Anda di halaman 1dari 53

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

PHILOSOPHIES
B.F. Skinner by Julie Kasper
Lee And Marlene Canter by Robert Ballard
Fredrick Jones by Jason C. Leib
Marvin Marshall By Angela Thompson

B.F. SKINNER
Classroom Management Philosophy

B.F. Skinner's theories on discipline in the
classroom have helped to mold the way teachers
instill discipline in their students for decades. His
theories were not directed at classroom behavior,
but his findings


Have influenced and led the way in many
classroom discipline methods since the 1960s
MAIN POINTS OF HIS THEORY
B. F. Skinners entire system is based on operant
conditioning. The organism is in the process of
operating on the environment, which in ordinary
terms means it is bouncing around its world, doing
what it does. During this operating, the organism
encounters a special kind of stimulus, called a
reinforcing stimulus, or simply a reinforce. This
special stimulus has the effect of increasing the
operant -- that is, the behavior occurring just before
the reinforce.











A behavior followed by a
reinforcing stimulus
results in an increased
probability of that
behavior occurring in the
future.

Reinforcement
A positive reinforcement is "a stimuli following an event that
causes this event to occur again or speed up." This is where if
a student does something that is pleasant, that student
recieves a reward. Examples of this is where a student is
given praise or a piece of candy for turning in their project on
time as asked.

A negative reinforcement is "contingency removal of aversive
stimuli." A common misconception of negative reinforcement is
the same as punishment. However, negative reinforcement is
where a student has something that is unpleasant, taken away
from them for doing something good. Examples of this would
be to give the student a "no homework" pass or take away a
day of a week long detention for good behavior.
A punishment is "a consequence following a
behavior that decreases the likelihood of the
behavior occuring again." This occurs when a
student has done something bad like break a
classroom rule or social standard. Thus one of
two things can happen. Either an unpleasant
stimuli is given to the student such as an extra
essay assignment, or a pleasant stimuli is taken
away from a student such as taking away
Preferred Activity Time or removing their chair.
STUDENTS THOUGHTS AND FEELINGS

A major complaint of many critics
is that all of Skinner's experiments
were done on animals and allow
no room for independent decision
making, that all men are equal in
their ability to think and to respond

Creating an orderly and stable classroom
environment has helped provide the essential
foundation for improving classroom behaviors,
study habits, and organizational skills. The key is to
be consistent in applying the positive and negative
consequences. When students are learning new
behaviors such as positive social skills, a
combination of the following strategies has
demonstrated the most success:
Modeling
Rehearsing appropriate behavior
Role Playing
Continuous Reinforcement
Prompting
TEACHER CONTROL IN ESTABLISHING RULES
Skinner believed that teachers should
supply immediate feedback to
students- ie. not allow students to
complete a complete worksheet before
giving feedback The teacher should
work with students on one question at
a time, not allowing students to
continually make the same mistakes
repeatedly .



Contingency Contracting This contract between the student and
teacher specifies what behaviors are appropriate and which are not
by listing what types of rewards or punishments will be received.

Token economy In a token economy, students are given some type
of token for appropriate behaviors, and those tokens can later be
exchanged for prizes or privileges.

Incentive System Applying an incentive system should involve all
students in the classroom. It would be designed to shape a
misbehaving child's behavior. For example, this system could be set
up to reward the whole class for total class compliance

Encouragement System The teacher could focus on one target
behavior to work on with the erring student, at first ignoring his other
misbehaviors. For instance, the teacher could give the offender a
reward card. For every problem that student completes correctly, he
would get a hole punched in his card. After so many holes, the
student would be rewarded some kind of prize, like candy. Make it
sugar-free, please.

Teachers and school
districts determine
classroom rules and what
are the punishments and
reinforcements that go
along with breaking or
obeying those rules.

SITUATION
Students working in small groups on a project. One
student begins to talk in an angry way to another of
his group members, stands up, and tosses papers
aside.

1) Using your authors theoretical approach, how
would you talk to or communicate with the
student?
2) How might your actions be affected if the student
were of a different ethnic group from you?
3) Based upon what you discovered from your
author, what do you feel would need to be said to
that student and what might you say?




