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Turbine Package Main Parts
Turbine General
Arrangement and Systems
TOYOs scope & Responsibilities
Turbine Performance
03 Nov.06
Introduction About Gas
Working principle of GAS turbine is Breton Cycle
The simple cycle working cycle is two addiabatic cycles with one isentropic cycle
As an introduction , Gas turbine is a rotary engine which produces mechanical work. The
continuous power cycle and rotor motion of the gas turbine provides several advantages
over other types of heat engines, including relatively vibration less operation, fewer
moving parts and wear points, reliability and a higher quality of ac power in generator

This Mechanical power generated by Gas turbines is widely applied for propulsion in
aeronautics and marine field.

On land, the application includes simple and combined power plants, supply of energy
for chemical heating process, supply of energy for fluid compression, & for locomotive

Theory of operation :- Gas turbines are described thermodynamically by the Brayton
cycle, in which air is compressed isentropically, combustion occurs at constant pressure,
and expansion over the turbine occurs isentropically back to the starting pressure

A -- Introduction
A Typical Gas simple cycle Gas Turbine Package Consist of Following Main Equipments,
Accessories And Systems
Gas Turbine Engine

Driven Equipment ( Generator or Compressor)

Starting System

Lube Oil System
Lube oil tank
Lube oil pumps, (main, auxiliary ac, and emergency dc)
Lube oil cooler
Lube oil filters
Oil mist eliminators

Fuel Gas System
Gas fuel scrubbers (filters)
Control valves
Primary and secondary shutoff valves
Liquid fuel boost up pump

GT Enclosure with Fire Extinguishing System

Water Wash System.

Other Accessories for Maintenance

B -- Turbine Package Main Parts, Arrangement
And Systems
A simple open cycle non regenerative single shaft industrial gas turbine mainly consist of three zone :-
Air Compression Zone :- Compressor draws in air from the environment and by adding mechanical energy
, bring the system to the overpressure required to operate the cycle the modern gas turbines are always
equipped with multistage axial compressors
Combustion air inlet system consists of Inlet filters followed by silencer and the duct.
The inlet guide vanes and the first three rows of stators are of the variable geometry type: they operate in
two positions depending upon turbine speed. At start, the vanes are in the closed position, restricting the
flow of incoming air. At the same time, the bleed valve, mounted. on the combustor housing, bypasses a
portion of the airflow to the turbine exhaust. This modified airflow provides for smooth acceleration, a
relatively low turbine inlet temperature, and ample compressor surge margin during acceleration. The bleed
valve closes at 80% speed, followed by the vanes which begin opening at 90% speed and reach the full
open position prior to full speed, allowing full airflow with rough the turbine.

Combustion Zone :- The air leaving the compressor is raised to the required turbine inlet temperature by
burning of fuel in the multiple combustors located annular gas turbines are always equipped with multistage
axial compressors For stoichiometric combustion, the gas turbine requires approximately one-fourth of the
total air it compresses. The excess air is used to cool the combustion chamber and mixes with the
combustion products to reduce the gas temperature at the inlet to the first turbine stage. The cooling air
keeps metal temperatures in the combustion chamber and turbine section at design levels for long life . This
system reduces pollution by limiting the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO).

Power Generating Turbine Zone :- A series of rotating and stationary blades expands the hot gases
producing mechanical power at shaft end. The hot gases leaves the turbine through exhaust diffuser.
Combustion chamber and turbine blades are generally cooled by circulating bleed air form compressor. The
gas turbine output shaft is mechanically attached to both the compressor and turbine sections of the engine
to form a solid or single shaft configuration. This feature enhances speed stability and response under
constant and varying load conditions a highly desirable feature in generator applications requiring precise
frequency control.


