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Animal Nutrition

Nutritional
Requirements
Undernourished
not enough calories
Overnourished (Obese)
too many calories

Malnourished
missing one or more
essential nutrients
Essential Nutrients
Essential Amino Acids
Essential Fatty Acids
Essential Vitamins
Essential Minerals
Essential Amino Acids
Found in proteins
20 different types
Nine essential in
humans
all in animal proteins
vegetarians need to eat
grains and beans
Essential Fatty Acids
Unsaturated fatty acids
used to make phospholipids for membranes
Essential Vitamins
Fat Soluble
stored in fat
K, A, D, E
Water Soluble
excreted in urine
B complex and C
Essential Minerals
Inorganic nutrients
Calcium & Phosphorous
bones
Iron
anemia
Iodine
thyroid hormones
Sodium, Chlorine, & Potassium
nerve function, water regulation
Nutrition and Health
BMI
Weight (pounds) X 703.1
______________________
height
2
(inches)

Healthy 18.5 to 24.9

Overweight 25.0 to 29.9

Obese BMIs 30.0 to 39.99

Morbidly Obese 40.0 or more


Eating Disorders
Maintaining a
Healthy Weight


Dieting

Anorexia nervosa
Bulimia nervosa
Binge Eating
Food Pyramid

Food Labels
Food Types
Heterotrophic
Herbivores
Carnivores
Omnivores
Insectivores
Feeding Adaptations
Suspension Feeders
Feeding Adaptations
Substrate Feeders
Feeding Adaptations
Fluid Feeders
Feeding Adaptations
Bulk Feeders
Intracellular Digestion
Inside cells
All animals
Exclusive in:
Protista
Porifera
Extracellular Digestion
Outside cells
All animals above the sponges
Two Types
Gastrovascular Cavity
Alimentary Canal
Gastrovascular
Cavity
One opening
Found in Cnidaria
and
Platyhelminthes
Alimentary Canal
Two openings
Allows for specialization
Mouth
Pharynx
Esophagus
Crop
Gizzard
Stomach
Intestine
Anus
Mammalian
Digestion
Accessory Glands
salivary glands
Pancreas

liver (emulsification)
gallbladder
Peristalsis
Sphincters
Food
bolus
acid chyme
feces
Macromolecule Digestion
Carbo Protein Nucleic
Acids
Fat
Mouth Initial
Stomach Initial
I ntestine Main Main Initial
Main
Initial
Main
Dentition and Diet
Nonmammal
vertebrates
Carnivores
canines (grasping)
incisors (tearing)
molars and premolars
(crushing and grinding)
Herbivores
Omnivores
Digestive Tracts
Carnivores
shorter
digestive
system
small cecum
Herbivores
longer
digestive
system
large cecum