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Lesson 2

IIW-AWS
January/February 2006


Reheat Cracking Susceptibility Parameters
MCF parameter:
MCF = Si + 2Cu + 2P + 10As + 15Sn + 20Sb
Increase in MCF values, decrease in rupture ductility as measured by
elongation in hot tensile tests.

T parameter:

T = 20V + 7C + 4Mo + Cr + 1.5log X 0.5Mn

Where X = Al if Al 2N; X = 2N if Al > 2N
If T > 0.9, the materials are susceptible

DG1 parameter:

DG1 = Cr + 0.33Mo + 8.1V + 10C - 2

If DG1 > 2, the materials are considered to be susceptible

Lesson 2
IIW-AWS
January/February 2006


Reheat Cracking Susceptibility Parameters
R parameter:
R = P + 2.43As + 2.57Sn + 8.16Sb
The greater the R value, the greater the reheat cracking susceptibility.

X parameter:





Susceptibility increases with X values

100
4 5 10 As Sn Sb P
X

Lesson 2
IIW-AWS
January/February 2006


Effect of Cr and Mo
Chromium
According to DG & P
SR
, Cr increases reheat
cracking susceptibility.
According to Nakamura & Ito, steels
containing >1.5Cr are not susceptible.
According to Tamaki, effect of Cr varies with
Mo content (right figure)
Molybdenum:
Mo increases reheat cracking susceptibility
In early stage of tempering, Mo
2
C carbides
precipitate first and cause hardening in grain
matrix
In presence of V, Nb & Ti (more affinity for
C than Mo), there exists a tendency to form
more stable carbides.
Modified implant test to determine critical restraint stress (s
AW-crit
) to
cause rupture
The lower the s
AW-crit
, the greater the cracking susceptibility
Lesson 2
IIW-AWS
January/February 2006


Effect of Cr and Mo
Results for modified implant test to determine critical stress (s
AW-crit
) to
cause rupture
The lower the s
AW-crit
, the greater the cracking susceptibility
Lesson 2
IIW-AWS
January/February 2006


Effect of Cr and Mo
The materials most
susceptible to reheat
cracking show the
greatest fraction of
M
2
C carbides after
PWHT
Lesson 2
IIW-AWS
January/February 2006


Effect of Cr and Mo
The materials most
susceptible to reheat
cracking show the
greatest fraction of
M
2
C carbides after
PWHT
Lesson 2
IIW-AWS
January/February 2006


Effect of Vanadium
Vanadium
V increases reheat cracking susceptibility.
V forms uniform and fine V
4
C
3
carbide in the matrix.
At temperatures of 930-1020 F, coherent precipitates of V
4
C
3
occur in ferrite
lattice similar to M
2
C formation.

Lesson 2
IIW-AWS
January/February 2006


Effect of Residual Elements
Residual Elements (in total)
Increase in total percentage (P+Cu+Sn+Sb+As), increases reheat cracking susceptibility.
Increase in content of Sn and/or Sb significantly lowers rupture ductility in Cr-Mo
V welds
Phosphorus:
The most potent in embrittling the grain boundary and in enhancing reheat cracking
susceptibility
Solubility of P in ferrite and austenite decreases markedly upon addition of Cr and Mo,
enhancing segregation of P onto grain boundaries.
Precipitation of M
2
C releases P (precipitation rejection), allowing segregation to grain
boundaries.

Sulfur:
Free S > 25 ppm, heats of 2 Cr-1Mo show a high sensitivity to reheat cracking
Sulfides in grain boundaries are associated with initiation of cavities
MnS inclusions are responsible for initiation of reheat cracking due to liquation
Lesson 2
IIW-AWS
January/February 2006


Effect of Cu and C
Copper
Increases the HAZ reheat cracking susceptibility (up to level of
~1%Cu).
Has a deleterious effect in promoting weld metal reheat cracking.
Carbon:
Carbide formation affects reheat cracking susceptibility
Addition of C can significantly enhance P segregation in grain
boundaries
In Cr-Mo steels with V additions, it was found that cracking
susceptibility increases as carbon is increased from 0.05 to 0.10%, but
is not changed by further increase to 0.25%.
Lesson 2
IIW-AWS
January/February 2006


Summary of Factors Promoting Reheat
Cracking
Lesson 2
IIW-AWS
January/February 2006


Evaluation Of Crack Susceptibility
Gleeble Simulation Test
Spiral Notch Weldment Test

PREVEW Test (Petroleum
Refinery Vessel Evaluation of
Weldability)
Lesson 2
IIW-AWS
January/February 2006


Gleeble Simulation Test
Gleeble 1500D
Lesson 2
IIW-AWS
January/February 2006


Gleeble Simulation Test
Lesson 2
IIW-AWS
January/February 2006


Gleeble Simulation Test
Gleeble Simulation Test Specimen
Can Be Either Smooth Bar Or Spiral Notch Bar
Lesson 2
IIW-AWS
January/February 2006


Gleeble Simulation Test