2a -- Driven Equipment- Generator
The mechanical power produced by gas turbine may be used to drive
different equipment like compressors for compressing gas or liquids OR
electric generators for producing electricity
In industrial power generation package , generator is coupled with output
shaft of gear box. There are may different arrangements for generator
installation. It may either be installed on same skid in same Turbine
enclosure or it may be outside separately. Generator system includes
dedicated cooling fans which keeps the stator and rotor winding temp. within

Generator Frame: Provides the structural strength and rigidity for the
generator and serves as a housing to guide cooling air flow

Inner End Shield: Is a baffle used to form a path for cooled air

Generator Fan: Provides continuous circulation of cooling air

Rotating Field: A magnetic field which induces AC voltage in the stator

Collector Rings: Provide a connection and path for DC power into the
rotating field windings

Main Coupling: Is the connection to the drive shaft

Generator Coolers: Remove heat from the generator cooling air

Stator Core: Houses the stationary windings and forms a magnetic path
necessary for induced voltages

Air Gap: Is the radial clearance between the rotating field and the stator core

Stator Coil End Turns: Formed when coils leave one slot in a stator core and
are returned to a different slot

Terminal Leads: Serve to conduct the three phase voltage and current flow
from the generator stator to the external system

2b -- Generator Working Fundamental and Operation
When the rotor operates at synchronous speed, the permanent magnet generator
provides power to the voltage regulator. The voltage regulator provides the
appropriate exciter field current to control the exciter armature output which is
rectified to provide dc power to the main generator rotating field winding
Voltage transformers provide signals proportional to line voltage to the AVR
where it is compared to a stable reference voltage. The difference (error) signal is
used to control the output of the exciter field. For example, if load on the
generator increases, the reduction in output voltage produces an error signal
which increases the exciter field current resulting in a corresponding increase in
rotor current and thus generator output voltage.


When a generator is used to supply power, it can be operated in the following
modes: isolated (sometimes referred to as island) mode or parallel with a
system or other machines. In both cases, the power (WATTs) supplied at the
generator terminals is a function of the fuel supplied to the prime mover, which is
controlled by the governor.



The machine speed is determined by the load and fuel supply The generator voltage is determined by the excitation. For
example, an increase in load will have two effects: Speed will initially fall because the energy being supplied by the fuel is less
than that required by the load. The speed reduction is detected by the governor which opens the fuel valve by the required
amount to maintain the required speed. Voltage will initially fall, the reduction is detected by the AVR which increases the
excitation by the amount required to maintain output voltage


When a machine operates in parallel with a power system, the voltage and frequency will be fixed by the system. The voltage
regulator no longer controls the generator output voltage. The fuel supply to the prime mover which is controlled by the governor
determines the power which is supplied by the generator .The generator excitation determines the internal emf of the machine
and therefore affects the power factor. When excitation is increased above the level to achieve nominal no load voltage, rather
than the voltage increasing, the reactive current flowing from the generator to the load increases resulting in a lagging pf
condition on the generator. When the excitation is reduced below the level to achieve nominal no load voltage, rather than the
voltage decreasing, the reactive current (vars) flowing to the generator from the load increases resulting in a leading pf condition
on the generator.
General Arrangement of GT on skid
1. Reduction Gear box

2. Air Inlet Duct Assembly

3. Compressor Diffuser Combustor

4.Turbine Assembly

5. Exhaust Collector

6.Compressor Assembly

Typical General Arrangement (SOLAR-Titan 130 Model)

Typical General Arrangement (SOLAR-Titan 130 Model)

Package Inside View (SOLAR-Titan 130 Model)
3a -- Start System With Starting Motors and Gear Box
Driven Equipment

Turbine can be accelerated by different ways like
A) Pneumatic start system is especially suited for gas turbine requirement and can use either gas or
compressed air as a power source.

