefix match
Summarizing Routes in a
Discontiguous Network
Classful RIPv1 and IGRP do not advertise subnets,
and therefore cannot support discontiguous subnets.
Classless OSPF, EIGRP, and RIPv2 can advertise subnets,
and therefore can support discontiguous subnets.
Summary
Subnetting lets you efficiently allocate addresses by
taking one large broadcast domain and breaking it
up into smaller more manageable broadcast
domains.
VLSMs let you more efficiently allocate IP
addresses by adding multiple layers of the
addressing hierarchy.
The benefits of route summarization include smaller
routing tables and the ability to isolate topology
changes.
A

1. 255.0.0.0:/8
2. 255.128.0.0:/9
3. 255.192.0.0:/10
4. 255.224.0.0:/11
5. 255.240.0.0:/12
6. 255.248.0.0:/13
7. 255.252.0.0:/14
8. 255.254.0.0:/15
9. 255.255.0.0:/16
10.255.255.128.0:/17
11.255.255.192.0:/18
12.255.255.224.0:/19
13.255.255.240.0:/20
14.255.255.248.0:/21
15.255.255.252.0:/22
16.255.255.254.0:/23
17. 255.255.255.0:/24
18. 255.255.255.128:/25
19. 255.255.255.192:/26
20. 255.255.255.224:/27
21. 255.255.255.240:/28
22. 255.255.255.248:/29
23. 255.255.255.252:/30
Addressing Summary Example
10101100
11111111
10101100
00010000
11111111
00010000
11111111
00000010
10100000
11000000
10000000
00000010
10101100 00010000 00000010 10111111
10101100 00010000 00000010 10000001
10101100 00010000 00000010 10111110
Host
Mask
Subnet
Broadcast
Last
First
172.16.2.160
255.255.255.192
172.16.2.128
172.16.2.191
172.16.2.129
172.16.2.190
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
16 172 2 160
B