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ADOLESCENCE is a period of
personal and social identity formation,
in which different roles, behaviors,
and ideologies are explored.
Adolescents must explore, test limits,
become autonomous, and commit to
an identity, or sense of self.

It is a time of
Discovery and Joy

It can also open
Undesirable experiences related to anxiety, concerns &
Exposure to Juvenile violence and drug use

If adolescents are not able to get
themselves together..
Role confusion
Inability to choose vocation
Failure to achieve self-identity
Egocentricism in adolescents is a
self-conscious desire to feel
important in peer groups and
receive social acceptance.
3 General approaches to
understanding identity
Greater self-awareness
Greater awareness of others
Ability to consider multiple possibilities and
consequences of their choices/ decisions
Because of the multiple possible selves that he likes to
become, he gets confused , stressed and it becomes a
source of distress.
The perception of others is of great significance
Sense of Identity
-Identity represents a coherent sense of self that is
stable across circumstances and includes past
experiences and future goals
- They begin defining themselves based on crowd
-Media also influences their self-image factor
- the confusion in the multiple possibilities if resolved
can then turn into identity achievement an
acceptance of himself

Ones thoughts and feelings about ones self-concept and
Highly linked with relationship with others
The function of friendship is important someone who
can provide the social and moral support
Value autonomy and independence
At times they assert their independence but fail to
define their relation to authority
High degree of self-esteem is derived from their ability
to successfully influence their friends

Social Influences on the
Development of Identity among
The type of relationship adolescents have with
their parents
When a solid and positive relationship exists, and
adolescents are more likely to feel freedom in
exploring identity options
When the relationship is not as close and
supportive, the adolescents feel rejection and are
more likely to feel less confident in forming a
personal identity.
Educational background has an impact on
identity formation.
When an adolescent has advanced cognitive
development and maturity, he/she tends to resolve
identity issues more easily.
Friendship and intimacy sharing of thoughts
and feelings, extending care and support
Adolescents tend to spend more time with friends
(up to 16 of their time) comprise an emotional
investment they can benefit from.
Types of friendship
Acquaintances who meet periodically
Companions who share common interests through
regular contacts
Best friends with depth of self-disclosure/ caring and
loving concern; accepting you for what you are
Friendship characterized by compassion, openness and
satisfaction makes the adolescents more sociable and
competent to handle identity issues
Identity Issues
The active search which adolescents engage in to gain
a new understanding of self along sexual,
occupational, religious, political self-image is referred
to as Identity Issues.
Major task in developing self-identity is the formation
of inner sameness and continuity in personality
Only when they see their uniqueness can they accept
themselves and the physical/social world hey are in.
Important Points
Self-identity is not a stagnant end-point; rather, it is a
continuous change and evolve- ment of ones self
throughout lifes course
It involves a sense of self-unity, accompanied by a
feeling that the self has continuity over time
A firmly established identity provides a sense of
uniqueness as a person
Identity must be perceived by the individual and
recognized and confirmed by others.
Integrating into a coherent whole ones past
experiences, ongoing personal changes, and societys
demands and expectations for ones future

Phases of Identity Status (J. Marcia)
Identity foreclosure
This is the case of an adolescent who is a follower,
finding security in others, not in his/her self
They have conformed to the expectations of others
concerning their future and the commitment is rooted
on the need to obey, to follow an authority but have not
explored a range of options.
Identity Diffusion
This is the case of the adolescent failing to find
They appear to have given up any attempt to make the
commitments needed for developing a clear sense of identity
There is uncertainty running through the episodes of life
Identity-diffused individuals lack goal orientation, direction
and commitment.
They may have expressed interest in a future career, they are
vague about it and do not have Iclear vision of the
advantages and disadvantages of what they want to do
Iclear vision of the advantages and disadvantages of what
they want to do
They frequently change goals and paths
This is the case of an incessant searcher
They are actively exploring alternative commitments but
have not yet made a decision
He explores and experiments becoming a prober and
critic without any permanent commitment to follow an
authority or be part of a system
It is a sophisticated mode of identityt search

Identity Achiever
This is the point when the adolescent fully finds
The individual has experienced identity crisis, made a
search and has made commitments necessary in building
a sense of identity
One feels a sense of fulfillment with ones knowledge and
awareness of where one is and where he is going, in
addition to the possible recognition for deeds done.
Promoting a Sense of Self-identity
Inner confidence about self-competence and ability to
learn or master new tasks
Ample opportunity to try out new roles either in ones
fantasy or in actual practice
Support from parents and adults
Antisocial Behaviors in