B) Direct DC start system :- most common system which consist for a squirrel cage, three phase ac induction
motors with variable frequency drive ( VFD) and engage/ disengage clutch coupled to gear box (Ref. Photo)

C) Diesel/ Hydraulic start system:- consist of a skid mounted diesel fueled reciprocating engine which supplies
power to drive a variable stroke hydraulic pump. The pump drives a hydrostatic motor connected to the turbine
shaft via an overrunning clutch.
Once the starter dropout speed is reached, the turbine continues to accelerate and overrun the starter through
Turbine Inlet
Gear Box
3b -- Typical Start Sequence
1. Appropriate start and control systems are
activated, the pre/post lubricating oil pump
is started and, on verification of prelube
pressure, the starter system is activated
and begins turbine rotation..

2. At about 21% speed, the ignition system
and fuel valves are operated to admit and
ignite fuel in the combustor. The heat of
combustion and starter power accelerate
the turbine.

3. At certain temperature, the ignition
system is activated and acceleration

4. At 66% (self-sustaining) speed, the start
system is deactivated, the start counter
registers an engine start, the hour meter
begins to log engine operating hours, and
the compressor variable vane control
system activates and begins moving the
vanes toward the maximum open position.

5. At 81% speed, the engine bleed valve
control closes the bleed valve and the
voltage regulator
is activated, initiating generator, voltage
build-up. 4

6. At 90% speed, generator output voltage
and starting time are verified and the ready-
to-load. timer is activated.

7. At 100% speed, the governor system
assumes control of turbine speed.

8. At 90% speed plus 10 seconds, loading
circuits are activated, enabling circuit
breaker closure, and the ready-to-load
indicator is illuminated.
Typical GT start & Acceleration time line
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Time (min.)


4a -- Fuel System
A wide range of gaseous and liquid fuels are used
A) Gas Fuel System:-The gas fuel system includes all components necessary to control fuel at the
proper schedule during starting and operation from no load to full load The principal components of
the gas fuel system included with the package are:
Gas strainer and fuel pressure switch
Primary fuel valve
Secondary fuel valve
Gas fuel control valv
Fuel control actuator
Throttle valve
B) Liquid fuel system : the major liquid fuel components are:-
Boost pump (option) and strainer
Duplex fuel filter (replaceable-element type)
High pressure fuel pump
High pressure filter
Main fuel control valve
Shutoff valve, bypass valve, purge valve, and torch valve
Fuel manifold block, distribution lines and 12 fuel injectors

C) Dual Fuel System:-The dual fuel system combines all the features of both the natural gas fuel
system and the liquid fuel system previously described, and includes the controls for starting fuel
selection and fuel changeover during operation. Switching from one fuel to the other can be
accomplished under any load condition,

4b -- Typical Gas fuel Supply System
5 -- Lubrication System
A standard lubricating oil system is designed to supply oil to engine bearings , gearbox and
generator bearings.
The system consists of a cooler, filter, main lube oil pump, pre/post lube oil pumps (AC), DC lube
oil pump , lube oil vent separator ,regulating valves, as well as devices for protection against low
pressure, low level, and high temperature. conditions. The oil tank is a reservoir incorporated into
the base of the skid.

6 -- Skid Enclosure With Ventilation System
And Fire Fighting System
The Acoustic enclosure is fitted over the
gas turbine and gearbox and mounted on
the base skid. It is designed to achieve
average package noise within limits.

The ventilation fan, with inlet outlet filters
and duct assembly provide both the
cooling air to remove the heat radiated
from the engine casing as well as
maintaining the area classification in the
event that the turbine is running on gas or
highly liquid fuel.

Enclosure frame work is provided with
side door panels, lighting system, view
glass, and fire fighting detection system
including gas detectors, fire detectors,
extinguishing discharge pipe work and

Fire and gas protection system includes
an off skid fire extinguishing system like
CO2 or water mist cabinet , discharge
nozzle , and fire / gas detectors & pipe
GT Enclosure
Off Skid Fire
Extinguishing Cabinet
7 -- Turbine Control System

The Turbotroric control system is a highly integrated programmable logic controller (PLC) based.
control system with a video display terminal (VDT) and an operator interface panel

The primary engine control functions, including speed, temperature and load, are accomplished by
controlling the fuel input and the turbine variable geometry.

