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Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13

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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Child, Teen, and Older Adult
Chapter 14
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Learning Objectives
Discuss how a toddlers nutritional needs
differ from an adults needs and how a
food allergy can impact the diet.
Explain ways in which a teenagers
choice of soda over milk or soy milk may
jeopardize nutritional health.
Contrast life expectancy with life span,
and name some lifestyle factors
associated with successful aging.
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Learning Objectives
Outline food-related factors that can
predict malnutrition in older adults.
Design a healthy meal plan for an elderly
widower with a fixed income.
Describe several specific drug-nutrient
interactions and name some herbs that
may interfere with the action of
medication.
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Feeding a Healthy Young
Child
Rapid changes during second year
Dietary changes
Growth
Body composition
Appetite regulation
Fluctuation of appetite
Regulation of treats

Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Composition of Weight Gain,
Infants and Toddlers
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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Feeding a Healthy Young
Child
Energy
Needs vary
widely
Growth and
physical
activity
Vegan diets
Protein
Needs
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Feeding a Healthy Young
Child
Carbohydrate and fiber
Glucose use by the
brain
Fiber recommendations
Fat and fatty acids
DRI recommendations
Vitamins and minerals
Vitamin D
Iron
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Mealtimes and Snacking
Formative childhood years
Implications for adulthood
Current U.S. childrens food intakes
Fruits and vegetables
Vitamins and minerals
Childrens preferences
Flavors and temperatures
Bribing
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
USDA Eating Patterns for
Children (1,000 to 1,800 Calories)
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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MyPlate Resources for
Children
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Mealtimes and Snacking
Current U.S. childrens food intakes
Food groups
Vitamins and minerals
Childrens preferences
Messages
Environment
Fear of new foods
Food neophobia

Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Mealtimes and Snacking
Child preferences vs. parental authority
Snacking
Teach how to snack
Restaurant choices
To make better choices
Choking
Food skills
Food preparation
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Food Skills & Developmental
Milestones of Preschool Children
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
How Do Nutrient Deficiencies
Impair a Childs Brain?
Physical and behavioral symptoms
Iron deficiency
Intellectual performance
Key problem among U.S. children
Iron toxicity
Supplements
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
The Problem of Lead
High
concentration
levels
Mental,
behavioral, and
other health
problems
Sources
Absorption rates
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
The Problem of Lead
Harm from lead
Lead builds up silently in the body
Effects may not be reversible
Low level effects
High level effects
Lead in adolescents

Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
The Problem of Lead
Lead and nutrient interactions
Malnutrition and lead poisoning
Calcium, zinc, vitamin C, vitamin D, or
iron
Modifications in U.S. environment
Decline in average blood level
concentrations
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Steps to Prevent Lead
Poisoning
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Food Allergy, Intolerance, and
Aversion
Food allergy
Prevalence
Adults and children
Immune response to
antigen
Antibodies and
histamine
Anaphylactic shock
Epinephrine
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Food Allergy, Intolerance, and
Aversion
Allergen ingestion
Food labels
Cross-
contamination
Eight common
culprits requiring
labels
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Food Allergy, Intolerance, and
Aversion
Detecting an allergy
Components
Reaction time
Food intolerance
No immune response
Food aversion
Intense dislike for food
Biological and psychological response
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Symptoms of an Allergic
Reaction to Food
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Can Diet Make a Child
Hyperactive?
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD)
Prevalence
Characteristics
Impacts on child
Food allergies
Sugar and behavior
Inconsistent care and poverty
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Dental Caries
Prevalence rate in
U.S.
Half of all people
by age 2
Fluoridation of
drinking water
How caries
develop
Dental disease
Food and caries
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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The Caries Potential of Foods
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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Is Breakfast Really the Most Important
Meal of the Day for Children?
Supports growth and development
Cannot make up for losses
Detriments of not eating breakfast
U.S. government breakfast program
Benefits of these meals
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Breakfast Ideas for Rushed
Mornings
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
How Nourishing Are the Meals
Served at School?
National school lunch & breakfast
programs
USDA-regulated meals
Benefits of consuming meals from these
programs
New standards
Competitive foods
Energy-dense, low nutrient
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Nutrition in Adolescence
Teenager food choices
Primary influences
Consuming meals with family
The adolescent growth spurt
Girls vs. boys
Energy needs and physical activity
Wide variations
Weight standards and body fatness
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Nutrient Needs
Needs are great
Vitamins and
minerals
Iron
Calcium
Vitamin D
Energy-yielding
nutrients
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Iron Requirements in
Adolescence
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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Growth of Long Bones
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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Percentage of Children and
Adolescents Who Drink Milk
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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Average Daily Intake of Sugar-
Sweetened Beverages by U.S. Children
and Adolescents
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Common Concerns
Menstruation
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
Acne
Factors influencing development
Genes
Western diet
False beliefs
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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Using Nutrition for PMS Relief
Prevalence of PMS
Six core symptoms
Causes
Hormones
PMS and nutrition
Energy metabolism
Vitamin and mineral intakes
Ongoing research
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Eating Patterns and Nutrient
Intakes
During adolescence, food habits change
for the worse
Common nutritional behaviors
Role of adults
Gatekeeper
Set example
Teachable moments
Snacks
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
The Later Years
Characteristics of those who reach an old
age
Nutrition and successful aging
Life expectancy
The graying of America
Health-related behaviors
Genetics
Life span

Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Nutrition in the Later Years
Needs become more individual with age
Energy recommendations
Often decrease with age
Recommendations
Dwindles
Body mass index
Physical activity
Resistance training
Sarcopenia

Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Physical Changes of Aging That
Affect Nutrition
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Nutrition in the Later Years
Protein needs
DRI recommendations
Sources
Carbohydrates and fiber
Sources
Benefits of adequate fiber in ones diet
Fruits and vegetables soluble fiber
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Nutrition in the Later Years
Fats and arthritis
Types of fats consumed
Osteoarthritis
Associated with being overweight
Rheumatoid arthritis
Immune system malfunction
Supplements
Gout
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Nutrition in the Later Years
Vitamin needs
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Changes in synthesis
Vitamin B
12

Other vitamins and phytochemicals
Vitamin E
Carotenoids
Vitamin C
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Nutrition in the Later Years
Water and minerals
Water
Senile dementia and pressure ulcers
Iron
Deficiency
Zinc
Immune function and appetite
Calcium
Multinutrient supplements
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Can Nutrition Help People to
Live Longer?
Factors affecting
physiological age
Lifestyle factors
Energy restriction
Safety
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Effects of Energy Restriction
on Life Span
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Immunity and Inflammation
Chronic diseases
Nutrient deficiencies, sedentary lifestyle,
malnutrition, and antibiotics
Free-radical hypothesis
Oxidative stress
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Can Foods or Supplements Affect the
Course of Alzheimers Disease?
Alzheimers disease
Cause
Genetics
Characteristics
Protein fragments
Tangles
Nutritional links
Prevention

Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Food Choices of Older Adults
Obstacles to adequacy
Living situation
Medications and alcohol
Programs that help
SNAP
Meals on Wheels
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 13
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edition, Sizer & Whitney
Predictors of Malnutrition in
the Elderly