RESPONSE TO SITUATION: B.F. SKINNER

B. F. Skinners operant conditioning theory of
motivation is that the consequences of our past
actions influence our future actions in a cyclical
learning process.
The key is to be consistent in applying the positive
and negative consequences. He believed teachers
should supply immediate feedback. In the case of
the student talking in a angry tone with his group
members and tossing the paper aside the teacher
would handle the situation by:
Offering some sort of positive reinforcement that is
especially preferred by the student which is
contingent upon group success.


RESPONSE TO SITUATION: B.F. SKINNER

B.F. Skinner, stated that "the consequences
of an act affects the probability of it
occurring again."
Unless children are rewarded for good
behavior, and punished for violent behavior,
they will not learn to control themselves.
The combination of positive and negative
reinforcements will largely determine how a
person behaves later in life.
LEE AND MARLENE CANTER
Philosophy of Classroom Management
DEGREE OF TEACHER CONTROL
Assertive discipline is an
approach to classroom
management developed by Lee
and Marlene Canter. It involves a
high level of teacher control in the
class.
DEGREE OF STUDENT CONTROL
Assumptions of this approach include:
Students will misbehave. Students must be
forced to comply with rules.


Punishment will make students avoid
breaking rules and positive reinforcement
will encourage good behavior.
CONCERN FOR STUDENTS THOUGHTS AND
FEELINGS

There is concern for the students feelings
as teachers are not to be seen as hostile
toward the students.

The underlying goal of assertive discipline
is to allow teachers to engage students in
the learning process uninterrupted by
students misbehavior.
THEORETICAL BASIS
In 1970 Lee began serving as a
psychiatric social worker for
children in southern California. He
soon realized that if teachers were
trained to manage their students
behavior, they could have a
positive impact on those students
lives.
CHILDRENS DECISION MAKING
External focus of control
where rules and
consequences are
determined by an authority
figure and students are told
they can choose to obey or
not.
MAIN POINTS OF THE THEORY
Recognizing and supporting them
when they behave appropriately, and
on a consistent basis letting them
know you like what they are doing.
Students obey the rules because they
get something out of it.
Students understand the
consequences of breaking the rules.
TEACHER REACTIONS
Dismiss the thought that there is any
acceptable reason for misbehavior.
Decide which rules (4 or 5 are best) you
wish to implement in your classroom.
Determine negative consequences for
noncompliance.
Determine positive consequences for
appropriate behavior.
List the rules on the board along with the
positive and negative consequences.
HANDLING MISBEHAVIOR
The approach maintains that teachers
must establish rules and directions
that clearly define the limits of
acceptable and unacceptable student
behavior, teach these rules and
directions, and ask for assistance from
parents and/or administrators when
support is needed in handling the
behavior of students

SITUATION
Students working in small groups on a project. One
student begins to talk in an angry way to another of
his group members, stands up, and tosses papers
aside.

1) Using your authors theoretical approach, how
would you talk to or communicate with the
student?
2) How might your actions be affected if the student
were of a different ethnic group from you?
3) Based upon what you discovered from your
author, what do you feel would need to be said to
that student and what might you say?

RESPONSE TO SITUATION:
LEE AND MARLENE CANTER
1. I would let the student know that the type of
behavior he is displaying is not acceptable in this
classroom. I would also tell him he has 2 choices
to choose from.
* Spend the next week working on the
project during lunch with me.
* Take a failing grade for the assignment
and spend lunch with me for the next 2
weeks.
RESPONSE TO SITUATION:
LEE AND MARLENE CANTER
2. I would offer the same choices to any
student of any ethnicity.


3. I would let the student know that
interrupting the learning of others is not
tolerated, also that negative behavior
usually comes with its own set of
consequences.
FREDRIC JONES
Clinical Psychologist
Positive Classroom Management.
The basic assumptions of
Positive Discipline Model are
that children need to be
controlled and that teachers
can achieve this control
through body language,
administration, and parental
support.
DEGREE OF TEACHER CONTROL
Holding and communicating high expectations for
student learning and behavior.

Establishing and clearly teaching classroom rules
and procedures. Effective managers teach
behavioral rules and classroom routines in much
the same way as they teach instructional content,
and they review these frequently at the beginning of
the school year and periodically thereafter.

Specifying consequences and their relation to
student behavior. Effective managers are careful to
explain the connection between students'
misbehavior and teacher-imposed sanctions. This
connection, too, is taught and reviewed as needed.