The main control system inputs consist of the turbine speed transducer (magnetic pickup), a
speed input module, turbine rotor inlet temperature thermocouples, a mill volt input module,
current and potential transformer inputs, and an ac input module

The control system maintains generator frequency and/or generator load distribution (when
operating in parallel) by controlling turbine fuel flow by means of actuating fuel throttle valve.

The microprocessor-based control system provides automatic starting, acceleration to operating
speed, sequencing control, engine and generator monitoring during operation, and normal and
malfunction shutdown

Almost all control system uses an Allen Bradley Control Logic PLC.
C -- Gas Turbine Performance
In accordance with industrial standards, gas turbine performance is generally quoted at 15 deg C ambient
temperature and sea level site condition , 60% relative humidity , and zero losses.
In real world , however, ambient air temperature , site conditions , inlet exhaust pressure drop all have an
impact on installed gas turbine site performance.

Ambient Temperature:-typically rated power output with drop 0.3 to 0.5% for every 1deg F. rise in
ambient air temperature.

Elevation :- around every 1000 Ft increase in site elevation above sea level will see a 3.3 % reduction in
the gas turbine power output.

Inlet losses:- A 1 inch water gauge increase in inlet duct loss will sea an approximate 0.5 % reduction in
power output and 0.1% increase in heat rate.

Outlet losses :- A 1 inch increase in outlet duct and exhaust stack losses will see an approximate 0.15%
reduction in power output and 0.1% increase in heat rate

Turbine Performance Curves :-
Performance for the engine is represented through a series of curves. This series generally consist of two
turbine performance curves and two correction curves, is designed to encompass the majority of normal
operating parameters required to trend the overall performance of the gas turbine engine. The turbine
performance curves are based on the following standard conditions:
Operation at sea level
Zero inlet and exhaust duct system pressure losses
Zero Compressor air bleed
Zero additional gas producer power extraction
Specified fuel at given LHV
Relative Humidity 60 %
Typical Performance Curve For
Engine Inlet Temperature
D Design Codes and Standards

Part Description Applicable code
1 API 616 Gas Turbine for petroleum , chemical and gas industry services
2 API 546 Synchronous Generator
3 API 671 Special purpose Coupling for Refinery Services
4 API 661 Air cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Services
5 API 610 Pumps
6 API 613 Special Purpose Gear Units for Refinery Services
7 API 614 Lubrication, Shaft Sealing and Control Oil Systems for Special
Purpose Applications
8 NFPA 12 CO2 Extinguishing System
9 NFPA 15 Water Spray Fixed System
10 API PTC-22 Test code for Gas Turbine Power Plant
11 TEMA Standards of the Tubular Exchanges Manufactures Association
E -- Toyo Scope and Responsibilities
Selection:- Selection of gas turbine package vender is done based on different parameters like
Plant total electrical load requirement , Type and Availability of fuel , Starting requirements, Cost ,
After sale service , past experience etc etc.

Procurement :-

Detail Engineering :-

Inspection and testing :- This mainly includes turbine engine performance test , package
acceptance test , site test ( if applicable )

Site Erecting and installation of Package :- ( by erection team )

Commissioning :-

F GT Manufacture List
SR No. Manufacturer Name Capacity range
1 Bharat Heavy Electectrical 26.30 MW to 268..80 MW
2 Centax Gas Turbine 2.69 MW to 5.786 MW
3 Dresser Rand 1.49 to 43 MW
4 GE Heavy Duty 42 MW to 255 MW

5 GE Oil and gas 5.5 MW to 29.6 MW
6 Japan gas Turbine 115 MW to 281 MW
7 Kawasaki Heavy Industries 0.648 MW to 17.64 MW
8 MAN Turbo 5.7 MW to 51.6 MW
9 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 3.137 MW to 334 MW
10 Siemens Power Generation 4.3 MW to 278 MW
11 SOLAR Turbine 1.2 MW to 15 MW