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POWER SYSTEM 1

EEPB 353
The Power System An Overview
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The Power System An Overview
History & Development

Modern Power System

System Planning & Operation

Global & Local Power System
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HISTORY
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Introduction
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Power systems or power engineering
Subfield of engineering
Generation, Transmission and Distribution
Connected components
Machines e.g. Generators, Motors
Switchgears (circuit breakers)
Disconnect switches,
Protection e.g. Fuses, Lightning arresters,
Transformers.
History & Development
1881: Two electricians built the world's first power station
at Godalming in England. The station employed two
waterwheels to produce an alternating current that was
used to supply seven Siemens arc lamps at 250 volts
and thirty-four incandescent lamps at 40 volts, however
supply was intermittent .
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1882: Thomas Edison and his company, The Edison Electric
Light Company, developed the first steam-powered electric
power station on Pearl Street in New York City - consisted of
several dc generators, used direct current and operated at a
single voltage. Because of power loss during transmission,
the possible distance between the generators and load was
limited ~ half-a-mile (800 m).
1885: Limitations of distance were overcome by William
Stanleys development of commercially practical
transformers.
History & Development
1888 Nikolai Tesla invention of 2 phase induction and
synchronous motors.
1889 First single-phase ac transmission line at 4kV, 21
km from Oregon City to Portland, US.
1891 First three-phase ac transmission line in Germany,
transmitting 12 kV for 179 km.
1893 First three-phase ac transmission line in California,
US, transmitting 2.3 kV for 12 km.
Various frequencies in the early ac systems: 25, 50, 60,
133 Hz.


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Two standards exist today:
50 Hz ( Malaysia, Europe, India )
60 Hz ( United States, Canada, Japan Brazil)

Generators , motors and transformer of 60 Hz system are
generally smaller than 50 Hz of equivalent ratings while
transmission lines and transformers have smaller
reactances at 50 Hz.

Modern Power System
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Transmission
G
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D
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L
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Modern Power System
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Generation
Converts natural sources of energy into
electrical energy
Thermal energy coal, oil, natural gas
Potential energy hydroelectric
Others
Thermal energy nuclear
Wind energy
Solar thermal energy & Solar electric
(photovoltaic).
Chemical energy fuel cells & batteries.
GENERATION
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Generation Plant
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Hydro, Gas
Steam
Primer
Mover
High
Pressure
Turbine
Low Pressure
Turbine
Turbine
System
Synchronous
Motor
Produce Real
and Reactive
Power via
stator winding
Alternator
How do we get steam? How fast to get 50Hz?
Types of Power Plant
Coal fired steam plant
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Types of Power Plant
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Spillway
Head works
Reservoir
Tunnel
Valve house
Power house
Tailrace pond
Pen stock
Surge chamber
Fig. 1.6 A typical layout for a storage type hydro plant

A view of Kenyir Power Station
Types of Power Plant
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808MW YTL Combined Cycle
Paka Power Station
Combine-cycle gas turbine plant

Types of Power Plant
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World Largest Nuke Plant
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Bruce Power Nuclear Power Plant (6.3 GW) CANDU Plant www.brucepower.com
Alternative Sources
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Synthetic oil
circulates through
the pipe and
captures this heat,
reaching
temperatures of 390
C (735 F). The hot
oil is pumped to a
generating station
and routed through a
heat exchanger to
produce steam.
The Nevada Solar One plant operating in the Eldorado
Valley near Boulder City, Nevada, has a nominal
production capacity of 64 MW, with a maximum capacity
of 75 MW.

