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REE 6052

L.Ngoyi


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How Wind Farms
Affect The Grid Performance

Originally by Eng. Fatma Nada
Studies Consultant EETC


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Large wind farms are typically located where good
wind resources exist, and are often far away from the
main load centres and strong AC network
connections.

Large wind farms can result in major changes to the
load flow within the network, causing real and
reactive power flows that were not experienced
before.
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Wind power stations have some features that
make their operational behaviour different from
that of conventional power stations, which since
many years have been the main source of
electrical energy.

In line with such a spectacular increase of wind
power, there are several questions, regarding the
Integration of large scale wind power into AC
power systems that must be clarified.

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This presentation will focus on the important
issues related to system operation, stability, and
protection when large scale wind power plants are
integrated into power systems.

1. The requirements for wind power plants for
transmission networks will be described.
2. Challenges and grid codes technical
requirements in worldwide courtiers having
considerable share of wind power.
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These cover fault ride through, voltage and frequency
operating range, reactive power range/voltage control,
wind power forecasts requirements, as well as remote
operation requirements.

From that point, the need to have different control and
protection philosophy in big electrical networks is
emphasized through using Real-Time Wide Area
Monitoring, Protection and Control systems (RT
WAMPAC).

Within the ongoing rise in electricity demand, wind
energy will play a major role in the race to satisfy the
demand.


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The world wide trend is to utilize the renewable
energy resources since the expected life time for
fossil fuel is about 30 -> 50 years
Large wind farms can result in major changes to
the load flow within the network, causing real and
reactive power flows that were not experienced
before.
In line with such a large increase of wind power, there
are several questions, regarding the Integration of large
scale wind power into AC power systems that must be
clarified.
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How should wind farms be expected to behave
and perform?






Is it realistic to expect wind turbines and wind farms to
behave as any other conventional power plant?

What is the behaviour during grid faults/Fault ride through?

which requirements should be imposed in order to expect
wind farms to support the system?

What about reactive power compensation and voltage
control, voltage and frequency operating range, remote data
transfer and forecast issues?



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In order to accommodate and safely operate a high
level of variable and uncontrollable wind power
generation on a power system, many challenges on
both wind power transmission technologies and
transmission grid arise. They include:

1. Wind power forecasts requirements.
2.Fault ride through (FRT) requirements;
3.System frequency and frequency response
requirements;
4.Transmission system voltage and reactive
powercapability requirements;
5.Remote operation requirements;

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A forecast of wind generation is an additional input to the
pre-dispatch demand forecasting processes. Grid Codes
specify that controllable wind farms should provide their
wind power output forecasts at least once a day for the
following 48 hours for, as an example, each 30-minute
interval. A forecast update must also be available in National
Control Center (NCC). The accuracy of the wind power
forecasts depends of a number of factors, the most
important being the wind speed forecast.

Wind power forecast requirements
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Large Scale Wind Generation
Energy Forecast
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1. REQUIREMENTS FOR WIND POWER
PLANTS IN TRANSMISSION NETWORKS
There are several issues should be taken into
consideration in grid integration of wind turbines,
guaranteeing a stable, profitable and highly
qualitative supply of wind energy :

1.Wind turbines have to be able to remain in
operation without reducing performance and
without time limits even with considerable voltage
and frequency fluctuations.





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2. If voltage dips occur due to grid problems, wind turbines
have to remain connected to the grid for a defined period
of time.

3. Short-circuit current power feed-in may be requested
during a grid fault. Depending on the grid, the turbine has
to be able to feed in primarily active or reactive power to
the grid.
4. Abrupt grid frequency changes should not cause the wind
turbine to shut down.
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5. During a failure and while a grid fault is being cleared,
reactive power absorption by wind generators is
restricted or not permissible at all.

6. After a fault has been remedied, a wind farm should
resume power feed as quickly as possible within a
specified maximum time range.

7. Wind farms should be able to operate with reduced
power output with no time restrictions.
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8. For coordinated load distribution in the ride, the
increase in power output (power gradient), for
example when the wind farm is starting, should be
able to be restricted in accordance with the grid
operator's specifications.

9. Wind farms have to be able to contribute reserve
energy within the grid. If grid frequency increases,
the power output of a wind farm should be reduced.