DEGREE OF STUDENT CONTROL IN
ESTABLISHING RULES
Help with making classroom rules in the
beginning of the year


Vote periodically on teacher approved
incentives (PAT):Preferred Activity Time



CONCERN FOR STUDENTS
THOUGHTS, FEELINGS

If students feel they are
respected as individuals, they
will want to act with similar
behaviors


THEORETICAL BASIS
Dr. Jones received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from
UCLA specializing in work with schools and families

Dr. Jones developed methods of helping children with
severe emotional disorders as head of the Child
Experimental Ward of the Neuropsychiatric Institute.

Dr. Jones continued to develop the non-adversarial
management procedures that were to become
Positive Classroom Discipline and Positive
Classroom Instruction.
HOW DO THEY VIEW CHILDREN IN REGARDS
TO MAKING DECISIONS?
Self regulate other student behavior because they
will loss there Preferred Activity Time

using a students natural tendencies to guide them
in the learning process

believer in trust and responsibility amongst the
students

MAIN POINTS
Provide a structured classroom learning environment: A teacher in a structured
classroom with expectations and consistency in instruction and classroom management
creates classroom magic. The physical structure of chairs and room arrangement can allow
the teacher greater access to students who need proximity and more individualized
attention.

Create classroom control by creating effective instruction: Teachers can create
effective classroom control by providing consistent instruction that is engaging and
performance based. By implementing real-life application strategies in lesson planning,
teachers can keep students in self-control and interested in the learning process and
outcome.

Set limits and classroom management consequences: Teachers are under contracts to
maintain control of the classroom. By providing students with limits and consequences for
off-task behavior and learning disengagement, the classroom becomes a win-win learning
community for the teacher and students.

Build collaborative and cooperative learning communities: Jones (2000) proposed an
incentive reward system titled PAT (Preferred Activity Time) that can be used to celebrate
student achievements and accomplishments.

Have a back-up plan: Teachers should have a back-up plan that includes scenarios and
consequences for minor infractions or one time student disruptions. The plan can be as
simple as a warning to as complex as after school detention.


WHAT SHOULD TEACHERS BE DOING/NOT
DOING WHEN STUDENTS MISBEHAVE
Reacting calmly to a
situations will help to defuse
conflict and promote control
in the classroom.
problems are dealt with
swiftly and consistently
Use body language and
proximity to deter bad
behavior
Parents & administrators can
be used to gain control over
student behavior
Take away PAT time from
class
Ignore the behavior
let the behavior
continue
Make exceptions for
students




Do DONT
HOW SHOULD TEACHERS APPROACH
STUDENTS WHO MISBEHAVE ACCORDING TO
THE AUTHOR
Early response to problem behavior and limit
setting followed by warning

Follow through the next time (consistency)

Effective delivery of student to time out if she resists

Effective response to problems that student might
cause while in time out
SITUATION
Students working in small groups on a project. One
student begins to talk in an angry way to another of
his group members, stands up, and tosses papers
aside.

1) Using your authors theoretical approach, how
would you talk to or communicate with the
student?
2) How might your actions be affected if the student
were of a different ethnic group from you?
3) Based upon what you discovered from your
author, what do you feel would need to be said to
that student and what might you say?

RESPONSE TO SITUATION: FREDRIC JONES



1) I would walk calmly over to the student and state
to the student that they need to go to the time out
area and think about their actions. When they
could behave correctly that they may re-enter the
class. When student re-entered the class we
would discuss there actions and make a decision
on if PTA would be loss for the whole class and if
parents and administration need to be contacted
because of their actions.

RESPONSE TO SITUATION: FREDRIC JONES


2) My actions would not change based upon
their ethnicity


3) When the student reentered the room. I
would ask what could be so bad that you had
to throw their paper everywhere? (Hear their
side of the story) Then we would talk about
the consequences for their actions.

MARVIN MARSHALL

Discipline Without
Stress
1.WHAT IS THE DEGREE OF TEACHER CONTROL IN
ESTABLISHING RULES AND NORMS?

Teach- instead of posting "Rules" that focus on
obedience, consider posting "Responsibilities" that
empower and elevate. Be proactive rather than
waiting and having to react.

