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# McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

, 2004
UNIT - 3
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VTU NOTES
McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
Analog Transmission & Multiplexing
Digital to Analog conversion, Analog to
analog conversion, Multiplexing, Spread
Spectrum.
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Analog
Transmission
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Modulation of Digital Data
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Digital-to-analog modulation

Modulation
Converting digital signals to analog signals is called modulation.
Example
Transmition of data from one computer to another computer using
telephone line. The digital data is modulated on an analog signal.
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Types of digital-to-analog modulation
Modulating techniques are
1) Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)
2) Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
3) Phase Shift Keying (PSK)
4) Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
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Bit rate is the number of bits transmitted per second.
Baud rate is the number of signal elements transmitted
per second. A signal element carries one or more bits.
Baud rate = The bit rate / Number of bits
represented by each signal unit.
Baud rate is less than or equal to the bit rate.
Bit Rate & Baud Rate (Signal elements)
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Example
An analog signal carries 4 bits in each signal unit. If 1000
signal units are sent per second, find the baud rate and the
bit rate
Solution
Baud rate = 1000 bauds per second (baud/s)
Bit rate = 1000 x 4 = 4000 bps
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Example
The bit rate of a signal is 3000. If each signal unit carries
6 bits, what is the baud rate?
Solution
Baud rate = Bit rate / Number of bits represented by each signal unit.
Baud rate = 3000 / 6 = 500 baud/s
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McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
Example
An analog signal has a bit rate of 8000 bps & a baud rate of 1000
baud. How many data elements are carried by each signal
element?. How many signal elements do we need?.
Solution
Baud rate, S= 1000, bit rate, N = 8000, Data Elements, r=?,
Signal Elements, L=?
S = N/r
r = N/S
r= 8000/1000=8 bits /baud.
r = log 2
L
L = 2
r
L = 2
8
L= 256

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McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
Carrier Signal
In analog transmission, the sending device produces a
high frequency signal that acts as a basis for the
information signal . This base signal is called as
carrier signal or carrier frequency.

The receiving device is tuned to the frequency of the
carrier signal of the sender.

The digital information then modulates the carrier
signal by modifying one or more of its characteristics
( amplitude, frequency or phase). This modification is
called modulation ( or Shift key).

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In ASK, the frequency & phase of the carrier signal remain
constant and amplitude changes to represent the bit 1 or 0. A Zero
amplitude represents bit 0 and max amplitude represent bit 1. A bit
duration is the period of time that defines 1 bit. The amplitude of the bit
during each duration is constant. In ASK baud rate and bit rate are same.
ASK is susceptible for noise.
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Relationship between baud rate and bandwidth in ASK
Bandwidth of a signal is the total range of frequencies occupied
by that signal. The most significant frequencies are between
f
c
N
baud
/2 + f
c
+N
baud
/2

, f
c
is the carrier frequency. In ASK,
BW = (1+d) x N
baud
, where N
baud
is the baud rate, d is the factor related to
the modulation process.
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VTU NOTES
Example
Find the minimum bandwidth for an ASK signal
transmitting at 2000 bps. The transmission mode is
half-duplex.
Solution
In ASK the baud rate and bit rate are the same. The
baud rate is therefore 2000. An ASK signal requires a
minimum bandwidth equal to its baud rate.
Therefore, the minimum bandwidth is 2000 Hz.
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Example
Given a bandwidth of 5000 Hz for an ASK signal, what
are the baud rate and bit rate?
Solution
In ASK the baud rate is the same as the bandwidth,
which means the baud rate is 5000. But because the baud
rate and the bit rate are also the same for ASK, the bit
rate is 5000 bps.
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Example
Given a bandwidth of 10,000 Hz (1000 to 11,000 Hz),
draw the full-duplex ASK diagram of the system. Find the
carriers and the bandwidths in each direction. Assume
there is no gap between the bands in the two directions.
Solution
For full-duplex ASK, the bandwidth allocated for each
direction is BW = 10000 / 2 = 5000 Hz
The carrier frequencies can be chosen at the middle of
each band,
fc (forward) = 1000 + 5000/2 = 3500 Hz
fc (backward) = 11000 5000/2 = 8500 Hz
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Solution to Example
In data communication we use full duplex links with
communication in both directions. Then we divide the bandwidth
into two with two carrier frequencies.
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Frequency Shift Keying ( FSK /BFSK)
In FSK, the Amplitude & phase of the carrier signal remain
constant and frequency changes to represent the bit 1 or 0.The
frequency of the signal during each bit duration is constant.
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Relationship between baud rate and bandwidth in FSK
FSK spectra is a combination of two ASK spectra centered on
f
c0
and f
c1
. Frequencies are between fc0 N baud /2 & f
c1
+Nbaud /2.
B.W = (f
c1
+Nbaud /2) ( f
c0
- Nbaud /2 )= f
c1-
f
c0
+Nbaud
The bandwidth required for FSK transmission = the frequency shift+ baud
rate of the signal
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Example
Find the minimum bandwidth for an FSK signal
transmitting at 2000 bps. Transmission is in half-
duplex mode, and the carriers are separated by 3000
Hz.
Solution
For FSK
BW = baud rate + f
c1
- f
c0

