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# MDOF SYSTEMS - MODAL ANALYSIS

BY

Applied Mechanics Department
Walchand College of Engineering College, Sangli
MDOF
The number of independent coordinates required to specify
configuration of vibrating system in space at any instant of
time.

Figure 1: Three storey frame idealized as a three DOF system
Equations of Motion
The equations of motion for a system having 'n' masses and 'n' DOF but no external
forces have the following form,
..
m x + k x = 0 ------------------------------------ (1)

In expanded form,
..
m
1
x
1
+ k
11
x
1
+ k
12
x
2
+ --------------------- + k
1n
x
n
= 0
..
m
2
x
2
+ k
21
. x
1
+ k
22
x
2
+ ------------------ + k
2n
x
n
= 0
------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------
..
m
n
x
n
+ k
n1
.x
1
+ k
n2
x
2
+ ----------------- + k
nn
x
n
= 0
Equations of Motion
Let, x
1
= a
1
.sin(wt + )
..
x
1
= -a
1
w
2
sin(wt + )
----------------------------
----------------------------
x
n
= a
n
sin(wt + )
..
xn = -a
n
w
2
sin(wt + )

Substituting above equations in (1), we get,

(k
11
- m
1
w
2
) a
1
+ K
12
a
2
+ -------------------------- + K
1n
a
n
= 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------
K
n1
a
1
+ K
n2
a
2
+ ------------------------ + (K
nn
- m
n
w
2
) a
n
= 0
These equations can be used to solve for relative values of the amplitudes a
1
to a
n
.
Now we may state that non-trivial values of the amplitudes exists only if the
determinant of coefficients of 'a' is equal to zero, because the equations are
homogeneous i.e. the right sides are zero.
Since free vibration must be possible in a normal mode we write,

0
) (
) (
) (
2
2 1
2
2
2 22 21
1 12
2
1 11
=

e
e
e
n nn n n
n
n
m K K K
K m K K
K K m K
Equations of Motion
In the above all K values are presumably known and expansion of this
determinant leads to a frequency equation. There is one real root for each
normal mode and hence 'n' natural frequencies can be obtained.
Mathematically the problem is known as Eigen value problem and the
quantities w
2
as Eigen values. Symbolically we may write,

2
e K - m
= 0
Orthogonal Property of Normal Modes
A very useful property of normal modes is the fact that any two modes are
orthogonal. This may be expressed as follows,

Where m and n identify any two normal modes of system and 'r' refers
to r
th
mass out of total j masses. Eq
n
(2) can be expressed as follows,

{X
i
}
T
[M] {X
j
} = 0

Where X
i
and X
j
are eigen vectors and [M] is mass matrix.

The orthogonality condition in terms of stiffness matrix can be written
as follows.

{a
n
}
T
[K] {a
m
} = 0

This orthogonal property forms the basis of modal analysis.

n m for (2) 0 a a m
n m r
j
1 r

= =
=
Modal Analysis
The motion of MODF systems is generally
described by a finite set of simultaneous second
order differential equations, which are in coupled
form.
The basic idea behind Modal Analysis is to
transform the simultaneous set of equations into
uncoupled or independent set of equations using
the modal matrix.
n-DOF linear systems is to decompose it into ''n''
single DOF systems for which solutions are easily
obtained.
Modal Analysis by Matrix Approach
Mass matrix - ''Dynamically uncoupled form''.
Stiffness matrix Statically coupled form.
It is possible to uncouple the equations of motion of n-
DOF system provided we know before hand the normal
modes of the system.
When the n-normal modes (or eigen vectors) are
assembled into a square matrix with each normal mode
represented by a column we call it the Modal Matrix .
Thus the modal matrix for a three DOF system may appear
as
| |
3 2 1
3
2
1
2
3
2
1
1
3
2
1
X X X
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
=
(
(
(

= |
Modal Analysis by Matrix Approach
The modal matrix makes it possible to include all the
orthogonality relations into one equation. For this
operation we need also the transpose of ,
( )
( )
( )
| |
T
T
X X X
x x x
x x x
x x x
3 2 1
3
3 2 1
2
3 2 1
1
3 2 1
=
(
(
(