The 14-megawatt (MW)
Nellis Solar Power Plant at
Nellis Air Force Base in
the USA. These panels
track the sun in one axis
TRANSMISSION
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Modern Power System
Transmission
Purpose is to transfer electric energy from
generating units to the distribution system.
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Interconnects neighboring utilities, permitting
Economic dispatch of power within regions
Transfer of power during emergencies, ex.
300 kV HVDC interconnection with a transmission
capacity of 300 MW (Gurun - Khlong Ngae)and a 90
MW 132 kV HVAC overhead line with Electricity
Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT).
two 230 kV submarine cables with a transmission
capacity of 450 MW to Singapore Powers transmission
system at Senoko.
Transmission voltages operate at more than 60
kV (line-to-line)
United States, standardized at: 69 kV, 115 kV, 138
kV, 161kV, 230kV, 345kV, 500kV, 765kV.
Malaysia, standardized at: 132 kV, 275kV, 500kV.



Modern Power System - Transmission
Transmission lines are terminated
in substations called:
High-voltage substations, receiving
substations, or primary substations.
In TNB, they are called Main Intake
Substations (Pencawang Masuk
Utama).
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At primary substations, the voltage is stepped down to a
lower voltage (subtransmission network).
Typically, subtransmission voltage level ranges from 69 to 138 kV.
Very large industrial customers may be served from such
network.
DISTRIBUTION
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Modern Power System
Distribution
The distribution system connects the
distribution substations to the consumers
service-entrance equipment.
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Primary distribution lines are usually in the range of 4 to 34.5
kV
In TNB, they are called Main Distribution Substations (Pencawang
Pembahagian Utama) and operates at 33/11 kV.
Distribution systems are both overhead and underground.
Secondary distribution network reduces the voltage for
utilization by commercial and residential consumers at
levels of :
240/120 V single phase, three-wire; 208Y/120 V three-phase,
four-wire; or 480Y/277 V three-phase, four-wire.
Malaysia: 415/240 V three-phase, four-wire.
ELECTRICAL LOAD
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Modern Power System
Loads
Loads of power systems are divided into
Industrial
Commercial
Residential
Real power of loads are expressed in terms of
kilowatts or megawatts.
Typical loads
Industrial: composite loads with induction motors forming a
high proportion, where they are functions of voltage and
frequency.
Commercial & residential: largely of lighting, heating and
cooling, where they are independent of frequency and
consume negligible small reactive power.
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Modern Power System - Loads
Peak or Maximum demand - the greatest value of load during a
24-hour period.
Load Factor - ratio of average load over a designated period
of time to the peak load occurring in that period.
May be given for a day, a month or a year.






The annual load factor is


In order for a power plant to operate economically, it must have
a high system load factor.
Utilization Factor - ratio of maximum demand to the installed capacity.
Plant Factor - ratio of annual energy generation to the plant capacity x
8760 hr.
These factors indicate how well the system capacity is utilized and
operated
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Daily L F
average load
peak load
. .
Daily L F
average load hr
peak load hr
energy consumed during hr
peak load hr
. .

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24
24
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Annual L F
total annual energy
peak load hr
. .
8760
Modern Power System - Loads
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Typical Daily Load Profile - published by TNB in their 2005 annual report
SYSTEM OP & PLANNING
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System Planning & Operation
A transmission and distribution systems primary
mission is to
deliver power to electrical consumers at their place of
consumption and
in ready-to-use form.
The electrical path must also be reliable
Provide an uninterrupted flow of stable power to the customers.
Reliable power delivery delivering all of the power demanded
and not just the power needed.
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365 24 999% 876 ( ) . . days hr hr
translate to nearly 9 hours of electric supply interruption
each year !!!
99.9% reliability of service ??
System Planning & Operation
The objective of system planning is
to provide an orderly and economic expansion of equipment and
facilities to meet the electric utilitys future electrical demand with
an acceptable level of reliability
Planning involves determining the future needs of the
system
the correct sizes,
locations,
interconnections, and
schedules for future delivery system additions and changes.
In addition, the cost should be minimized.