BW = bit rate + fc1 - fc0 = 2000 + 3000 = 5000 Hz
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Example
Find the bit rates for an FSK signal if the bandwidth of
the medium is 12,000 Hz and the difference between the
two carriers is 2000 Hz. Transmission is in full-duplex
mode.
Solution
Because the transmission is full duplex, only 6000 Hz is
allocated for each direction.
BW = Baud rate + fc
1
- fc
0

Baud rate = BW - (fc
1
- fc
0
) = 6000 - 2000 = 4000
But because the baud rate is the same as the bit rate, the
bit rate is 4000 bps.
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McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
Example Jan / Feb 2005
Derive the expression for the bandwidth of a
Frequency Shift Keying ( FSK ) signal And
hence determine the maximum bit rate of
transmission, if the bandwidth of the medium
is 12,000 Hz and the difference between the
two carrier signal is 2000 Hz. Assume that the
transmission is full-duplex mode.
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Phase Shift Keying ( PSK/BPSK )
In PSK, the Amplitude & frequency of the carrier signal
remain constant and phase changes to represent the bit 1 or 0.The phase
of the signal during each bit duration is same. In the figure a phase of 0
0
represents bit 0 and a phase of 180
0
represents bit 1. Bandwidth & Baud
rate are same.
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PSK constellation OR Phase state diagram
The PSK is also called as 2-PSK, or BPSK, because two different
phases ( 0 & 180 degrees) are used.
PSK Constellation or Phase-State diagram
Relation between phases & bits.
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The 4-PSK ( Quadrature PSK) method OR QPSK
QPSK use four variations ( 0,90,180 & 270). Each phase shift
represent 2 bits.
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The 4-PSK characteristics
Constellation Diagram
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The 8-PSK characteristics
8-PSK has eight variations with a constant shift of
45
0
. Each shift represent 3 bits of data.
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Example
Given a bandwidth of 5000 Hz for an 8-PSK signal,
what are the baud rate and bit rate?
Solution
For PSK the baud rate is the same as the bandwidth.
There fore, baud rate is 5000.
In 8-PSK the bit rate is 3 times the baud rate.
So, the Bit rate = 5000 x 3 = 15,000 bps.
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Quadrature amplitude modulation is a
combination of ASK and PSK.
Note:
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The 4-QAM and 8-QAM constellations
Phase change along x-axis, Amplitude change along y-axis.
In QAM the number of phase shift is greater than the number of
amplitude shift.
Time - Domain Plots
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McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
16-QAM constellations
4
3
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Example
A constellation diagram consists of 8 equally
spaced points on a circle. If the bit rate is 4800
bps, what is the baud rate?
Solution
The constellation indicates 8-PSK with the
points 45 degrees apart. Since 2
3
= 8, 3 bits
are transmitted with each signal unit.
Therefore,
the baud rate is = 4800 / 3 = 1600 baud
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Example
Compute the bit rate for a 1000-baud 16-QAM signal.
Solution
A 16-QAM signal has 4 bits per signal unit.
Because, log
2
16 = 4.
Thus, (1000)(4) = 4000 bps
Example
Compute the baud rate for a 72,000-bps 64-QAM
signal.
Solution
A 64-QAM signal has 6 bits per signal unit.
Because, log 2
64
= 6.
Thus,
72000 / 6 = 12,000 baud
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McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
Example January/February 2005
Calculate the number of Levels (Signal ) required to
transmit the maximum bit rate. What is the BAUD rate.
Example July/August 2005
Explain Quadrature Amplitude Modulation. What is the
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VTU NOTES
Telephone Modems
Modem Standards
Telephone lines can carry frequencies between 300
and 3300 Hz, giving a bandwidth of 3000 Hz. The
effective bandwidth of a telephone line being used
for data transmission is 2400 Hz, covering the
range 600 3000 Hz.
This bandwidth is called as base bandwidth. During
data transmission, any bandwidth is to be
modulated to base bandwidth. The device used for
the purpose is called MODEM.
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Telephone line bandwidth
The signal Bandwidth must be smaller than the cable bandwidth.
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We need to modulate the voice signal to use
data bandwidth. Devices used to do so are
called MODEMS
Modem stands for modulator/demodulator.
Modulator creates a band-pass analog signal
from binary data.
Demodulator recovers the binary data from the
modulated signal.
Note:
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Modulation/demodulation
A modulator converts a digital signal into an analog
signal using ASK, FSK, PSK or QAM. A demodulator
converts an analog signal into a digital signal.
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McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
Modem Standards
Most popular modems available are based on V series
standards defined by International
Telecommunication Union- Telecommunication
Standardization sector( ITU T)
1) V.32 - This uses both modulation and encoding
technique. The data stream is divided into 4-bit
sections with a baud rate of 2400. The resulting
speed is 4 x 2400 = 9600 bps.
2) V.32bis - It supports 14,400 bps transmission.
3) V.34bis It supports a bit rate of 28,800
4) V.90 ( 56 k ) It has a transmission capacity of
56,000 bps. Used for internet communication.
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Modulation of Analog Signals

