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oleh Ir.

Djoko Wintolo, DEA


Jurusan Teknik Geologi
Fakultas Teknik
Universitas Gadjah Mada
Slide kuliah Geofisika Eksplorasi
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LOGGING
Suatu aktifitas merekam karakteristik
bebatuan sebagai fungsi kedalaman.
Rekaman selama pemboran dimana ada materail air dan
lumpur dinamakan MUD LOGGING (lithological
logging).
Data yang terekam: Tipe bebatuan, Kekerasan/
kompaksi, Kandungan fluida.
Rekaman setelah aktifitas pemboran dengan memakai alat
yang berkabel (wire line tool /instrument) dinamakan
WIRELINE LOGGING.
Data terekam: Resistivitas bebatuan, densitas bebatuan,
tebal Mud cake, Radioaktifitas bebatuan, sifat akustik,
temperatur formasi, dsb.

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WIRELINE LOGGING
OPENHOLE LOGGING (lubang terbuka)
Logging pada suatu sumur bor sebelum fasa
penyelesaian (sebelum konstruksi casing/ pipa
selubung).
Semua instrumen logging dapat dijalankan.
CASEDHOLE LOGGING (lubang dengan pipa selubung)
Logging setelah penyelesaian sumur (konstruksi pipa
selubung) :
Hanya untuk instrumen tertentu:
- Gammaray-log
- Caliper-log
- NMR
- CBL

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Analisis Data dari Wireline Log
Objective / Tujuan:
Membuat interpretasi kuantitatif dan
kualitatif dari data logging untuk
identifikasi lapisan-lapisan produktiv
/ prospektiv.
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INTERPRETASI KUALITATIF
Didasarkan pada pola-pola defleksi dalam
kertas rekaman logging dimana kurva-kurva
yang terbentuk dipengaruhi oleh litologi dan
kandungan fluida formasi.

Untuk memastikan litologi atau lapisan formasi
bebatuan.
Mendeteksi lapisan porous / permeable dan
mengestimasi kandungan fluida pada batuan .
- Estimasi formasi/lapisan minyak, gas dan air.
- Estimasi posisi GOC / WOC
Sebagai suatu data dasar untuk interpretasi kualitatif.
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INTERPRETASI KUANTITATIF
Dengan menggunakan persamaan atau tabel2
(charts) untuk menghitung parameter reservoar
dari data log (Rw, Rt, b, f, m , dll)
Porositas/ porosity ()
Tingkat kejenuhan air/Water Saturation (Sw)
Saturation of Hydrocarbon remains (Shr)
Saturation of Hydrocarbon mobile (Shm)
Initial hydrocarbon reserve in volumetric form
Original/ Initial Oil In Place (OOIP/IOIP)
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Tipe-tipe LOG
1. LOG LITHOLOGI
2. LOG RESISTIVITY
3. LOG POROSITY
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LOG LITHOLOGI
Tipe Log (instrumen) yang dipakai untuk
mengukur lithologi yang tertembus dalam
operasional pemboran.
- log - SP
- log Sinar Gamma
- log Caliper
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LOG RESISTIVITY
Tipe log (instrument) yang dipakai untuk
mengukur nilai resistivity batuan.
- Log SP
- Log Normal
- Microlog
- Microlaterolog
- Laterolog
- Induction Log
- MSF
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LOG POROSITAS
Tipe log (instrumen) yang mengukur atau
mendeteksi porositas bebatuan.
- Density - log
- Neutron - log
- Sonic - log
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Deskripsi litologi (mud-loggig) oleh seorang wellsite geologist
sebagai bagian dari laporan pemboran
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Beberapa tipe wireline logging ( records)
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Image
scanner
logging
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UGIS-11 housing, made by Rusia
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Logging for
groundwater
study
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Geochemical logging
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Proses Interpretasi

Mengidentifikasi interval reservoar potensial;
membedakan non-permeable, interval non-reservoir
dari interval potensial porous.
Estimasi ketebalan dari reservoar berpotesi.
Menentukan lithology (rock type) dari potential
reservoirs.
Menghitung porousity ().
Menentukan resistivity of formation water (Rw).
Menghitung water saturations (Sw, Sxo) dengan
menggunakan resistivity (Rt, Rxo).
Estimasi in-place and movable hydrocarbons.

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Resistivity logs do not always measure resistivity
directly. Some resistivity logs (actually induction logs)
measures conductivity instead which is the
reciprocal of resistivity.
1 x 1000
resistivity (ohms /m) = ------------ (millimhos/m)
conductivity

Induction logs are used in wells drilled with a
relatively fresh-water mud (low salinity) to obtain
more accurate value of true resistivity.
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Spontaneous Potential (SP log)

The SP log is a measurement of the natural potential
difference or self potential between an electrode in the
borehole and a reference electrode at the surface
(problem with offshore wells, no ground). No artificial
currents are applied.

Three factors are necessary to produce an SP current:
1. a conductive fluid in the borehole,
2. a porous and permeable bed surrounded by an
impermeable formation, and
3. a difference in salinity (or pressure) between the
borehole fluid and the formation fluid.
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Nuclear logs
3 Principles:

1. Detection of radiation resulting from natural
radioactivity
2. Measure absorption of -radiation emitted by
controlled source
3. Measure penetration of -radiation emitted by
controlled neutron source

Only -r adiation and neutrons have appreciable
penetrating power

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Thermal logging
1. Menentukan heat flow (geothermal)
2. Menentukan letak thermal anomalies
yang disebabkan oleh aliran fluida
3. Abnormal radioactivity
4. Oxidation regions
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Well-logging in coal exploration
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Thanks You
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Referensi
1. Asquith, George B, Log Evaluation of Shaly Sandstone: A
Practical Guide, The American Association of Petroleum
Geologists, Tulsa Oklahoma.
2. Desbrandes, R, Encyclopedia of Well Logging, Gulf Publishing
Company Book Division, Houston, Texas, 1985.
3. Dewan, John T, Essential of Modern Open-Hole Log
Interpretation, Penn Well Publishing Company, Tulsa Oklahoma,
1983.
4. Harsono Adi, Evaluasi Formasi dan Aplikasi Log.
5. Helander, Donald P, Fundamental of Formation Evaluation,
OGCI Publications, Oil and Gas Consultants International Inc, Tulsa,
1983.
6. Pirson, Sylvain J, Well Log Analysis for Oil and Gas Formation
Evaluation, Prentice Hall, Inc Englewood Cliffs, New Jork, 1963.
7. Wyllie M.R.J, The Fundamental of Well Log Interpretation, 3th
Edition Academic Press, Inc 1963.
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