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SOLID LIQUID EXTRACTION

(LEACHING PROCESS)
Solid-Liquid Extraction

Definition
- In order to separate the desired solute constituent or
remove an undesirable solute component form the solid
phase, the solid is contacted with liquid phase

- Such a process is also referred to as liquid solid leaching
or simply leaching

- In leaching when an undesirable component is removed
from a solid with water, the process is called washing
Solid-Liquid Extraction
Basic Concept

Other example :
Gaharu extraction, Ginger extraction

CALCULATION FOR SINGLE STAGE

V + L = M ( total mass kg)
Lo + V2 = L1 + V1 = M (general)

For component A
LoYAO + V2XA2 = L1YA1 + V1XA1 = MxAM

For component C (Solid)
B = NoLO + 0 = N1L1 + 0 = NMM

eg : 12.9-1 (Geankoplis)

Leaching
V1 X1

B L
O
No Yo

V2 X2

B L
1
N
1
Y
1

CALCULATION FOR MULTISTAGE
Usually L
o
and V
N+1
are known and y
AN
(exit conc)is set
Then the coordinates of point M, ie N
M
and x
AM
are calculated from the
following equations
* Overall total solution (solute A + solvent C) balance

* Component balance on A

* Total solids balance B

M V L V L
N N o

1 1
M N N o o
N L N L N B
AM A AN N AN N AO o
Mx x V y L x V y L
1 1 1 1
Solid-Liquid Separation - Leaching

Operating line equation:
L
1

V
2
V
n+1
V
n
V
3

L
n-1
L
2

L
n

L
N-1
V
N
1 2 n N
V
N+1
x
N+1
y
N,+1
L
N,
,B

V
1
x
1
y
o,
N
o
L
o
, B
o
leached solids
feed solids
leaching solvent
exit overflow

o n
o o
n
n o
n
L V L
x L x V
y
L L V
x

1
1 1
1
1
/ 1
1
Solid-Liquid Separation - Leaching

Graphical determination of the number of stages for multistage
countercurrent leaching
coordinate for the operating point, , is given by the following equation
* x coordinate
* N coordinate

The point is located graphically as the intersection of lines L
O
V
1
and L
N
V
N+1

To graphically determine the number of stages,
* Start at L
O
, draw line L
O
to locate V
1
. A tie line through V
1
gives locates
L
1
.
* Line L
1
is drawn given V
2
. A tie line gives L
2

* This is continued until the desired L
N
is reached
1
1 1
1
1 1

N N
AN N AN N
o
A Ao o
A
V L
x V y L
V L
x V y L
x

1 1
V L
L N
V L
B
N
o
o o
o

Solid-Liquid Separation - Leaching

Example 1: Countercurrent Leaching of oil from meal
A continuous countercurrent multistage system is to be used to leach oil from meal by
benzene solvent. The process is to treat 2000 kg/hr of inert solid meal (B) containing 800
kg oil (A) and also 50 kg benzene (C). The inlet flow per hour of fresh solvent mixture
contains 1310 kg benzene and 20 kg oil. The leached solids are to contain 120 kg oil.
Settling experiments similar to those on the actual extractor show that the solution
retained depends upon the concentration of oil in the solution. The data are tabulated
below as N kg inert solid B/kg solution and y
A
kg oil A/ kg solution
N y
A
N y
A

2.00 0 1.82 0.4
1.98 0.1 1.75 0.5
1.94 0.2 1.68 0.6
1.89 0.3 1.61 0.7

Calculate the amounts and concentration of the stream leaving the process and the
number of stages required.
Solid-Liquid Separation - Leaching

Solution
The underflow data from the table are plotted as N versus y
A
in the following
figure,
For the inlet solution with the untreated solid,
L
O
= 800+50 = 850 kg/h
y
AO
= 800 / (800+50) = 0.941
B = 2000 kg/h
N
O
= 2000 / (800+50) = 2.36
Solid-Liquid Separation - Leaching