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Analog-to-analog modulation
Why modulation is needed?
In Radio transmission, Govt assigns a narrow bandwidth
to each radio station. The analog signal produced by
each station is a low-pass signal. To be able to listen, the
low-pass signal need to be modulated before
transmission.
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Types of analog-to-analog modulation
AM Amplitude Modulation
FM Frequency Modulation
PM Phase Modulation
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Amplitude Modulation
In amplitude modulation, the
carrier signal is modulated so that
its amplitude varies with the
changing amplitude of modulating
signal. The frequency and phase of
the carrier signal remain the same.
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Amplitude modulation
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AM Bandwidth
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AM Band allocation
AM stations are allowed the carrier frequencies between
530 kHz to 1700 kHz. Each stations f
c
must be
separated from other at least by 10 kHz to avoid B/W
over lapping.
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Example
We have an audio signal with a bandwidth
of 4 KHz. What is the bandwidth needed if
we modulate the signal using AM?
Solution
An AM signal requires twice the
bandwidth of the original signal:
BW = 2 x 4 KHz = 8 KHz
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Frequency Modulation (FM)
In Frequency Modulation, the Frequency of
the Carrier Signal is modulated to that of the
modulating signal. The Amplitude and Phase
of the Carrier signal remains constant.

FM Bandwidth

The total bandwidth required for FM can be
determined from the bandwidth of the audio
signal: BW
t
= 10 x BW
m
.
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Frequency modulation
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FM bandwidth
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FM stations are allowed Carrier frequencies
between 88 MHz & 108 MHz.
Stations must be separated by at least 200 kHz
to keep B/W overlapping.

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FM band allocation
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Example
An audio signal with a bandwidth of 4 MHz.
What is the bandwidth needed if we modulate
the signal using FM?
Solution
An FM signal requires 10 times the
bandwidth of the original signal:
BW = 10 x 4 MHz = 40 MHz
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Multiplexing
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McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
Three users at a location communicate with three other
users using three separate lines. This arrangement
completely dedicates network resources. This becomes
inefficient and expensive as the number of users
increases.
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McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
Multiplexing is introduced when a transmission
link has sufficient bandwidth to carry several
connection lines.
In the fig, a multiplexer combines the signals
from three users in a single transmission link.
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Multiplexing

It is a technique that allows simultaneous
transmission of multiple signals across a

In multiplexed system n - lines share the
bandwidth of one link.
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McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
Link, Channel & Line

Link means physical path.

Channel means the portion of the link that
carries a transmission.

Line-means portion of the channel.
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Dividing a link into channels
In the Fig, 04 lines direct their transmission
stream to a Multiplexer. MUX combines them into a
single stream and transmitted.
At the receiving, the stream is fed into a Demultiplexer.
The DEMUX separates the stream back into its
components and directs them into corresponding lines.
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There are different approaches of
multiplexing the information from
multiple connections to a single
transmission line.
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Categories of multiplexing
There are 3 types of Multiplexing.
1) Frequency Division Multiplexing ( FDM )
2) Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM)
3) Time Division Multiplexing ( TDM )
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1) Frequency Division Multiplexing ( FDM)
In FDM, Signals generated by each sending device modulate
different carrier frequencies. These modulated signals are then
combined into a single composite signal that can be transported by
Guard Band is the strip of unused Bandwidth to prevent signals
from overlapping.
In the figure, the transmission path is divided into three channels.
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FDM process
Each telephone generates a signal of similar frequency .
Inside the multiplexer, these similar signals are
modulated onto different carrier frequencies f1, f2, f3.
The resulting modulated signals are then combined in to
a single composite signal that is sent out over a media.
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FDM demultiplexing example
The demultiplexer uses a series of filters to
decompose the multiplexed signal into its constituent
component signals. The individual signals are then passed
to a demodulator that separates them from their carriers
and passes them to the receivers.
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McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
Example VTU 2006
Define Multiplexing. Explain FDM.

