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PARTS OF SPEECH

NOUNS
PRONOUNS
VERBS
SUBJECT-VERB
AGREEMENT
ARTICLES AND
DETERMINERS
ADJECTIVES
ADVERBS
PREPOSITIONS
CONJUCTIONS
1.1 NOUNS
Types of
Nouns
Definition Examples
Common
Nouns
Names (common) for all
person/things
Girls, sons, daughter,
mountains
Proper
Nouns
Names (particular) for people,
animals, places, things
Nabila, Chinese New
Year, Proton Inspira
Abstract
Nouns
Names (something) cannot see @
touch, can only feel @ think of
Love, happy, sad, joy,
honesty, friendship
Collective
Nouns
Group of things that are regarded
as one (persons, things, animals)
A team of athletes, a
bunch of keys
Compound
Nouns
Nouns (Combining 2 @ more
words) countable @ uncountable
Doorknob (door+knob)
Footbal (foot+ball)
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Common Nouns
Countable nouns
Uncountable
nouns
Singular
eg:
one
apple
Plural
eg:
two
apples
Cannot be
counted, eg:
water, sand,
money, furniture
Plural Forms of Countable Nouns
Rules Singular Nouns Plural Nouns
1. Adding s chair, car, chairs, cars
2. Adding es to nouns end in ch, sh, s,x,o witch, bus, box witches, buses,
boxes
3. Adding ies to nouns end with y
If y after a vowel, adding s)
baby, library
day, key
babies, libraries
days, keys
4. Change f or fe to ves
Exception: Some end with f, add s
wolf, knife
chief, roof
wolves, knives
chiefs, roofs
5. Change the vowels man, woman men, women
6. Adding en Child, ox Children, oxen
7. Some nouns remain the same for both
singular and plural form
sheep, deer, series,
species
sheep, deer,
series, species
8. Nouns borrowed from Greek and Latin,
have Greek and Latin ending
bacterium, fungus,
stimulus, crisis
bacteria, fungi,
stimulus, crises
Uncountable Nouns
Categories Examples
Abstract Nouns calm, ego, idea, strength
Activities chatting, reading, swimming
Fields of study physics, science, music, art
Foods asparagus, beef, rice, fish
Liquids juice, milk, petrol, soy sauce
Materials gold, leather, satin, wool
Particles dirt, pepper, salt, sugar
Uncountable Nouns can be counted
Countable Examples
Baggage/ Luggage Excessive baggage is not permitted in some airlines
Clothing The winter clothing us kept in the attic.
Garbage/Junk/Trash/Rubbish The garbage is collected on every Sunday and Thursday
Computer hardware Computer hardware has become a vital part I out life.
Office Equipment The office equipment is here.
Fruit Fruit is a good source of vitamins, minerals, and fibre.
Furniture The furniture is a mixture of cane and wood.
Jewellery Fake jewellery is an in-trend among teenagers today.
Machinery Industrial machinery is a must in warehouse operation
Mail The mail contains a message from Uncle Tom.
Makeup Stage makeup usually uses brighter colors.
Money/Cash/Change My money is not enough to pay for the novel.
Scenery The scenery at the top of Mount Kinabalu is nice.
Traffic The traffic at the top of the hill is simply breathtaking.
The subject in the sentences identifies
someone or something (the doer of
the action)
Eg: Salmi eats an apple.
subject
Nouns as
Subjects
The object in a sentence refers to
someone or something which receives
the action.
Eg: The clerk types the report.
object
Nouns as
Objects
1.2 Pronouns
Personal Pronouns
(subject and object)
Possessive Pronouns
(Possessive Adjectives)
Reflective Pronouns Relative Pronouns
Demonstrative
Pronouns
Indefinite Pronouns
Interrogative Pronouns
PERSONAL PRONOUNNS POSSESSIVE
PRONOUNS
POSSESSIVE
ADJECTIVES
REFLECTIVE
PRONOUNS
SUBJECT OBJECT
I Me Mine My Myself
She Her Hers Her Herself
He Him His His Himself
You You Yours You Yourself
It It NIL Its Itself
We Us Ours Our Ourselves
They Them Theirs Their Themselves
You You Yours Your Yourselves
S
I
N
G
U
L
A
R
P
L
U
R
A
L
TYPES FORMS LISTS USED FOR
INDEFINITE
PRONOUNS
Singular Anybody, anyone, nobody, no
one, everybody, everyone,
somebody, some one
People
Anything, everything, nothing,
something
Things
INTERROGATIVE
PRONOUNS
Who, whom People
Whose, what People, animal
Which People, animal, things, places,
ideas, etc
DEMONSTRATIVE
PRONOUNS
Singular

Plural
This, that

These, those
People, animal, things, places
ideas, etc
RELATIVE
PRONOUNS
Who, whom People
Whose People, animals
That People, animals, things, places,
ideas, etc
Which Animals, things, places, ideas,
etc
1.3 Verbs
ACTION VERBS NON - ACTION VERBS
1.0 TRANSITIVE
2.0 INTRANSITIVE
1.0 BE VERBS
3.0 LINKING VERBS
Examples:
Minnie is nibbling.
The horse trotted.
The model pranced.
Sid eats.
Requires an object after verb
Ex: Irma carried a basket
Des not requires an object after verb
Ex: they are sleeping.
2.0 VERBS TO HAVE
am, is , are, was, were
has, have, had
To show possession
To express sensory perception
To show requests, preferences
To indicate appearances
To express feelings, thoughts
1.4 Subject Verb Agreement
Rules Example
Singular verbs for singular subjects. She is absent today.
Plural verbs for plural subjects. The girls are absent today.
When and is used, = plural Green and blue are my favorite color.
Each, every, everyone, no one, none,
someone, something, somebody, anybody,
anyone, anything = singular verbs
Every student is required to buy the book.
Every boy and girl needs the book.
As well as, together with, accompanied by
are used, the verb agrees with true subject
Zila, accompanied by her parents, is
The players, together with their coach, are
resting
Gerund (verb+ing) = singular Cycling is my favorite hobby.
When There precedes a subject, the must
agree with the subject.
There is a cow
There are a few books
The number of
1.4 Subject-Verb Agreement