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2003 Prentice Hall. Inc.

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Instructor presentation questions: docwin@tampabay.rr.com
Job Analysis
A Prelude to
Recruitment and
Placement
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Chapter Outline
I. The Nature of Job Analysis
Job Analysis Defined
Uses of Job Analysis Information
Steps in Job Analysis
II. Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information
Introduction
The Interview
Questionnaire
Observation
Participant Diary/Logs
Using Multiple Sources of Information
Class Exercise


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Chapter Outline
(to be covered next class)
III. Writing Job Descriptions
Job Identification
Job Summary
Relationships
Responsibilities and Duties
Standards of Performance
Working Conditions and Physical Environment
IV. Writing Job Specifics
Specifications for Trained Versus Untrained Personnel
Job Specifications Based on Judgment
Job Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis
V. Job Analysis in a Jobless World
From Specialized to Enlarged Jobs
Why Managers are De-jobbing Their Companies


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Part 1: The Nature of Job
Analysis
Job analysis defined
Uses of job analysis information
Steps in job analysis
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Job Analysis What is it and
how is it used?
The procedure for determining the
duties and skill requirements of a job
and the kind of person who should be
hired for it.


Check this A+ site out and list some
of the purposes for which job analysis
is used.

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What Information do I
Collect?
Work activities
Human behaviors
Machines, tools, equipment
and work aids
Performance standards
Job context (Environment)
Human requirements
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Work activities
Cleaning
Selling
Teaching
Painting
How, why and when the
activities are performed

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Human behaviors
Sensing
Communicating
Deciding
Writing

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Machines, Tools,
Equipment, Work Aids
Equipment used
Materials
processed
Knowledge dealt
with or applied
Services rendered
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Performance Standards
Information about the jobs
performance standards in terms of
quality or quantity).
These standards will be used when
appraising employees.

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Job Context (Environment)
Physical working
conditions
Work schedule
Organizational context
Social context (the
number of people with
whom the employee
would normally interact)
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Human Requirements
Job-related knowledge
and skills
Education
Training
Work experience
Personal attributes
Aptitudes
Physical characteristics
Personality
Interests
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Uses of Job Analysis
Information
Job Analysis
Recruiting and
Selection
Decisions
Performance
Appraisal
Job Evaluation
Wage and Salary
Decisions
(Compensation)
Training
Requirements
Job Description
and
Job Specification
Figure 3-1
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Uses of Job Analysis
Information
Recruitment and selection
Compensation
Performance Appraisal
Training
Discovering unassigned duties
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Recruitment and Selection
Job analysis provides information
about what the job entails and the
human characteristics required to
perform these activities.

This information aids management
to decide and select the most
suitable person to hire.
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Compensation
Job analysis includes
details about the jobs
required skills &
educational level, work
environment, degree of
responsibility ..etc.
These are the basis upon which the job value
& its appropriate compensation are set.
Relative job worth

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Performance Appraisal
Job analysis includes
information about the
jobs performance
standards
Performance appraisal
compared employees
actual performance
against these standards.
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Training
The job description
should show the activities
and skillsand therefore
the trainingthat the job
requires.

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Discovering Unassigned
Duties
Job analysis can also
help reveal unassigned
duties.

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Steps in Job Analysis
1. Decide how to use the information
2. Review relevant background information
3. Select representative positions
4. Conduct the analysis
5. Verify with the worker and supervisor
6. Develop a job description and job
specification (two tangible outputs of job
analysis)
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Part 2: Methods of Collecting
Job Analysis Information
The interview
Questionnaire
Observation
Participant diary/logs
Multiple sources of information
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Collecting Job Analysis
Information
Joint effort between
HR, the worker and
the supervisor

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Employees may be
Concerned Because of
Resistance to change
Possible changes to job duties
Changes to pay
Lack of trust of consequences
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Widely Used: The Interview
Individual interviews with
each employee
Group interviews with
groups of employees who
have the same job
Supervisor interviews with
one or more supervisors
who know the job.
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Sample Interview Questions
What is the job being performed?
What are the major duties of your position? What
exactly do you do?
What physical locations do you work in?
What are the education, experience, skill, and
[where applicable] certification and licensing
requirements?
In what activities do you participate?
What are the jobs responsibilities and duties?
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Sample Interview Questions
(continued)
What are the basic accountabilities or performance
standards that typify your work?
What are your responsibilities? What are the
environmental and working conditions involved?
What are the jobs physical demands? The emotional
and mental demands?
What are the health and safety conditions?
Are you exposed to any hazards or unusual working
conditions?