Solution
For the inlet leaching solvent,
V
N+1
= 1310 +20 = 1330 kg/h
x
AN+1
= 20 / (1330) = 0.941
The points V
N+1
and L
O
are plotted.
At the point L
N
, the ratio N
N
/ y
AN
= (kg solid/kg solution)
= kg solid/ kg oil
= 2000/120 =16.67= slope
Hence a dashed line through the origin at y
A
=0 and N=0 is plotted with a slope of 16.67,
which intersects the N vs y
A
line at L
N
. The coordinates of L
N
at this intersection are N
N
=
1.95 kg solid/kg solution and y
AN
= 0.118 kg oil/kg solution
The point M (x
AM
, N
M
)is determined from overall material balance and component
balance on A;
* for x
AM
;

M V L
N o

2180 1330 850
1

AM AN N AO o
x x V y L 2180 015 . 0 1330 941 . 0 850
1 1

376 . 0
AM
x
Solid-Liquid Separation - Leaching

Solution
For N
M
,

The point M is plotted with the the coordinates x
AM
=0.376 and NM = 0.918
The line V
N+1
ML
O
is drawn, as is line L
N
M, which intersects at point V1 where x
A1
=0.600
The amounts of streams V
1
and L
N
are calculated by solving the following equations
simultaneously

Hence, L
N
= 1016 kg solution / h in the outlet underflow stream and V
1
=1164 kg
solution/ h in the exit overflow stream
The operating point , is obtained as the intersection of lines L
O
V
1
and L
N
V
N+1

The stages are stepped off as shown, where the fourth stage for L4 is slightly past the
desired LN
Hence, about 3.9 stages are required

918 . 0 2180 2000
M M M
N N M N B
2180
1
M V L
N
376 . 0 2180 600 . 0 118 . 0
1 1 1
V L x V y L
N A AN N
Solid-Liquid Separation - Leaching

Equipment for leaching

3 distinct processes usually involved in leaching operations:
dissolving the soluble constituent
separating the solution , so formed, from the insoluble solid residue
washing the solid residue in order to free it of unwanted soluble matter or to
obtain, as much of the soluble material as possible
Solid-Liquid Separation - Leaching

Equipment for leaching

A) Batch plant for extraction of oil from
seeds
. Consists of a vertical cylindrical vessel
divided into two sections by slanting
partition
Upper section is filled with the charge
of seeds which is sprayed with fresh
solvent via a distributor
Solvent percolates into the bed of
solids and drains into the lower
compartment
Solid-Liquid Separation - Leaching

Equipment for leaching

Extraction from cellular materials;
B) Bollman extractor
.series of perforated baskets,
arranged as in a bucket elevator
solid is fed into top basket on the
downward side and is discharged from
the top basket on the upward side
Solvent sprayed on to the solid which
is about to be discarded, and passes
downwards
Solvent is finally allowed to flow down
through the remaining baskets in co-
current flow

Solid-Liquid Separation - Leaching

Equipment for leaching

Leaching of coarse solids;
A) Dorr rake classifier
.Solid is introduced near the bottom
of a sloping tank and is gradually
moved up by means of a rake
Solvent enters at the top and flows
in the opposite direction to the solid,
and passes under a baffle and finally
discharged over a weir
Operates satisfactorily, provided the
solid does not disintegrate & the
solids are given an ample time to
drain before discharged
Solid-Liquid Separation - Leaching

SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION
Supercritical Fluid
Extraction
Lower viscosity
than liquid
Gas like
permeation of
solid structures
Higher density
than gas
Higher solubility
than gas
Supercritical Fluid
Extraction with C O2
Replace Organic Solvents with CO2
Substances easily degraded by heat
can be extracted
Non-toxic for use in food products
Non-reactive and Non-flammable
Easy processing
Environmentally safe
Example Process Flow
After Extraction Process
Change Conditions to alter Phase
Behavior
Reduce Solubility by lowering the
pressure
Equilibrium Phase comes out of
solution
Another example of this is
crystallization