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GEOLOGY 101

Class 5
Winter 2014
As we will discuss in detail later:

Two ways rocks are broken down:
1) Dissolve chemically
2) Physical break-up

The products of the physical break-
down get compacted and
cemented clastic sedimentary
rocks :
Shales
Sandstones
Siltstones

The rock material dissolved in water
precipitates out to form chemical
sedimentary rock
Limestones
Salt formations
Gypsium
Conglomerate
Clasts (Rock
Pieces) are
rounded eroded
by running water
prior to deposition
in this formation.

Various types of
cement hold the
clasts together.
Coquina
This comglorate
rock is composed
entirely of shell
material.
Where do we find
such shells?
Coal
The composition
of coal is?
Do different
varieties of coal
exist?
Why isnt it a
mineral?
Metamorphic Rocks
Coarsely foliated
gneiss formed
under intense heat
and pressure.

Formed within the
Earths crust, never
on the surface.
Metamorphism
Sandstone is
converted into
Quartzite, one of
the hardest, most
durable rocks,
when subjected to
metamorphism.
http://video.about.com/geology/What-Are-
Metamorphic-Rocks-.htm
The Value of Rocks
Building Materials

Durable
Cost effective
Variety of type and
color
Will last a long time
but NOT forever!
Rock Type Varies Leptis Magna
Basilica 300AD Leptis Magna
Trondheim, Norway 1070 AD
Soapstone metamorphed talc
Greenschist
Trondheim Cathedral 1070AD
Mormon Temple Salt Lake City
Built from huge quartzite clasts
Historic scientific debate: Vulcanist versus Neptunist
Neptunist view
Cold early earth
Rocks form by chemical precipitation from
water
Leader A. Werner: (1740-1817)- German
mining academy
Volcanoes aberration coal fired
Succession of layers, order of layers
Goethe Poet & Neptunist
Geologist
Hutton Uniformatarism and
Vulcanist
Vulcanism
Also Stratified Formations above Primitive Rock
(basalt and granite)
Identified igneous and metamorphic rocks caused
by HOT earth
Even sedimentary rock fused by heat, not
chemically cemented
French volcanic origin basalt flows turned the day
Neptunist support Principle of Original
Horizontality Vulcanist cross cutting
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-
N05ECc8hSCc/Us0aAVJgUNI/AAAAAAAAG1
U/i-69UVq-
nO4/s1600/Auvergne+Volcano+Park,+France
+20140108.jpg
Scropes Volcanoes of Central France
Rock Cycle This could go on forever
If you can describe
this chart well, you
will do well on the
first exam
Class Objectives - Chapter 3
Understand the definitions of rock and
minerals
Describe the three basic processes of rock
formation and the interrelationships of rock
types
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZEvCP7TX
IEU diasetta sinkhole
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g7Wh4-
lxlKE holes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=09Mg0Xy9
Pvk lava Galopogos
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ARBjmo
HAII Krack


Jacklyn Manziel Hopf leads Fall 2013 Geology 320/440 field trip to top of large granitic batholith
Class Objectives - Chapter 4
Explain the conditions under which rocks melt into
magma and the relationship of those conditions to plate
tectonics
Describe the processes that produce the three major
types of magma and the resulting differences in the
nature of the eruptions and intrusions that take place
Relate the magma types to the range of minerals
produced.
Recognize the various types of the igneous structures
and the resulting landforms and mineral/rock textures
Recognize the connection between igneous processes
and the creation of valuable mineral ores like gold,
silver, copper, iron, platinum, etc.
Definition
IGNEOUS ROCK - An aggregate of minerals
crystallized from molten rock (magma).
Major distinctions in rock type are based on
two criteria:
1) the chemical composition of the magma
(mafic to felsic) and
2) the environment of magma emplacement
(plutonic or intrusive vs. volcanic or extrusive)
http://csmres.jmu.edu/geollab/fichter/IgnRx/magmatyp.html
Igneous Rock-forming Minerals crystallized from
Various Magma Compositions
Observe these textures of igneous rocks
Large Crystals
Coarse Grained
Medium Grained Fine Grained
So, what causes these
differences in texture?
Igneous Rock Texture
Fine grain rapid cooling (Aphanitic)
At surface
Coarse grain slow, in crust cooling (Phanitic)
Glassy super fast cooling
Porphyritic two step crystallization, slow
then fast


Felsic Mafic Intermediate Ultramafic
Diorite Granite Gabbro Peridotite
Rhyolite Andesite Basalt Ultramafic lava
COARSELY CRYSTALLINE
FINELY CRYSTALLINE
Cooling Rate and Texture
S
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Intrusive
vs
Extrusive
Large Intrusive Features
Plutons

Batholiths

Stocks
Fine grained rock
Coarse grained rocks
http://geowww.geo.tcu.edu/faculty/donovan/10113%20igneous%20class%20rev/photoalb
um/pages/bowen%27s%20reaction%20series_jpg.htm
How Magma Cools
Conduction
into wall
rocks
Lose heat
to air,
water, or
underlying
rocks
Loses gases
Circulating water
Observe the settings of
igneous rocks and
consider where each
previous rock texture
could form
Pyroclastic flow
Column of
pyroclastic
material
Eruption of lava
Rapid cooling at
shallow depth
Slower cooling
at depth
Slow cooling
then fast cooling
Water-rich parts
of magma
Crystallization
Floating and sinking
crystals
Irregular Plutons
Batholith
Pikes Peak Batholith
Central Texas Uplift
Enchanted Rock
Sierra Nevada Batholith
Mt. Whitney, CA
Half Dome, CA
Types of Magma Eruptions
Fissures
Columbia &
Snake River
Basalt basins
- 8.5 km Iceland
(USGS photo
- Mid-ocean
ridges
Decca plateau
2.5 MM km-sq
Magma Eruptions
Fissures
Shield Volcano pure basalt Hawaii