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Interview Guidelines
The job analyst and supervisor should
identify the workers who know the job
best and would be objective
Establish a rapport with the interviewee
Follow a structured guide or checklist
Ask a worker to list duties in order of
importance and frequency of occurrence
Review and verify data
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Interview Guidelines
Pro:
1. Simple, quick and easy
2. May generate information that never
appears on written documents
3. Provides an opportunity to explain the
need of the analysis
4. Employee may be able to vent
frustration
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Interview Guidelines
Con:
1. Expensive and time consuming
2. Distortion

Thus should be used with other methods
(multiple sources)
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How to Conduct a
Questionnaire Session
Having employees fill out questionnaires to
describe their job-related duties &
responsibilities is a good way to obtain job
analysis information.

First, you have to decide on how structured or
open-ended the questionnaire will be.
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How to Conduct a
Questionnaire Session
In structured questionnaires, employees are
given an inventory of specific duties to select
from.
Example of open ended questionnaires could
be describe the major duties of your job
The ideal questionnaire would be a
combination of both structured questions and
open-ended ones.
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PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY
POSITION DESCRIPTION

* * PLEASE READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING THIS FORM * * ( ) New ( ) Revised

SECTION 1. POSITION INFORMATION
a. Class Title:
b. Class No.:
c. Effective Date:
d. Position No.:
e. Working Title:
f. Work Unit:
g. Agency No.:
h. Employee Name:
i. Work Location (City-County):
_________________________________________________________________________________
j. Position: ( ) Permanent ( ) Seasonal ( ) Limited Duration ( ) Academic Year
( ) Full Time ( ) Part Time ( ) Intermittent ( ) Job Share
_________________________________________________________________________________
k. FLSA: ( ) Exempt ( ) Non-Exempt l. Eligible for Overtime: ( ) Yes ( ) No
_________________________________________________________________________________
SECTION 2. PROGRAM/POSITION INFORMATION

a. Describe the program in which this job exists. Include program purpose, who's affected, size, and scope.
Include relationship to agency mission.


b. Describe the purpose of this position, and how it functions within this program, by completing this statement:
The purpose of this job/position is to . . .



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SECTION 3. DESCRIPTION OF DUTIES

List major duties. Note percentage of time duties are performed. If this is an existing position, mark "N" for new duties or
"R" for revised duties.
% of
Time N/R DUTIES
_________________________________________________________________________________

SECTION 4. WORKING CONDITIONS

Describe special working conditions, if any, that are a regular part of this job. Include frequency of exposure to these
conditions.
________________________________________________________________________________

SECTION 5. GUIDELINES

a. List any established guidelines used to do this job, such as state or federal laws or regulations, policies, manuals or
desk procedures.


b. How are these guidelines used to perform the job?

SECTION 6. WORK CONTACTS

With whom outside of co-workers in this work unit must this position regularly come in contact?

Who Contacted How Purpose How Often?


SECTION 7. JOB-RELATED DECISION MAKING

Describe the kinds of decisions likely to be made by this position. Indicate affect of these decisions where possible.

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SECTION 8. REVIEW OF WORK

Who reviews the work of this position? (List classification title and position number.) How? How often? Purpose of the
review?
SECTION 9. SUPERVISORY DUTIES TO BE COMPLETED ONLY FOR POSITIONS IN MANAGEMENT SERVICE

a. How many employees are directly supervised by this position? _______ Through Subordinate Supervisors?
_______

b. Which of the following supervisory/management activities does this job perform?

( ) Plans Work ( ) Responds to Grievances ( ) Hires/Fires (or Effectively Recommends)
( ) Assigns Work ( ) Disciplines/Rewards ( ) Prepares and Signs Performance Appraisals
( ) Approves Work

SECTION 10. ADDITIONAL JOB-RELATED INFORMATION

Any other comments that would add to an understanding of this position:

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: List any special mandatory recruiting requirements for this position:

BUDGET AUTHORITY: If this position has authority to commit agency operating money, indicate in what area, how much
(biennially) and type of funds:
_________________________________________________________________________________
SECTION 11. ORGANIZATIONAL CHART

Attach a current organizational chart. See instructions for detail to be included on the chart.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Employee Signature Date Supervisor Signature Date

_________________________________________________
Appointing Authority Signature Date

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Questionnaire
Pro: Is a quick, cheap & efficient way to
obtain information from a large number
of employees
Con: developing the questionnaire can
be expensive, time consuming and
requires professionals.
May miss out on interpretations
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Observation
Observation may be
combined with
interviewing
Take complete notes

Talk with the person being
observed explain what is
happening and why
Ask questions
Main problem is Reactivity
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Diaries and Logs
Time-consuming
Remembering what
was done earlier
Can use dictating
machines and pagers
Includes critical &
infrequent tasks
(complete picture)
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Using Multiple Sources
To avoid in accuracies, some
organizations use several data
collection methods to perform
job analysis.
For example, collect data from
different types of respondents:
employee, supervisor..etc.
For example use
questionnaires or observation
first followed by interviews
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Methods of Collecting Job Analysis
Information - Comparison
1. Interviews
2. Questionnaire
3. Observation
4. Diary/Logs