Responsibilities:
*HAVE MY MATERIALS
*BE WHERE I BELONG
*FOLLOW DIRECTIONS
*DO MY ASSIGNMENTS
*BE KIND TO OTHERS

Three (3) principles to practice: (1) Positivity -
establishing good relationships (2) Choice - using a
non-coercivebut not permissiveapproach, and (3)
Reflection prompting change

2.WHAT IS THE DEGREE OF STUDENT
CONTROL?
*Uses the Hierarchy of Social Development
*It is all about choices and responsibility for
ones actions.
*Motivation is prompted so young people
develop a desire to be responsible and self-
disciplined and put forth effort to learn.

3.IS THERE CONCERN FOR STUDENTS
THOUGHTS AND FEELINGS ETC.?
Yes, through:
1) Positivity is a more constructive teacher than
negativity.
(2) Choice empowers.
(3) Self-evaluation is essential for lasting improvement.
(4) People choose their own behaviors.
(5) Self-correction is the most effective approach to
change behaviors.
(6) Acting responsibly is the most satisfying of rewards.
(7) Growth is greater when authority is used without
punishment.


4.DO THEY HAVE A THEORETICAL BASIS OR
ROOT?
Proactive and non-coercive (but not
permissive) approach

Has a system that uses internal
motivationrather than relying on external
approaches (bribes, manipulation, threats or
punishment)

Is certified by the William Glasser Institute
on Reality Therapy and Choice Theory.


5.HOW DO THEY VIEW CHILDREN IN REGARDS
TO MAKING DECISIONS?
This approach suggest that the student
should:
Acknowledge their own inappropriate
behavior
the student self-evaluates
the student takes ownership of the problem
the student develops a plan

In the process, the student grows.


6. WHAT ARE THE MAIN POINTS OF THE
THEORY?
The system is based on the simple
fact of life that a person can be
controlled by another person but only
can be changed by the actual person.
This understanding that individuals
can only change themselves is critical
to successfully influencing young
people to have them become more
responsible. (Marshall)
7.DOES AND DON'TS FOR MISBEHAVING
STUDENTS
Dont:
Give rewards-
rewards reinforce
their childish values
Be permissive

Use discipline
techniques


Do:
Foster the values
that promote
responsible
behavior
Be non-coercive
Practice good
classroom
management skills
8.HOW SHOULD TEACHERS APPROACH CHILDREN
WHO MISBEHAVE?
The Raise Responsibility System
A. (Teaching) Teach the hierarchy of social development
that has two unacceptable levels of behavior and two
acceptable levels. The levels are outlined at A Letter to
Parents. The hierarchy has built-in choices and
promotes the desire for internal motivation--rather than
external manipulations of rewards or coercion through
threats and punishments. See AboutDiscipline.com.
B. (Asking) To immediately stop irresponsible behavior,
check for understanding by asking the student to reflect
or identify the behavioral level chosen. This step
enhances self-discipline.
C. (Eliciting) If irresponsible behavior continues,
elicit a consequence or a procedure to help the
student help him or herself. This is in contrast to the
usual discipline approach of imposing a consequence
that disempowers and alienates.


SITUATION
Students working in small groups on a project. One
student begins to talk in an angry way to another of
his group members, stands up, and tosses papers
aside.

1) Using your authors theoretical approach, how
would you talk to or communicate with the
student?
2) How might your actions be affected if the student
were of a different ethnic group from you?
3) Based upon what you discovered from your
author, what do you feel would need to be said to
that student and what might you say?

RESPONSE TO SITUATION:
MARVIN MARSHALL
1.How would the author communicate with the student?
The author would probably use a behavior chart that is part of
his theory that students are responsible for their own actions.
There are two charts that he might have the students reference
when trying to get a student to change a behavior and they are
Impulse Management and Levels of Development charts. Each
chart makes the student aware of their actions and makes them
the responsible party in what action they choose to pursue next
(self-disciplined).

2.How might actions be affected by the students ethnic group?
I dont see the authors actions being different due to ethnic
group or background.

RESPONSE TO SITUATION:
MARVIN MARSHALL
3.Based on the author, what do you think he might
say to the student? What would you say to the
student?
The author might ask the student where his/or her
Development level is (Democracy, Cooperation,
Bossing, Anarchy). He would also tell the student
to STOP, Gasp a long deep breathTHINK of the
optionsand GO make a choice. I would probably
address the group as a whole and find out what the
problem is and then have the students come up
with a solution together.





REFERENCES:


http://www.fredjones.com/


http://www.marvinmarshall.com/