= |
with each row corresponding to a mode. If we now form
the product
T
m or
T
k , which results into diagonal
matrix since the off diagonal terms simply express the
orthogonality relations which are zero.
Modal Analysis by Matrix Approach
e. g. For 2-DOF system,
(

=
=
=
(

=
(

=
=
2
1
1 2
2 1
2
1
2 2 1 2
2 1 1 1
2 1 2 1
0
0
Similarly,
0
0 ity orthogonal to Due
0
0
k
k
k.
m x x
m x , x
m
m
m x x m x x
m x x m x x

] x [m] [x ] x [x m
T
T
T
T T
T T
T T
| |
| |
The diagonal terms are called generalized mass 'mi' and
generalized stiffness 'ki'.
Undamped Free Vibration System

Free Body Diagram of Masses
k
1
x
1

..
m
1
x
1

m
1

k
2
(x
2
-x
1
)
..
m
2
x
2

m
2

The equations of motion are
..
m
1
x
1
+ (k
1
+ k
2
) x
1
- k
2
x
2
= 0
..
m
2
x
2
+ k
2
(x
2
- x
1
) = 0

In matrix form,
)
`

=
)
`

+
+

0
0 0
2
1
2 2
2 2 1
..
2
..
1
2
1
x
x
k k
k k k
x
x
m
m
x
1
(t) = a
1
sint and x
2
(t) = a
2
sint

{X
1
(t)} = {a} sint
..
{X
1
(t)} = -
2
{a} sint
[{K} -
2
{M}] {a} Sint = 0
For non trivial Solution,

| K -
2
M | = 0
2 1
2 1
2
1
2 1
2
2
2
2 1
2
2
2
2 1
2 1 2 2 1
2 4
2
2 2 2 1 2 1
2
2 2 2
2
2
1 2 1
4
0
2 1
) (
0 ) )( (
0
2 2
m m
k k
m
k k
m
k
m
k k
m
k
w
k k
m m
k k m k m
w w
k w m k w m k k
w m k k
k w m k k

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+ =
= +
+

= +
=

+
Ex. 1: Find seismic response of 2 DOF system, if k
1
= k
2
= 1000N/m,
m
1
= 20 kg. & m
2
= 25 kg
Solution:
2 1
2 1
2
1
2 1
2
2
2
2 1
2
2
2
4
m m
k k
m
k k
m
k
m
k k
m
k
w
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+ =
( )
50 40 4 80 50 80 50
2
2
2
1
2
2
= =
+ + =
w
w
This implies that the synchronous motion is possible only at two frequencies of the
system. Next step is to find values of a
1
and a
2
. Equations of motion are
..
m
1
x
1
+ (k
1
+ k
2
) x
1
+ k
2
x
2
= 0
..
m
2
x
2
+k
2
(x
2
- x
1
) = 0
Taking solution as x
1
(t) = a
1
sint and x
2
(t) = a
2
sint
a
1
(k
1
+ k
2
- m
1

2
) - k
2
a
2
= 0 -------------- (4)

-a
1
k
2
+ (k
2
m
2

2
) a
2
= 0 ------------------ (5)
24 1 sec, 17 112
64 0 sec, 83 17
4
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1 2 1
2
2
1
.
a
a
.
a
a
w m k k
k
a
a
) ion ( From equat
= = =
= = =
+
=
e e
e e
a
2

a
1

a
2

a
1

a
1
/a
2
= 0.64 a
1
/a
2
= -1.24

(a) First Mode (b) Second Mode
It may be noted that one cannot find values of a
1
and a
2
and only their ratios can be obtained.
{ }
{ } mode natural second is
00 . 1
24 . 1
mode natural first is
00 . 1
64 . 0
2
1
2
1
)
`