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Example-1
Assume that a voice channel occupies a bandwidth of 4
KHz. We need to combine three voice channels into a
link with a bandwidth of 12 KHz, from 20 to 32 KHz.
Show the configuration using the frequency domain
with out the use of guard bands.
Solution
Modulate each of the three voice channels to a
different bandwidth.
The diagram is as shown in Figure
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Figure
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Example-2
Five channels, each with a 100-KHz bandwidth,
are to be multiplexed together. What is the
minimum bandwidth of the link if there is a need
for a guard band of 10 KHz between the channels
to prevent interference?
Solution
For five channels, need at least four guard bands.
There fore, minimum required bandwidth =
5 x 100 + 4 x 10 = 540 KHz.
The diagram is as shown in Figure
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Figure
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Example-3
Four data channels (digital), each transmitting at 1 Mbps,
use a satellite channel of 1 MHz. Design an appropriate
configuration using FDM
Solution
The satellite channel is analog. Divide 1MHz into four
channels, each channel having a 250-KHz bandwidth. Each
digital channel of 1 Mbps is modulated such that each 4 bits
are modulated to 1 Hz.
One solution is 16-QAM modulation. Figure shows one
possible configuration.
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Example
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The FDM hierarchy
To maximize the efficiency, Telephone connections use hierarchy of
multiplexed signals from low-band width lines to high bandwidth lines. The
hierarchy is made up of Groups, Super groups, Master groups, and Jumbo
group.
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McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
FDM was introduced in the year 1930s. The basic analog multiplexer
combines 12 voice channels in one line. Each voice signal occupies about
4 kHz. The channels are assigned with 4 kHz of bandwidth to provide guard
bands between channels. The multiplexer modulates each voice signal so that
it occupies a 4 kHz slot in the band between 60 & 108 kHz. The combined
signal is called a group. A collection of 5 groups is called Super group. A In a
super group 5 groups, each of bandwidth 48 kHz, into the frequency band
from 312 to 552 kHz.
10 super groups be multiplexed to master group of 600 voice signals. This
occupies a band 564 to 3084 kHz.
Examples of FDM
Broadcast radio- FM, AM, & television with 10 kHz, 200 kHz, & 6 MHz
Cellular Phones- A pool of frequency slots of 30 kHz each are shared by the
users with in a geographic cell.
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WDM
Wave Division Multiplexing
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Wave Division Multiplexing
WDM is used in the transmission of OFC networks. OFC has high data rate
capacity.
Each telephone generate signals of similar frequency . Inside the
Wave division multiplexer, these signals are modulated onto
different narrow band carrier frequencies f1, f2 , f3. The
resulting modulated signals are then combined into a single
Optical signal of wider band of light and transported over OFC
channel.
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VTU NOTES
Prisms in WDM multiplexing and demultiplexing
A prism has the property of Combining and splitting of light
sources. A prism bends a beam of light based on the angle of
incidence and frequency. Using this technique, a multiplexer can
be made to combine several input beams into one output beam of
a wider band of frequencies. A demultiplexer can also be made to
reverse the process.
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TDM

Time Division Multiplex
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McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
TDM is a digital multiplexing technique.
Each connection occupies a portion of time in the link.
If the source signal is an analog, it can be changed to
digital data and then multiplexed using TDM.
In synchronous TDM, the data flow of each input
connection is divided into units. Each unit occupies one
input time slot. Combination of units is called a frame.
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Time Division Multiplex (TDM)
In the figure, connections 1,2,3, & 4 occupy a
portion of the link.
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TDM frames - For n- input connections, & T- input time,
each connection gets a time slot of T/n. During that time a
connection gets a chance of transmitting data for T/n of time,
called one unit. The link combines these units into a frame.
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VTU NOTES
Example
Four 1-Kbps connections are multiplexed together. A unit is 1 bit.
Find (i) the duration of 1 bit before multiplexing, (ii) the
transmission rate of the link, (iii) the duration of a time slot, and
(iv) the duration of a frame?
Solution
i) The duration of 1 bit = 1/ (1 Kbps) = 0.001 s = 1 ms
ii) The rate of the link= 4 times the rate of connection=
4 Kbps.
iii) The duration of each time slot= 1/4 the bit duration =
1/4 ms = 250 ms.
iv) The duration of a frame= +1/4 + 1/4 +1/4 = 1 ms.
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McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
Example VTU Jan 2006
In a TDM system, four channels of 1 kbps each are multiplexed together. Each
time slot , called as a unit, carries 1 bit of information. Data from each time
slot is transmitted as a frame. Find: i) Transmission rate of the output link of
the multiplexer. Ii) The duration of a frame.

