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# B-36

## Some material savings can be achieved when adopting a

limited capacity beam , strengthened by two cover plates to
flanges in zones of higher bending requirements.
w
Length of
cover plate
Strength due to cover plate
Capacity of W-shape
M-diag.
x x
t
p

A
p

t
p

d
B-37
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

=
=
+ =
+ + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
p
p
p
f p
x x
x x
p
p x x
p p x
p
p
(Beam)
x x
b
A
t then welding), full (for
b than less ) (b platte cover of th Select wid
d
beam of Z Z required

d
Z - Z
A
small) is (t d Ap Z Z or
) t (d A Z
2
t
2
d
A 2 Z Z
After plate thickness and width are determined,
the plate length is determined from the B.M. diagram.
x x
t
p

A
p

t
p

d
B-38
For the simple beam shown, design the beam utilizing
W 18x46 which is available in stack, Fy = 36 ksi
Assume full lateral bracing (L
b
= 0).
Solution
W
u
= 1.2 D.L. + 1.6 L.L.
= 1.2 x 1.2 + 1.6 x 2.8 = 5.92 k/ft.

req. x
3
available
3
y b
u
req. x
y x p n
u
max
2 2
u
max
) (Z in 90.7 (Zx)
in 109.6
36 0.9
12 296
F
M
) (Z
F Z M M thus compact, is Selection
k. 59.2
2
20
5.92
2
L w
V
ft. k 296
8
5.92x(20)
8
l w
M
< =
=

= =
= =
= = =
= = =
Example B 12
20 ft
DL = 1.2 k/ft
LL = 2.8 k/ft
B-39
in
16
5
t in 4 b in 1.2 A say
in 1.1
18.06
90.7 109.6
d
Z Z
A
p p
2
p
2 ava. req.
p
= = =
=

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
2
0.3125
2
18.06
1.25 x 2 90.7 Z Actual
x
= 90.7 + 23 = 113.7 in
3
> 109.6 in
3
O.K.

Shear strength of w 18 46 |
v
V
n
= 176
kips

|
v
V
n
> V
u
= 59.2
k
OK

Length of Cover Plates:
Moment capacity of beam = |
b
M
p
= 0.9 90.7 36/12 = 245 kft.
B-40
The beam moment capacity
is good up to (x) location.
The middle region requires
coved-plates.
. 0 8.3 x - x Plate Cover of length l Theoretica
14.15 x & 5.85 x 245
2
x 5.92
- 59.2
2
x 5.92
59.2 M X at Moment
1 2
2 1
2
2
x
'
= =
= = =
= =
20'
need plate
296
245
x
5.92 k/ft
x
B-41
Development , length.
Need extra length to develop the strength of the plate, This extra length
at each end is called development length. This should be added to the
theatrical length to get the actual length..
- Minimum extra length at each end = 2 width of plate

In this example, need total length 5 9.0
12
2 4 2
8.3
'
=

+ =
(twice width)
Use 9'- 4" length
5'- 4" 9'- 4" 5'- 4"
20'
W18 46
5
16
5

plate