=
)
`

=
)
`

=
)
`

=
a
a
a
a
|
|
For system with more degrees of freedom, there will be more number of natural
frequencies and mode shapes. Natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained by
finding eigen value of the following matrix.
[K
2
M]
The matrix of two mode shapes is called modal matrix. For the above case the modal
matrix is
{ } { } { } | |
(

=
(

=
=
1 1
24 1 64 0

,
22 21
12 11
2 1
. .

| |
| |
| | |
Ex. 2: Find seismic response for two storey building as shown in fig.
(a) Two Storey Building Frame (b) Lumped Masses
)
`

=
)
`

= =
= =
)
`

=
)
`

= +
= + +
0
0 3
0
0 2
sin sin
sin sin
0
0 3
0
0 2
0
0 2 2
2
1
2
..
1
..
2
2
2
2
2
..
2 2
2
1
1
..
1 1
2
1
2
..
..
1
1 2
2
..
2 1 1
1
..
u
u
k k
k k
u
u
-mw
mw -
wt w - u (t) x wt, u (t) x
wt w -u (t) x wt, u (t) x Assume,
x
x
k k
k k
x
x
m
m
) x k(x x m
) x k(x kx x m
Solution: Free Vibration Analysis

The equations of motions are given by,

mw K
K
u
u
), ion ( From equat
) - ( --------- ) u (k - mw - ku
) -- ( -------- - ku ) u mw k - (
ons are, The equati
m
k
and
m
k
m
k
m) / k (
Put w

k-mw k
k mw k-
ution trival sol For non -
u
u

k-mw k
k mw k-
2
2
1
2
2
1
2 1
2
2 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2 3
1
2 0
1 0 2 3
2
2
0 2 5
0
3
0
0
3
2
2

=
= +
=
= =
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
=

)
`

=
)
`

e Second
.
.
u
u

.
u
u

k/m When w
e First
.
.
u
u

. u , Taking u
.
u
u
,
m
K
when w
mod
0 1
0 1
0 1
2
mod
0 1
5 0
5 0 1
5 0
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1 2
2
1
1
2

)
`

=
)
`

=
= =

)
`

=
)
`

= =
= = =

u
2

u
1

u
2

u
1

m k w 2 /
1
= m k w 2 /
2
=
a) First mode b) Second mode

The Modal Matrix is given by,
33 . 0
) 1 2 1 (
) 1 2 1 (
67 . 2
) 1 2 25 . 0 (
) 1 2 5 . 0 (
m
m
mode K in mass Modal
33 0
1 2 1
1 2 1
33 1
1 2 25 0
1 2 5 0
by given is mode k for factor ion Participat
1 1
1 5 . 0
2
2
2
1
2
1
i
2
ik
2
2
1
i ik
k
th
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
th
22 21
12 11
=
+
+
=
=
+
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
+
+
=
=
+
+
=
=
(

=
(

=
=
=
=
m m
m m
M
m m
m m
M
M
.
m m
m m
P
.
m m .
m m .
P
m
m
P
i
i
i
i ik
i
i ik
k
|
|
|
|
| |
| |
Ex. 3: For freely vibrating dynamic system, the following mass and stiffness matrices are
available, using direct method find natural frequencies and corresponding eigen
vectors. Hence using modal vectors uncouple the equations of motions.

0 A - ) - (2 A g Rearrangin by
0 2A A - 2A -
0 A - 2A w A - ing Subsititut
2
2
1
2 1
2
2
2 1
2
1
=
= +
= +
w
w
0 ) 2 - (2 A A -
2
2 1
= + w
Solution: - The equation of motion is,
)
`

=
)
`

= +
0
0 x

2 1 -
1 - 2
x

2 0
0 1
0 {x} [k] } x { ] m [
2
1
2
..
..
1
..
x
x

t cos A x
t cos A Let x
0 2x x - x 2
0 x - x 2 x
2 2
1 1
2 1
2
..
2 1
1
..
w
w
=
=
= +
= +
The non-trivial solution exists when
the determinant of coefficient matrix
vanishes.

