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Methods of Assessment

Traditional

Alternative/Authentic
Why the shifts in
assessment
1. Development and
growth in the structure
of the discipline
2. Development in
assessment / testing
technology
3. Changing purposes of
assessment

PURPOSE
Traditional
to measure what students have learned
to assign grades
Other reasons
To deliberately improve student performance
To provide user-friendly feedback to students
To track student progress, not just current status
To motivate students to learn
To communicate expectations to students and
what are valued
To assess not only breadth but depth of
knowledge


TRADITIONAL------->NON-TRADITIONAL
Testing
Paper-pencil
Multiple-choice type
Single correct answer
Summative
Outcomes only
Skill-focused
Isolated facts
Decontextualized task
External evaluation

Alternative assessment
Performance type
Supply
Many correct answers
Formative
Process and outcomes
Task-based
Application of knowledge
Contextualized tasks
Student self evaluation
Essential Components of
Classroom Assessment
PURPOSE
Why am I
doing this
assessment
MEASUREMENT
What
techniques
should I use
to gather
information?
EVALUATION
How will I
interpret the
results?
USE
How will I use the results
A
B
C
D
B C D Start
How do we know
whats happening?
Finish Line
Directly examines students accomplishment or performance of
significant and integrative tasks
Require students
to generate rather than choose a response
to actively accomplish complex and significant tasks (task-
based)

Portfolios of
student work /
Extended
student
project
Open-ended
questions
Authentic Assessment /
Alternative Assessment
Authentic Assessment
Indicators:
Students perform, construct, produce or
do something
Uses close-to-life situations
Integrates prior knowledge and HOTS
Students explain, justify, and defend
Performance is directly observable
What makes up a learning
target?
CRITERIA
Dimension of student
performance for
judging attainment
CONTENT
What students
should know and
be able to do
Types of Learning Targets
A. KNOWLEDGE:
--Student mastery of specific elements in a subject
area
- What the students need to recall and recognize
facts, concepts or terminologies, principles
- Requires comprehension skills
- Translation a known concept is put in a different form
e.g. paraphrasing, graphing
- Interpretation seeing interrelationships between parts;
giving meaning
- Extrapolation making inferences from what is given;



Types of Learning Targets
B. THINKING / REASONING:( application, analysis &
evaluation)
--Student ability to reason and solve problems
- Application ability to apply principles in new problems and
situations
- Includes higher thinking skills critical thinking, analysis,
comparison, etc
C. SKILLS:
--Student ability to demonstrate achievement-related skills
e.g.
Letter writing
Interviewing skills to elicit information
speaking in a second language
operating equipment correctly and safely
conducting experiments
operating computers
performing psychomotor behaviors

D. PRODUCTS:
Student ability to create achievement-related
products / output
oral presentations
written reports
art products
E. AFFECTIVE:

Student attainment of
affective states such as:
attitudes and values,
interests
self-efficacy
The End
Methods of Assessment
Group I: Paper-pencil Tests
1. Objective tests
Selected response types
Binary choice
Multiple choice
Matching type
Simple supply
Completion/gap filling
Short answer
2. Essay
Restricted type
Extended type

Testing
How good is a test?

Does a students score give the true level
of a students ability?
Does a students score tell what he knows?
Does a students score say what he/she
has learned from the lessons?
Group II: Performance Type
Performance-based
Product-oriented observing and making a
judgement about the students demonstration of a
skill or competency in creating a product. E.g.
presentations, papers, reports, projects
Process-oriented assessing a students ability
to complete a process or operation applying the
skills previously learned. E.g.
demonstrations, exhibitions, simulations
Oral questioning
Oral examinations
Interviews

Observation- Informal or Formal
Check lists
Rating scales
Self-report
Self-evaluation
I can _______________________.
I find difficulty in _____________.
Journals and reflections
Inventories, questionnaires

Group III: Non-tests
Focus

Performance-based assessment
Portfolio assessment

A. Performance-based
Assessment
observing and making a judgement about the
students demonstration of a skill or
competency in creating a product
assessing a students ability to complete a
process or operation applying the skills
previously learned
integrates assessment with instruction
Performance-based
assessment maybe...
Actual performance / authentic tasks
work samples / projects / experiments /
research
presentation (oral/written) ; individual
or group
Simulations -
simulated performance (e.g. meeting)
written simulation (e.g. reporting a case
or event)
Elements of a Performance
test
TASK (what the students are expected to
do or produce)
CONDITION (resources are available to
the students)
CRITERION(method of scoring) / scoring
rubric
students awareness of the criteria prior to
demonstration

A sample task specification
TASK: Writing a letter to express ones opinion
on a current issue. It should reflect agreement
or disagreement on a given stand. It should
provide support for the opinion expressed.
CONDITION: A copy of a printed text containing
a writers opinion should be provided. The
student should be encouraged to use other
sources that can provide information on the
issue.
CRITERION:: Quality of Content, Organization,
Grammaticality Max: 15 points
B. Portfolio assessment...
Portfolio - systematic collection of students
outputs that shows his/her progress over time
Assessment Purposes:
documentation - typical student work and
progress
showcasing - what students are capable of
doing
evaluation - can be both formative and
summative; emphasis on how portfolios are to be
reviewed ; scoring
Portfolio Development Process
Set goals
Collect
Select
Organize
Reflect
Evaluate
Set goals

Collect and Select

Organize

Reflect

Evaluate
Why am I preparing
this portfolio?
What should I include
in this portfolio?
How should I group and
arrange my entries?
What did I discover
about myself?What
else can I do?
How do I rate myself?
Possible entries...
Projects, surveys, reports,
Favorite poems, songs, letters, comments
interesting thoughts to remember
finished samples that illustrate wide writing
examples of writing across the curriculum
literature extensions (webs, visual arts,
scripts
record of books read and comments
unedited and revised drafts
self-evaluation
writing responses to literary works

Modeling a reflection...
Simple
Can you tell me what you did.
What did you like best about this sample
of your writing?
What will you do next?
Self reflection...
More elaborate
What did you learn from writing this piece?
What would you have done differently if you
had more time?
What are the strong points you are showing in
your work? Weak points?
What problems did you experience while
working on this?
What was important to you when you did this?


Possible strategies for
implementation...
1. Focus on a specific aspect or area
only
literacy (reading log, journals, reading biographies,
self-evaluation)
creative writing ( poems, essays)/ outside writing
application of IT skills
discoveries (experiments, articles, video clips)
research skills
evidences of progress


2. Focus on a list of 5-10 significant
objectives for a learning area
Engage the students on what kind of work
samples will provide evidence for mastery
of each learning objective
Require a written paragraph to describe
why he/she has chosen the sample and
what he thinks he has learned from the
process.
Agree with the students how the evidences
will be evaluated.
3. Use group portfolio
intra-group peer evaluation
inter-group peer evaluation
teacher-group conferencing