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VTU NOTES
I nterleaving in TDM
TDM can be visualized as two fast rotating switches, one on the
multiplexing side and the other on the demultiplexing side. The switches are
synchronized and rotate at the same speed but in the opposite directions. On
the multiplexing side, as the switch opens in front of a connection, that
connection has the opportunity to send a unit onto the path. This process is
called interleaving. On the demultiplexing side, as the switch opens in front of
a connection, that connection has the opportunity to receive a unit from the
path.
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VTU NOTES
Example
Four channels are multiplexed using TDM. If
each channel sends 100 bytes/s and we multiplex 1
byte per channel, show the frame traveling on the
link, the size of the frame, the duration of a frame,
the frame rate, and the bit rate of the link.

Solution (Next slide)
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McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
1) Each Frame carries 1 byte from each channel.
So, the size of each frame = 4 bytes = 32 bits.
2) Duration of a Frame = 1/ 100 bytes per sec = 0.01 S
3) Frame rate = 4 x100/4 = 100 frames.
4) Bit rate = Number of frames transmitted per sec = 100 frames = 100 x 32 = 3200 bps.
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VTU NOTES
Example: A multiplexer combines four 100-
Kbps channels using a time slot of 2 bits.
Show the output with four arbitrary inputs.
What is the frame rate, the frame duration,
bit rate &the bit duration?
Solution (Next slide)
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VTU NOTES
McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
Each Channel send 100 kbps = 100,000 bits / s
The link carries = 100,000/ 2= 50,000 frames per Sec.
Frame rate = 50,000
Frame duration = 1/ 50,000 = 20 micro Sec
Bit rate = 50000 x 8 (frame size ) = 400,000 bits = 400 Kbps
Bit duration = 1/ 400,000 = 2.5 micro Sec
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McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
Example VTU July 2007
Define Multiplexing. How does TDM multiplex & Demultiplex the signals.
Exam: VTU July 2007
Four sources each create 250 characters per second. If the interleaved unit is
a character and one synchronization bit is added to each frame, find
i) the data rate of each source ii) Duration of each character in each source iii)
The frame rate iv) Duration of each frame v) Number of bits in each frame
vi) The data rate of the link.
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VTU NOTES
Framing bits & Synchronization
If the multiplexer and demultiplexer are not synchronized, a bit
belongs to one channel may be received by the wrong channel. For this reason,
one or more synchronization bits are added to the beginning of each frame.
These bits are called framing bits. These framing bits follow a pattern
(Alternating 0 & 1) from frame to frame. This helps the demultiplexer to
synchronize with the incoming stream , & it can separate time slots accurately.
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VTU NOTES
Example
We have four sources, each creating 250 characters
per second. If the interleaved unit is a character and
one synchronizing bit is added to each frame, find (1)
the data rate of each source, (2) the duration of each
character in each source, (3) the frame rate, (4) the
duration of each frame, (5) the number of bits in each
frame, and (6) the data rate of the link.
Solution
See next slide.
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Solution (continued)
We can answer the questions as follows:

1. The data rate of each source is 2000 bps = 2
Kbps.
2. The duration of a character = 1/250 s = 4 ms.
3. The frame rate = 250 frames per second.
4. The duration of each frame = 1/250 s, or 4 ms.
5. No. of bits in each frame = 4 x 8 + 1 = 33 bits.
6. The data rate of the link = 250 x 33= 8250 bps.
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VTU NOTES
McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004
Suppose device A could use one time slot, while the faster device
B could use two. Since the time slot is fixed, the different data
rate must be integer multiples of each other.
When the speeds are not integer multiples of each other, they can
be made to behave as if they were, by a technique called Padding.
For example, One device with a bit rate of 2.55 times that of the
other devices. By adding enough bits , make three times the other
devices. The extra bits are then discarded by the demultiplexer.
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Digital Signal hierarchy
Lower order multiplexed signals are called Tributaries.
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