(

=
(

=
2 0
0 1
[m]
2 1
1 2
[k]
(

= + =
= =
= =
= =
=
=
+
=
=
+
=

=
= +
=

3661 1 366 0
1 1
3661 1 1
3661 1 6339 0
366 0 1
366 0 366 2
2 1
6339 0
4
12 6
366 2
4
12 6
4
24 36 6
0 3 6 2
0
2 2 1
1 2
2 2
1
2
2
2
2 1
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
2 4
2
2
. . -
rix is, Modal mat
. , A When A
.
A
A
, . w Also, when
. - , A When A
.
A
A
, . When w
w
A
A
), ion ( From equat
. w
. w
w
w w
) w (
) w (
|
Now, to uncouple the following equations
..
{m} {x} + [k] {x} = {0} -------- (1)

Let {x} = [] {y} -------- (2)

Where {} = Modal matrix

{y} = Principal coordinates.
Substituting (2) in equation (1)
..
[m] [] {y} + [k] [] {y} = 0

Pre-multiplying by []
T

..
[]
T
[m] [] {y} + []
T
[k] [] {y} = 0
matrix stiffness d Generalize ] [
3 0
0 635 . 2

3661 . 1 366 . 0
1 1

2 1
1 2

3661 . 1 1
366 . 0 1
] ][ [ ] [ &
matrix mass d Generalize ] [
735 . 4 0
0 2684 . 1

3661 . 1 366 . 0
1 1

2 0
0 1

3661 . 1 1
366 . 0 1
] ][ [ ] [
= =
(

=
(

=
= =
(

=
(

=
K
k
M
m
T
T
| |
| |
Now,
The uncoupled equations are,
..
[m] {y} + [k] {y} = 0
..
1.2684 y
1
+ 3 y
1
= 0
..
4.735 y
2
+ 3 y
2
= 0
From first equation,

6336 . 0
735 . 4
3
equation second from &
365 . 2
284 . 1
3
2
2
2
1
= = =
= = =
M
K
w
M
K
w
These are same answers as obtained earlier.

Ex. 4 Determine the natural frequencies and corresponding
normal modes of vibration of a three storey frame as shown in Fig.
Solution: The mass matrix in above equation for a 3 - DOF system,

| |
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
8145 . 1 0 0
0 722 . 2 0
0 0 5362 . 4
10
0 0
0 0
0 0
3
3
2
1
m
m
m
m
Derivation of the stiffness matrix for a three storey frame has been shown in figure
5(c)-(e). Thus the stiffness matrix can be written as
| |
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

+
+
=
5256 5256 0
5256 12264 7008
0 7008 15768
10
0
0
3
1 2
1 1 2 2
2 2 1
k k
k k k k
k k k
k
|[k] -
2
[m]| = 0
Using equation,
0
8145 . 1 5256 5256 0
5256 722 . 2 12264 7008
0 7008 15768
2
2
2
=

e
e
e

3
- 10878.313
2
+ 2.9210732 x 10 - 1.44019 x 10
10
= 0

1
= 633.982
1

2
= 3245.81
2

3
= 6998.49
3

1

2
and
3
are the three natural frequencies of vibration of the three storey frame.
Substituting these natural frequencies in Equation [{K}- w
2
{M}] {A} = 0, the
corresponding normal modes of vibration are obtained which are shown in Figs,
F
0
sin(e
f
t)
2k
2m
m
k
Ex. 5: Determine the maximum response of the two masses shown in figure (1)
subjected to a harmonic force at the first mass level. Neglect damping. Obtained
numerical results if m = 12 x 10
3
kg, k = 5.2 x 106 N/m, F
0
= 890 N and
1
= 5.3
Solution:
For a two DOF system shown in Figure 1, we can write the equation as,
| | | | | |
1
2
1
2
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
0
2
1 2
1
0
2
1
A
above, (b) set of equation second the Solving
) (
0
2 3
0 0
0 2 3
) ( } { } {
A
m k
k
b
F
A
A
m k k
k m k
F
A
A
m
m
k k
k k
a F A m k
e
e
e
e
e

