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# Composite Beams and Columns

General Provisions
When determining load effects in members and
connections of a structure with composite
members consider effective sections at the time
each increment of load is applied.
Properties of the concrete and reinforcing steel
are per ACI 318
Available strength of members is from either
plastic stress distribution or strain compatibility
Tensile strength of concrete is assumed to be zero

Plastic Stress Distribution
Available strength assumes steel has hit yield
stress in either tension or compression, and
the concrete in compression is at 085 f
c
This method is typically used for regular sections

Strain compatibility method
Linear strain distribution across the section is
assumed.
Maximum concrete compressive strain of
0.003 is used
We use this method in Structures:
Compressive
Encased composite columns
Cross-sectional area of steel must be at least
1% of total cross-section
Concrete encasement must be reinforced with
continuous longitudinal bars and lateral
ties/spirals
Transverse reinforcement 0.009 in
2
/in
Reinforcement ratio must be at least 0.004
Available Compressive Strength
For axial load encased column, limit case of flexural
buckling
|
c
= 0.75 and O
c
= 2.00

P
0
= nominal elastic compressive strength without length effects
(kips)
A
s
= area of steel section (in
2
)
A
sr
= area of continuous reinforcing bars (in
2
)
A
c
= area of concrete (in
2
)
o
y
= yield strength of steel section (ksi)
o
yr
= yield strength of reinforcement (ksi)
f
c
= concrete compressive strength (ksi)

P
0
= A
s
o
y
+ A
sr
o
sr
+0.85A
c
f
c
'
Elastic buckling strength

EI
eff
= effective rigidity of composite section (kip-in
2
)
K = effective length factor
L = laterally unbraced length of the member (in)

P
e
=
t
2
EI
eff
KL ( )
2
Effective rigidity

E
s
= modulus of steel (ksi)
E
c
= modulus of concrete (ksi)
I
s
= moment of inertia steel section (in
4
)
I
sr
= moment of inertia reinforcement (in
4
)
I
c
= moment of inertia concrete (in
4
)

EI
eff
= E
s
I
s
+0.5E
s
I
sr
+C
1
E
c
I
c

C
1
= 0.1+ 2
A
s
A
c
+ A
s
|
\

|
.
|
s 0.3
Nominal compressive strength
If P
e
0.44 P
0

Else (P
e
< 0.44 P
0
)

P
n
= P
0
0.658
P
0
P
e
|
\

|
.
|

(

(

P
n
=0.877P
e
Shear Connectors
It is necessary to ensure that load is
transferred from the concrete to the steel
Shear connectors accomplish this
Resist the shear force between the slab and
beam
Prevent separation of the slab from the beam
Shear Connectors
Stud connectors are the most common in U.S.
Short round steel bar, welded to the beam at one end,
with a head at the other end.
Diameter from 12 in. to 1 in. and lengths from 2 to 8
in.
The ratio of the length to diameter 4.
Most commonly used sizes are 34 in. or 7/8 in. dia.
Head diameter is 12 in. larger than stud and the
head thickness is 3/8 in. or 12 in.
Shear studs
ASTM-A108, AISI Grades C1010, C1015, C1017 or
C1020 cold-drawn steel with a minimum tensile
strength of 60 ksi and a minimum elongation of 20%
specified in the AWS Structural Welding Code D1.1-75.
To prevent premature failure of studs because of
tearing of base metal, the size of a stud not located
over the beam web is limited to 2 12 times the flange
thickness.
The strength of stud connectors increases with stud
length up to a length of about four diameters and
remains approximately constant for greater lengths
Equivalent shear force
V = required shear force
When external force is applied to the steel
section

When external force is applied to the concrete
encasement

V' =V 1
A
s
o
y
P
0
|
\

|
.
|

V' =V
A
s
o
y
P
0
|
\

|
.
|
Distribution
Shear connectors that can hold the required
V must be distributed along the length for at
least 2.5 times the depth of the encased
column above and below the applied load
Maximum spacing is 16
Connectors must be on at least 2 faces,
symmetrically
Shear Connectors
At least four longitudinal bars must be used.
Transverse reinforcement must be spaced at
the lesser of
16 longitudinal bar diameters
48 tie bar diameters
Half of the least dimension of the composite
section
At least 1.5 inches of clear cover is required
Built-up Composite columns
If the steel section is built from two or more
encased steel shapes, the shapes must be
interconnected
Lacing
Tie plates
Batten plates
Etc
To prevent buckling of individual shapes
Shear strength of a connector

A
sc
= cross-sectional area of stud (in2)
E
c
= modulus of concrete (ksi)
o
u
= tensile strength of connector (ksi)

Q
n
=0.5A
sc
f
c
'
E
c
s A
sc
o
u
Girder
Floor beam
L
S
Effective width
b
Y
c
t
w
t
f
b
f
t
c
h
r
d
Shear Connectors Concrete Slab Ribbed steel deck
Steel section