Mauna Kea
13,795
Haleakala
10,023 (Maui)
Mauna Loa
13,677
Water depth > 16,000
Magma Eruptions
Fissures
Shield Volcano pure basalt Hawaii
Cinder Cone
clastic debris
Capulin (NM)
Pilot Knob

Paricutn, Mexico 1946 USGS photo
March
1944
Magma Eruptions
Fissures
Shield volcanoes
Cinder Cones
Composite
volcanoes
Mt St. Helens 1980
Before 1980 Most beautiful and peaceful
Forecast in 1975
North exploded May 18, 1980
3 cubic km avalanche and vertical explosion
Blast destroyed everything in path for 16 to 25km
Human deaths 25 km away
Pyroclastic debris flow (1600 degree F) -160 km/hr
Toutle River wiped out, 42 MM cubic m of debris in
Columbia
Ashes tracked around the world

Mt. St. Helens Eruptions
May 18, 1980 June 1980
http://www.iinet.com/~englishriver/LewisClarkColumbiaRiver/Images/st_helens_plume_from_fishers_landing_03-08-05.jpg
Mt St. Helens eruption 2005
Before and after pictures thanks
to National Geographic
Mt. St. Helens Before and After same sign
Could Rainier be next?
Mount Mazama now known at
Crater Lake, OR
The view across Norris Geyser Basin of the Yellowstone Caldera. Image by Erik Klemetti,
taken August 2010.
http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2012/05/giant-eruptions-from-yellowstone-caldera-may-have-taken-
millennia/
Volume of Material
Non-extrusive magma
Batholiths
Enchanted Rock
Laccoliths
Dikes
Zimbabwe 375 miles
6 miles wide
Sills
nuweb.neu.edu
Laccolith Big Bend N.P
Exposed dike
Shiprock N.
Longs Peak, CO
Ultra Mafic and Mafic
Basaltic Very hot mix
Low viscosity
High melting point minerals
Felsic and Intermediate
Andestic and granitic
High viscosity
Lower Temperature,
Lots of water and gas
Do differences in magma explain different kinds of volcanic forms?
Melting
continental
crust forms
felsic or
intermediate
magma
Melting mantle
forms mafic
magma
Role of Source Area
http://www.google.com/url?q=http://activity.ntsec.gov.tw/space/EN/show.asp%3FX
H50&ust=1346542391469504&usg=AFQjCNHcDdLk2Jph6cvbXXDeRiRF2pxwVw
The three kinds of magma:
Basaltic - hottest , deepest, and therefore includes the higher melting
point minerals like olivine and calcium plagioclase.
Andesite re-melted crust in the subduction zone
Rhyolite Lower temperature melting of silica crust, often with melting
points depressed by water introduced from below. Heat also from
magmas below
Decompression melting at sea-floor spreading
cracks and hot spots
and hot-spots
Changes to melting point curve with water or carbon dioxide (Volatile Infusion)
Factor in Subduction related remelting
Settings of Large Magma Chambers
Mid-ocean ridge
Oceanic hot spot
Subduction beneath
continent
Continental hot spot
Continental
collision
04_22.JPG
Igneous Processes and
Mineralization
Most copper, silver, gold, iron, chrome, etc.
found in ores in deposits created near the edges
of intrusive plutonic interaction

Fractional crystallization leaves behind
concentrated minerals in hot (steam)water
solution

Pegmatite contains large crystals formed in
mineral rich hot/steamy remains of fractional
crystallization


Example of Hydrothermal Formation
Hot fluids are
mineral-rich and
are forced into
cracks, fissures
and pores. Gold
and silver are
commonly
associated with
hydrothermal
formation.
Unique Layered Igneous Complex

Bushveld Complex
South Africa
480km to east-west and 240km to
north-south,
Bushveld Complex
Bushveld Igneous Complex

Large layered igneous intrusion tilted and eroded
outcrops around edge of a great geological basin
contains some of the richest ore deposits on Earth

Vast quantities of platinum, iron, tin, chromium titanium
and vanadium

Top complex felsic
granitic rocks
Thin, dark layers iron,
chromium, platinum
Lower part ultramafic
Main part intermediate
to mafic
Bushveld Complex Stratigraphy
Bingham Canyon Copper mine south west of Salt Lake City is mile deep, several
miles across and produces copper, gold, and silver. The ore is low grade, yielding
13 lb of copper for every ton of ore. http://academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/histgeol/penrose/penrose.htm
Class Objectives - Chapter 4
Explain the conditions under which rocks melt into
magma and the relationship of those conditions to plate
tectonics
Describe the processes that produce the three major
types of magma and the resulting differences in the
nature of the eruptions and intrusions that take place
Relate the magma types to the range of minerals
produced.
Recognize the various types of the igneous structures
and the resulting landforms and mineral/rock textures
Recognize the connection between igneous processes
and the creation of valuable mineral ores like gold,
silver, copper, iron, platinum, etc.
Igneous rock groups
Granite-Rhyolite (Orthoclase and quartz)
Diorite-Andesite (Sodic plagioclase, Pyroxene,
Amphibole)
Gabbro-Basalt (Calcic plagioclase, olivine, pyroxene)
Peridote Ultra-mafic (Olivine&pyroxene)
Obsidian glassy
Scoria Surface frothy basalt- low silica
Pumice gassy, light basalt - high silica
Tuff pyroclastic rock formed from ash and dust
Breccia volcanic rock formed from larger
fragments, glass, pumice and scoria

http://csmres.jmu.edu/geollab/fichter/IgnRx/di
sthtml.html
ENVIRONMENT OF FORMATION
Later we will see how
this relate to
how rocks erode?