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Assoc Prof Dr. Mimi Sakinah Bt Abdul Munaim

February 2013
Advanced Separation System (BKC4613)
Mechanism of
Selection of
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Topic Outcome (TO)
Explain the roles of separation operations in an industrial
chemical process.
Explain what constitutes the separation of a chemical mixture
and enumerate the five general separation techniques.
Explain the use of an energy-separating agent (ESA) and/or a
mass-separating agent (MSA) in a separation operation.
Make a selection of feasible separation operations based on
factors involving the feed, products, property differences
among chemical components, and characteristics of different
separation operations.
3 Advanced Separation System (BKC4613)
Industrial Chemical Process
4 Advanced Separation System (BKC4613)
Chemical industry manufactures product that
differ in chemical content from process feeds,
which can be:
Naturally occurring raw materials
Plant or animal matter
Chemical intermediates
Chemicals of commerce
Waste products
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A chemical process is conducted in either a:
Key operations are:
Chemical reaction
Separation of chemical mixtures
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Industrial Chemical Process
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Key operations for separation are:
Chemical reaction
Separation of chemical mixtures
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Industrial Chemical Process
Five separation techniques:
1. Separation by phase creation.
2. Separation by phase addition.
3. Separation by barrier.
4. Separation by solid agent.
5. Separation by force field or gradient.

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Mechanism of separation
1. Separation by phase creation
The creation is accomplished:
by energy (heat and/or shaft-work) transfer to or
from the process or
by pressure reduction

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Mechanism of separation
2. Separation by phase addition
Introduce second phase into the system
(solvent) that selectively dissolves some of the
species in the feed.

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Mechanism of separation
3. Separation by barrier
Restricts and/or enhances the movement of
certain chemical species with respect to other
Involve addition of solid particles.

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Mechanism of separation
4. Separation by solid agent
Act directly or as inert carrier for other
substances so as to cause separation.

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Mechanism of separation
5. Separation by force field or gradient
Various types are sometimes applied for
specialized separations.

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Mechanism of separation
Separations are achieved by enhancing the
rate of mass transfer by diffusion of certain
species relative to mass transfer of all
species by bulk movement within a
particular phase (rate of separation).

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Mechanism of separation
The driving force and direction of mass
transfer by diffusion is governed by
thermodynamics, with the usual limitation
of equilibrium (extent of separation).
Both transport and thermodynamic
considerations are crucial in separation

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Mechanism of separation
Extent of separation achieved between or
among the product phases for each of the
chemical species present in the feed
depend on the exploitation of differences in
molecular, thermodynamic and transport
properties of the species in the different
phase present.
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Mechanism of separation
The importance properties are:
Molecular weight, van der Waals volume, van der Waals
area, molecular shape (acentric factor), dipole moment,
polarizability, dielectric constant, electric charge, radius
of gyration
Vapor pressure, solubility, adsorptivity, diffusivity
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Mechanism of separation
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