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INTRODUCTION
HVDC is accepted as an economical alternative to ac
transmission.
Used in Underground, submarine, long distant transmissions
Also for interconnecting networks under different
frequencies.
This extensive application demands modelling techiques for
planning purposes.
The basic ac load flow is substantially modified to incorporate
the DC variables.
Thus there are single phase and three phase algorithms.

SOLUTIONS
Done in Fast Decoupled Method
Sequential solution techniques.
AC and DC eqns are solved separately.
For AC solution, converter stations are
represented as real & reactive Power sources.
For DC soln, AC systems are represented as a
constant voltage source.
These are cross substituted until the convergence
is satisfied.
The operating state of the combined AC-HVDC power
system is defined by the vector,

where
v is a vector of the voltage magnitudes at all a.c.
system bus bars,
is a vector of the angles at all a.c. system bus bars
(except the reference bus which is assigned = 0)
x is a vector of d.c. variables
AC system eqns are derived from the ac operating conditions
with modification required to real & reactive power
mismatches at converter terminal bus bar.

where

Equations derived from ac system conditions

(mismatches at converter terminal bus bars are indicated
separately)

Eqns from dc system conditions

General AC-DC load flow problem is as

term refers to converter ac terminal bus bar
Formulation of ac-dc load flow equation based
on NR algorithm

term
= [ J ] V
V
term
x

J is the matrix of first order partial derivatives
P
term
=

Q
term
=

Modeling of HVDC systems
The representation of the dc systems requires
consideration of the following:
Converter model
DC transmission line/network model
Interface between ac and dc systems
DC system controls model
DC SYSTEM MODEL
Assumptions before selection of and formulation of eqns:
The three a.c. voltages at the terminal bus bar are balanced
and sinusoidal.
The converter operation is perfectly balanced (small voltage
drop is neglected).
The direct current and voltage are smooth.
The converter transformer is lossless and the magnetising

Selection of Converter Variables
Similar bridges connected to same AC terminal busbars
operate identically.
Single phase equivalent circuit

DC variables
Min no. of variables is the no. of independent variables by
which any other system parameter (eg: Pdc & Qdc) can be
expressed.
The set of independent variables which is required to define
the operation of the converter (i.e to model the DC system)
and to define the control specification of the HVDC converter
are given by
[ x ]=[V
d
, I
d
, a, cos, ]
T

dc per system
Use common power and voltage base parameters on both
sides of the converter, i.e. the a.c. and d.c. sides for
simplicity.
To preserve consistency of power in per unit, the direct
current base, obtained from (MVA
B
)/V
B
has to be 3 times
larger than the a.c. current base.

In pu the eqn is,

K=0.995
Equations describing the DC system are given as ,
1.The fundamental current magnitude on the converter
side is related to the direct current by

2.The fundamental current magnitudes on both sides of
the lossless transformer are related by the off-
nominal tap,
3. The d.c. voltage may be expressed in terms of the
bus bar voltage on the system side of the converter
transformer, V
term

4. The d.c. current and voltage are related by the d.c.
system configuration

5. Real power equation relates dc power to transformer
primary real power and secondary real power (lossless
transformer)

Eqn 1,2&5 can be combined to give

The equations for P
dc
and Q
dc
may now be written as

i.e
Real power injection into the ac bus is P=V
d
I
d
=P
dc

Reactive power injection into the ac bus is Q = P
tan

DC system model can be summarized as follows
k - no of converters present

R is the vector of DC system equations and x is the
vector of independent variables for dc system
Incorporating control Equations

At each converter, the angle and the transformer tap
a can be controlled with in limits to achieve
current control, dc voltage control, real & reactive power
control.
Limits on the control variables must be considered when
specifying I
d
, V
d
, P
d
, Q
d

Each additional converter in the d.c. system contributes
two further constraint equations which must be derived
from the control strategy of the system to define the
operating state.

Inversion operation

All eqns for rectifier are also applicable to inverter.
Due to unidirectional nature of converter valves power
reversal requires direct voltage polarity reversal achieved by
delay angle control i.e >90
0
(average inverter voltage will be
negative)
Inverter voltage in terms of extinction angle is

The operating state of the combined AC-HVDC power
system is defined by the vector,

where
v is a vector of the voltage magnitudes at all a.c.
system bus bars,
is a vector of the angles at all a.c. system bus bars
(except the reference bus which is assigned = 0)
x is a vector of d.c. variables
AC system eqns are derived from the ac operating conditions
with modification required to real & reactive power
mismatches at converter terminal bus bar.

where

Equations derived from ac system conditions

(mismatches at converter terminal bus bars are indicated
separately)

Eqns from dc system conditions

Formulation of ac-dc load flow equation based
on NR algorithm

term
= [ J ] V
V
term
x

J is the matrix of first order partial derivatives
P
term
=

Q
term
=

Applying the ac fast decoupled assumptions to all
jacobian elements related to ac system eqns gives

Solution of AC-DC power flow
The solution methodology for AC-DC power flow
can be classified as
1. Simultaneous or unified
2. Sequential or alternating

Simultaneous method
In the first approach the AC & DC eqns are solved
simultaneously.

The matrices [B] & [B] are usual single phase FD
jacobians and are constant in value.
The jacobian element related to dc variables are non
constant and must be reevaluated at each iteration.

Sequential Solution
In the second approach, the AC and DC system equations are
solved separately and sequentially.

The AC system is solved to some degree of convergence using a
simple model for the DC system based on its last solution.
The DC system is then solved using a simplified representation
of the AC system.
Flowchart
Convergence criterion

The normal criterion for convergence in ac load flow
is that the bus bar power mismatches should be
small,

i.e P
i
< for all PV &PQ bus bars
Q
i
< for all PQ bus bars
where =1MW/MVAR
=0.1 MW/MVAR

DC convergence tolerance
General eqn is

An acceptable p.u tolerance for the d.c residuals (d.c.
powers, voltages and currents) is typically 0.001 p.u on
a 100MVA base, i.e. the same as that normally
adopted for the ac system.
Multiterminal d.c system
Each additional converter adds a further 5 variables
and a set of 5 equations to the basic algorithm
developed for single converter.
Jacobian elements in the a.c system corresponding to
the converter terminal bus bar gets modified in the
solution
consider the multiterminal dc system shown in
fig
Real power - dc jacobian in the unified method has
the structure shown
P/V
Pterm1/Vterm1 term1
. .
. .
Pterm6/Vterm6 = [J] term6
R1 X1
.
R6 X6
Reactive power - dc jacobian in the unified method
has the structure shown
Q/V V
Qterm1/Vterm1 Vterm1
. .
. .
Qterm6/Vterm6 = [J] Vterm6
R1 X1
.
R6 X6