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2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Optimizing Converged
Cisco Networks (ONT)
Module 3: Introduction to IP QoS
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Lesson 3.1:
Introducing QoS
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Objectives
Explain why converged networks require QoS.
Identify the major quality issues with converged
networks.
Calculate available bandwidth given multiple flows.
Describe mechanisms designed to use bandwidth more
efficiently.
Describe types of delay.
Identify ways to reduce the impact of delay on quality.
Describe packet loss and ways to prevent or reduce
packet loss in the network.
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Traditional Nonconverged Network
Traditional data traffic characteristics:
Bursty data flow
FIFO access
Not overly time-sensitive; delays OK
Brief outages are survivable
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Converged Network Realities
Converged network realities:
Constant small-packet voice flow competes
with bursty data flow.
Critical traffic must have priority.
Voice and video are time-sensitive.
Brief outages are not acceptable.
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Converged Network Quality Issues
Lack of bandwidth: Multiple flows compete for a limited
amount of bandwidth.
End-to-end delay (fixed and variable): Packets have to
traverse many network devices and links; this travel
adds up to the overall delay.
Variation of delay (jitter): Sometimes there is a lot of
other traffic, which results in varied and increased
delay.
Packet loss: Packets may have to be dropped when a
link is congested.
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Measuring Available Bandwidth
The maximum available bandwidth is the bandwidth of the slowest link.
Multiple flows are competing for the same bandwidth, resulting in much less
bandwidth being available to one single application.
A lack in bandwidth can have performance impacts on network applications.
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Increasing Available Bandwidth
Upgrade the link (the best but also the most expensive solution).
Improve QoS with advanced queuing mechanisms to forward the important packets first.
Compress the payload of Layer 2 frames (takes time).
Compress IP packet headers.
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Using Available Bandwidth Efficiently
Using advanced queuing and header compression mechanisms,
the available bandwidth can be used more efficiently:
Voice: LLQ and RTP header compression
Interactive traffic: CBWFQ and TCP header compression
Voice
(Highest)

Data
(High)

Data
(Medium)

Data
(Low)
1 1
2 2
3 3 3
4 4 4 4
4 3 2 1 1
Voice
LLQ
RTP header
compression
Data
CBWFQ
TCP header
compression
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Types of Delay
Processing delay: The time it takes for a router to take the packet from an input
interface, examine the packet, and put the packet into the output queue of the
output interface.
Queuing delay: The time a packet resides in the output queue of a router.
Serialization delay: The time it takes to place the bits on the wire.
Propagation delay: The time it takes for the packet to cross the link from one end to
the other.
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Impact of Delay and Jitter on Quality
End-to-end delay: The sum of all propagation, processing,
serialization, and queuing delays in the path
Jitter: The variation in the delay.
In best-effort networks, propagation and serialization delays are fixed,
while processing and queuing delays are unpredictable.
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ways to Reduce Delay
Upgrade the link (the best solution but also the most expensive).
Forward the important packets first.
Enable reprioritization of important packets.
Compress the payload of Layer 2 frames (takes time).
Compress IP packet headers.
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Reducing Delay in a Network
Customer routers perform:
TCP/RTP header compression
LLQ
Prioritization
ISP routers perform:
Reprioritization according to the QoS policy
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Impacts of Packet Loss
Telephone call: I cannot understand you. Your voice is breaking up.
Teleconferencing: The picture is very jerky. Voice is not synchronized.
Publishing company: This file is corrupted.
Call center: Please hold while my screen refreshes.
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Types of Packet Drops
Tail drops occur when the output queue is full. Tail drops are common
and happen when a link is congested.
Other types of drops, usually resulting from router congestion, include
input drop, ignore, overrun, and frame errors. These errors can often
be solved with hardware upgrades.
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ways to Prevent Packet Loss
Upgrade the link (the best solution but also the most expensive).
Guarantee enough bandwidth for sensitive packets.
Prevent congestion by randomly dropping less important packets
before congestion occurs.
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Traffic Policing and Traffic Shaping
Time
T
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Traffic Rate
Time
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Traffic Rate
Time
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Traffic Rate
Time
T
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Traffic Rate
Policing
Shaping
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Reducing Packet Loss in a Network
Problem: Interface congestion causes TCP and voice packet
drops, resulting in slowing FTP traffic and jerky speech quality.
Conclusion: Congestion avoidance and queuing can help.
Solution: Use WRED and LLQ.
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Summary
Converged networks carry different types of traffic over
a shared infrastructure. This creates the need to
differentiate traffic and give priority to time-sensitive
traffic.
Various mechanisms exist that help to maximize the
use of the available bandwidth, including queuing
techniques and compression mechanisms.
All networks experience delay. Delay can effect time
sensitive traffic such as voice and video.
Without proper provisioning and management,
networks can experience packet loss. Packet loss is
especially important with voice and video, as no
resending of lost packets can occur.
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Q and A
2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Resources
Quality of Service Networking
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/qos.ht
m
QoS Congestion Avoidance
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk543/tk760/tsd_technology_s
upport_protocol_home.html
QoS Congestion Management (queuing)
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk543/tk544/tsd_technology_s
upport_protocol_home.html

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.