=

)
`

=
)
`

)
`

=
)
`

=
) )( 2 3 (
A
) )( 2 3 (
) (
A
(b) set Equation of (1) Equation in A2 ng Substituti
2
1
2
1
0
2
2
1
2
1
2
1 0
1
e e
e e
e
m k m k
k F
m k m k
m k F

=

=
Substituting the numerical data
A
1
= 9.5031 x 10
-5

A
2
= 10.161 x 10
-3

{ } { }
sin( )
f
y A t e =
A
1
and A
2
are the maximum amplitudes or the maximum response of the
two masses. The Equations of the displacement response of the system
can be obtained by substituting these amplitudes in Equation-

Thus,
y
1
= 9.5031 x 10
-5
sin (5.3t) and y
2
= 10.161 x 10
-5
sin (5.3t)
Ex. 6: Solve Ex. 5 by using the concept of modal analysis.
Solution: The procedure of modal analysis can be divided in various steps as follows,
Step 1 - Free Vibration Analysis
Modal analysis requires the normal modes, which are obtained first by free vibration
analysis. A set of linear algebraic equations of free vibration, is rewritten here.
[[k] -
2
[m]] {A} = {0}
The non-trivial solution of above equation is possible when
[[k] -
2
[m]] = {0}

0
12 0
0 24
10
2 . 5 2 . 5
2 . 5 6 . 15
10
2 2 6
=
(

e
Assuming
2
= , in above equation and solving it a quadratic equation is obtained
as follows.
288
2
- 3.12 x 10
5
- 5.408 x 10
7
= 0 --------------------
Substituting numerical values in the elaborated form of equation (b)

1
= 216.667
1
=
1

2
= 866.667
2
=
1

{ } { }
)
`

=
)
`

=
1
1

2
1
2 1
| |
(a) First mode
A
21
=2
A
11
=1
(b) Second mode

A
12
=1
A
21
= -1
Fig.: The two normal modes of free vibration of a two frame
Step 2 - Evaluation of Modal Parameters
Various modal parameters such as Mn, Kn and F
0
(t) have been evaluated first.
Modal Masses:
| |
| |
m N k k k
m N m
k k
k k
k
k k
kg m m
kg m
m
m
M
m M
T
T
t
T
/ 10 2 . 31 6 } ]{ [ } {
Similarly
. / 10 6 . 15 3
2
1 3
2 1
} ]{ [ } {
Stiffness Modal
. 10 36 3 } ]{ [ } { M
Similarly
. 10 72 6
2
1
0
0 2
2 1
} ]{ [ } {
6
2 2 2
3
1
1 1 1
3
2 2 2
3
1
1 1 1
= = =
= =
)
`

=
=
= = =
= =
)
`

=
=
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| | ) 3 . 5 sin(
0
) , sin(
1 1 )} ( { } {
) 3 . 5 sin( 890 1
) , sin(
0
) , sin(
2 1 )} ( { } {
Forces Modal
0
0
2 2
0
0
1 1
t F
t F
t F F
Similarly
t F
t F
t F
t F F
T
T
=
)
`

= =
=
=
)
`

= =
e
|
e
e
|
Step 3 - Modal Equations and Their Solution
Substituting the modal parameters in modal Equation (24b), the first modal equation
is written as follows.
M
1
Z
1
+ K
1
Z
1
= F
1
(t) -------------------------------------- (i)
..
72 x 10
3
Z
1
+ 15.6 x 10
6
Z
1
= 890 sin (5.3t)
Modal Equation (i) is solved by using classical approach as follows. The particular
solution of Equation (i) can be written as follows.
) 3 . 5 sin( 09 . 28
) 3 . 5 sin(
1
1
1 1
t E Z
t E Z
p
p
=
=
- -
Value of E
1
is obtained by substituting these in Equation (i)
E
1
= 6.5549 x 10
-5
and Z
1
= 6.5549 x 10
5
sin (5.3t)
The second modal equation is written as follows