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Part 3: Writing Job
Descriptions
1. Job Identification
2. Job Summary
3. Relationships
4. Responsibilities and Duties
5. Standards of Performance
6. Working Conditions and Physical
Environment
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Job Identification
Title
Date
Approvals
Supervisors title
Salary
Grade level
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Job Summary
General nature
Major functions or
activities
Includes general
statements
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Relationships Statement for
Human Resource Director
Department
Secretary
Human Resource
Clerk
Test
Administrator
Labor Relations
Manager
Human Resource
Director
Vice President
Employee Relations
Works with all
department
managers and
executive
management
Works with
employment
agencies,
recruiters, union
reps, state and
federal agencies,
vendors
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Responsibilities and Duties
Examples
Establishes marketing goals to ensure share
of market
Maintaining balanced and controlled
inventories
Defines the limits of job holders authority
Purchasing authority
Discipline
Interviewing and hiring
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Standards of Performance -
Example
Duty: Meeting Daily Production Schedule
Work group produces no fewer than 426
units per working day
Next workstation rejects no more than an
average of 2% of units
Weekly overtime does not exceed an
average of 5%
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Part 4: Writing Job
Specifications
What human traits and
experience are required to
do the job well?
Specifications for trained
versus untrained personnel
Specifications based on
judgment
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Job Related Behaviors
Industriousness
Thoroughness
Schedule flexibility
Attendance
Off-task behavior
Unruliness
Theft
Drug misuse
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Use a Job
Analysis Questionnaire


JOB ANALYSIS

Job Title:
Description of the Job:


Tasks


Tools Used


Standards for
Performance


Conditions for
Performance




















































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Part 5: Job Analysis in a
Jobless World
Job is generally defined as a set of
closely related activities carried out for
pay.
Today, this has changed. There will
always be enormous amounts of work to
do, but it is not going to be contained in
the familiar envelopes we call jobs.

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Part 5: Specialized to
Enlarged Jobs
Experts like Adam Smith and Fredrick Taylor
wrote glowingly of the positive effects of work
specialization.
By the mid-1900s writers wrote of the
dehumanizing effects of pigeonholing workers
into highly repetitive and specialized jobs.
Many proposed: Job Enlargement, Rotation
and Enrichment
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Part 5: Specialized to
Enlarged Jobs
Job Enlargement: assigning workers additional
same-level activities, thus increasing the number
of activities they perform. (instead of just one lousy job, I
have two)
Job Rotation: systematically moving workers
from one job to another to enhance work team
performance &/or broaden his experience &
identify strong & weak points.
Job Enrichment: redesigning jobs in a way that
increases the opportunities for the worker to feel
responsible, growth & recognition (by planning
and controlling his work)
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Specialized to Enlarged
Jobs
Job Enlargement = same-level activities
Job Rotation = moving from one job to
another
Job Enrichment = redesigning to
experience more responsibility,
achievement, growth and recognition
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Why are managers
Dejobbing their companies
Dejobbing is broadening the
responsibilities of the companys jobs
and encouraging employees not to limit
themselves to whats on their job
description.
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Trends and De-Jobbing
Rapid product and
technological
changes
Global
Changes
Demographics
Competition
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Why are managers
Dejobbing their companies
Flatter Organizations
Work Teams
Boundaryless Organizations (virtual,
network, modular)
Reengineering
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Traditional Organization
Chart
Executive Assistant
Manager
Manager
Manager
Sales Sales Sales
Manager
Director
East Region
Manager
Manager
Manager
Sales Sales
Manager
Director
West Region
Vice President
Sales
Manager
Manager
Director
Public Relations
Vice President
Marketing
Clerk
Administrator
Director
Compensation
and Benefits
Tech. Writer
Manager
Sr. Trainer
Sr. Trainer
Director
Training and
Development
Vice President
Human Resources
Logistics
Plant Manager
Plant Manager
Director
Manufacturing
Vice President
Operations
Tax
Finance
Clerk
Accounting
Accounting
Accounting
Driector
Audit and
Accounting
Vice President
Finance
President
Chief Executive Officer
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Flatter Organizations
Technical
Development
Team
Manufacturing
Engineering
Team
People
Systems
Team
Finance
Team
Purchasing and
Suppllier Quality
Team
Sales, Service and
Marketing
Team
Executive and
Operations
Team
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Flat and Boundaryless
Organizations
I K E A
WAL MART
General
Electric
Procter & Gamble
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Competency-based Job
Analysis
We reviewed the nature of job analysis, how it
is used, some legal issues and three methods
of collecting job analysis information.
We practiced writing job descriptions and
looked at descriptions in detail.
We reviewed the six steps involved in job
analysis and reviewed traditional and
contemporary methods of organizing.
WHEW!