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10. If necessary, wind farms should be able to contribute
to maintaining voltage stability in the grid by
supplying or absorbing reactive power with no time
restrictions. Dynamic criteria to maintain grid stability
must be met.
11. Wind farms must be able to be integrated into the
grid control system for remote monitoring and control
of all components in the grid
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2. CHALLENGES FOR GRID CONNECTION OF LARGE
WIND FARMS
In order to accommodate and safely operate a high
level of variable and uncontrollable wind power
generation on power system, many challenges
on both wind power transmission technologies
and transmission gird operation arise.
These include:
1. Fault ride through requirements;
2. System frequency and frequency response
requirements;
3. Transmission system voltage and reactive power
capability requirements;
4. Wind power forecasts requirements.
5. Remote operation requirements.
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The large increase in the installed wind capacity in
transmission systems necessitates that wind
generation remains in operation in the event of
network disturbances.
For this reason, grid codes issued during the last
years invariably demand that wind farms (especially
those connected to HV grids) must withstand voltage
dips to a certain percentage of the nominal voltage
(down to 0% in some cases) and for a specified
duration.
Such requirements are known as Fault Ride Through
(FRT) or Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT) and they
are described by a voltage vs. time characteristic,
denoting the minimum required immunity of the wind
power station.
2.1 Fault (low voltage) ride through (FRT) requirements.
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All LBRT requirements cited in the different grid codes. The
requirements depend on specific characteristics of each
power system and the protection employed , so they
deviate significantly from each other.
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An example from Ireland represent the response of one grid-connected
double feed induction generator (DFIG)-wind power station (WPS)
during a 3-phase fault on an adjacent 110 kV line resulting in a 30%
voltage dip at the CCP (note that the WPS still connected with the grid).
This particular WPS has separately installed capacitor banks that
support voltage at common coupling point (CCP) and enhance WPS
FRT capability. This WPS also stayed connected for 70% voltage dip at
CCP. For a high wind penetration scenario, if the wind power plant is
removed from the generation pool during the slightest fault event, it
may induce the cascading effect commonly associated with a pre-
blackout event.
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2.2 Voltage and frequency operating
range
Wind farms must be capable of operating
continuously within the voltage and frequency
variation limits encountered in normal operation of
the system.

Further, they should remain in operation in case of
voltage and frequency excursions outside the normal
operation limits, for a limited time and in some cases
at reduced output power capability.
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The frequency responses of some of transmission
/distribution system operator (TSO/DSO) connected WPSs
during the tripping of one of the large units on the system.

All TSO connected WPSs stayed connected during the
frequency excursion; while some of the DSO connected
WPSs were tripped.
Recorded under-frequency responses
of some WPS
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2.3 Reactive Power Range / Voltage
Control
A common requirement is that the wind farm
shall be able to operate with a power factor
anywhere between defined leading and lagging
power factors at the grid connection point.
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The decision of the working point that is generally
commanded by the grid operator.
Reactive power requirements in the UK grid code specified by National Grid
Point A is equivalent (in Mvar) to: 0.95 leading Power Factor at Rated MW output
Point B is equivalent (in Mvar) to: 0.95 lagging Power Factor at Rated MW output
Point C is equivalent (in Mvar) to: -5% of Rated MW output
Point D is equivalent (in Mvar) to: +5% of Rated MW output
Point C is equivalent (in Mvar) to: -12% of Rated MW output
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2.4 Wind power forecasts
requirements.
A forecast of wind generation is an additional input
to the pre-dispatch demand forecasting processes.

Grid Codes specify that controllable wind farms
should provide their wind power output forecasts at
least once a day for the following 48 hours for, as an
example, each 30-minute interval. A forecast update
must also be available in National Control Center
(NCC).
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2.5 Remote operation requirements.
These requirements include the feasibility to
exchange signals between WPS and TSO. Among the
signals that WPS should make available to the TSOs
remote terminal units (RTU) are:

1. Grid connected transformer (GCT) tap positions;
2. Voltage at the GCT low voltage terminals;
3. Active and reactive power output at the LV side of
the GCT;
4. Voltage regulation system set-point (in kV);
5. On/Off status indications for reactive power devices;
6. MV Circuit-breaker position indications.


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Remote operation requirements.
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3. THE NEED FOR WAMPAC
Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control
SCADA-systems provide only a steady state slow picture
in much longer time intervals.

However, Synchrophasor technology in power systems
has opened up new possibilities for better real-time
monitoring and control of system wide area events.

These measurements can be used as system snapshots
and therefore, show the dynamics of the power system.
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Synchrophasor is considered to be the main core of
Real Time Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and
Control (RT WAMPAC)

The Synchrophasors system is designed to operate in
parallel with the existing SCADA/EMS system and
maximizes the mutual benefits in power system RT
WAM PAC.

The new system of RT WAM PAC fills the coordination
and speed gaps between the very fast dynamic local
protection systems and the slow static SCADA/EMS
systems.
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The new system of RT WAM PAC fills the coordination
and speed gaps between the very fast dynamic local
protection systems and the slow static SCADA/EMS
systems .
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Example
Remote wind generation is transmitting power
over a simplified cross-country two-terminal line.
Each end is monitored by a phasor measurement
( PM) unit and sending time-synchronized
measurement data to the master station in order
to visualize the relative phase angle and
frequency variations between the source and load

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CONCLUSIONS
WP differs from the traditional power generation
sources because of its intermittent varying nature.
WP imposes many technical requirements and
challenges of different aspects.

The fast growing penetration of the WP within the
existing grids has to be faced by adding new
equipments and technologies to adapt the grid
capabilities

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CONCLUSIONS (cont.)
New Grid Code requirements are necessary.
New philosophy and tools for the protection and
control strategy of the grids utilizing phasor
measurement ( PM )has to be developed and
applied

The relatively fast performance of the closed
control loops using synchrophasor data via fast
and robust communication permit facing the
effect of the intermittent and variable nature of
the WPS. This can be achieved by fast-acting
equipment such as SVC, HVDC, FACTS, PSS.

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