36 x 10
- -
Z
2
+ 31.2 x 10 Z
2
= 980 sin (5.3t) --------------- (j)
Z
2
= 2.948117 x 10
-5
sin (5.3t)
Step 4 - Mode Superposition
Total response {y} of a system is obtained by superposition of the modal responses
as per Equation,
) 3 . 5 sin( 10
9418 . 2
5549 . 6
1 2
1 1
} ]{ [ } {
5
2
1
t
x
x
z x

)
`

=
)
`

= |
x
1
= 9.4967 x 10
-5
sin (5.3t)
x
2
= 10.168 x 10
-5
sin (5.3t)
Thus,
Same as the classical solution in Ex. 5
Ex. 7: The two-story frame considered in Examples 2 and 3 is subjected to a
sudden ground acceleration of 0.3g, where g is the acceleration due to gravity.
Determine the modal response of the two masses. Neglect damping.
Solution:
Step 1 Free Vibration Analysis
Free vibration analysis of the frame is already performed in Example 6.
Step 2 Evaluations of Modal Parameters
Modal parameters Mn and Kn are evaluated in Ex.6. The mode
participation factors Tn are given by,
| |
| |
1
2
2m 0 1
1 2
0 m 1
4
T 0.667
6m 6
2m 0 1
1 -1
0 m 1
1
T 0.333
3m 3
(
`
(
)
= = =
(
`
(
)
= = =
Observe that T
i
= 1
Step 3 Modal Equations and Their Solution
When damping is neglected the modal equation can be written as,
2
n n n n g
Z Z T y e + =
Z
n
= Z
nc
+ Z
np

n
n n n n n
2
n
0.3g T
Z A cos t B sin t e e
e
= +
As the system starts from rest; at t = 0, Zn =0 and
n
Z 0 =
n
n n
2
n
0.3g T
A and B 0
e
= =
( ) ( )
n
n n
2
n
0.3g T
Z 1 cos t e
e
=
Substituting values of Tn and w
n
in above equation, the two modal
parameters can be written as
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3
1
3
2
Z 9.0524x10 1 cos 14.719t
Z 1.1315x10 1 cos 29.439t

=
=
These modal co-ordinates are maximum when the term
achieves the maximum value which is 2.
( ) ( )
n
1 cos t e
3 3
1max
3 3
2max
Z 9.0524x10 x2 18.1048x10
and Z 1.1315x10 x2 2.263x10

= =
= =
However it can be observed from equation (2) that the first modal
coordinate Z
1
achieves its maximum value when 14.719 t = t i.e. when
t=0.213 second and the second modal coordinate Z
2
achieves its maximum
value at t=0.107 second. Thus the two modal coordinates do not achieves
their peak values simultaneously. Therefore superpositions of modal
responses pose a problem. Various modal combination rules have been
discussed in the next section.
------------- (2)

Modal Combination Rules
1. Method of Absolute Sum
In this method it is assumed that the maximum modal
coordinates occur at same instant of time. Thus, the
response in geometric coordinate is given by,

This method provides an upper bound to the maximum
response, which is a conservative estimate of response
quantities. The method of absolute sum is applied to
obtain the relative displacement u
i
of the two masses of
example 7.
N
i max r max ir
r 1
u Z A
=
=

( )
3 3 3
1max
3 3 3
2max
u 18.1048x10 x1 2.263x10 x1 20.3678x10 meter
u 18.1048x10 x2 2.263x10 x 1 38.4726x10 meter

= + =
= + =
2. Square Root of Sum of Squares (SRSS) Method
This is the most popular method which is suitable for
structures having well separated modes. The maximum
response in geometric coordinates is obtained by taking
square root of sum of squares of the maximum modal
responses as follows.

This method provides a reasonable estimate of the
maximum responses. SRSS method is applied to obtain
the relative displacement u
i
of the two masses of
example 7.

Modal Combination Rules
( )
N
2
i max r max ir
r 1
u Z A
=
=

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
3 3 3
1max
2 2
3 3 3
2max
u 18.1048x10 x1 2.263x10 x1 18.2456x10 meter
u 18.1048x10 x1 2.263x10 x 1 36.2802x10 meter

= + =
= + =