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System Planning & Operation
Short range planning
To make certain that the system can continue to serve customer
load
Identify additions or changes to the system that will satisfy the
immediate need
Tends to be project oriented.
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Long range planning
To assure all short range decisions have lasting values and
contribute to minimum-cost system
Includes forecast of the future load levels
Information on the development and future conditions of the area
Unlike short range plan, does not require full and complete detail
in equipment, location and design.
Load
forecast
Existing &
planned
additions
Short range
planning
process
Capacity
shortfalls &
solutions
Project
Project
Project
System Planning & Operation
Load Growth peak demand and energy usage grow
for two reasons:
New customer additions new construction and population
increase to an area.
New uses of electricity change or adding of new appliances,
equipments.
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Prob. 1.2: In a certain country, the energy consumption is expected
to double in 10 years. Assuming a simple exponential growth given
by

P = P
0
e
at

calculate the growth rate a.

2P
0
= P
0
e
10a
ln 2 = 10a
a = 0.693/10 = 0.0693 = 6:93%
System Planning & Operation
For reliable and economical operation of the power system
necessary to monitor the entire system in a control center
Modern control center is called the energy control center
Online computers perform all signal processing through data
acquisition system
Provides alarms as advance warnings to the operators
(dispatchers)
Referred to as SCADA
(supervisory control and data acquisition)
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In Peninsular Malaysia,
The transmission division operates the NLDC (National Load
Dispatch Center)
The distribution division operates the regional control centers
Metro Southern Regional Control Centre (MSRCC)
Northern Eastern Regional Control Centre (NERCC)

GLOBAL & LOCAL ISSUES
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IEEE Guide for Electric Power Distribution Reliability Indices
describes a sustained interruption as any interruption not
classified as a momentary event longer than 5 minutes.
The indices provide a meaningful index to measure reliability
in terms of recorded outages.
While there are various indices being used by utilities, the
most commonly used for reference and comparison among
utilities are
System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI),
System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI)
Customer Average Interruption Duration Index (CAIDI)

SAIDI is defined as the average interruption duration the
customers are interrupted.
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GLOBAL & LOCAL POWER SYSTEM
Served Customers of Number Total
Durations on Interrupti Customer of
SAIDI

Global & Local Power System



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Global & Local Power System
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Global & Local Power System
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In 2008, the maximum demand of the grid system in Peninsular Malaysia
grew by 2.8% from 13,620 MW in 2007 to 14,007 MW recorded on 21st
May 2008. However, the total installed generation capacity in 2008 stood
at 19,723 MW, with no additional new capacity.
Installed Generation Capacity and Maximum Demands in Peninsular
Malaysia in the Year 2008
Global & Local Power System
Distribution of generation fuel in Malaysia as
contained in Energy Commissions annual report for
2008.
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Global & Local Power System
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Global & Local Power System
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DEVELOPMENTS IN LOCAL
POWER SYSTEM INDUSTRI
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Current Developments
Smart Grid
Optimized
Grid
User Centric
Approach
Smart Meters
Management of
Information
Wide Area
Information
System
Cyber security
Self Healing
System
Can the power
System Self
Heal?
New
Technologies
Hardware in a
loop
simulators
Phasor
Measurement
Units (PMU)
Online System
Monitoring
Agent Based
Systems
Future Energy
Sources
Wireless
Transmission?
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POWER SYSTEM TRENDS
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Current Trends
R
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E
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g
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Solar
Wind
Tidal
Wave
Subsea
Current
N
u
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l
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a
r

Is it safe?
Cheap but
Dangerous?
How to make
it safer
New Breed of
Nuclear
Plants
Mobile
Nuclear Units
Waste
Management
E
n
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g
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E
f
f
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c
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How efficient
is our system
How to make
it more
efficient
Smart Grid?
Smart
Building?
Smart
everything?
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Current Trends
A
l
t
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n
a
t
i
v
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E
n
e
r
g
y

Biomass
Hydrogen
Fuel Cell
Cold
Fusion?
T
a
r
i
f
f

What
determines
Tariff?
Tariff vs
Economic
Growth
Tariff to
promote
Energy
Efficiency?
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U
t
i
l
t
y

v
s

U
t
i
l
i
t
y

i
n

p
i
e
c
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s

Regulated
vs De-
regulated
Power Pool
System
Power
Market
Utility
Economics
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THE END
For now..
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