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LECTURE 1: EYE ANATOMY

Labadi, O.D. - Liana Al


Presenter: Gopal Singh
Assist. Professor
SGRD CON, Amritsar
EYE ANATOMY
http://everlastingelephants.blogspot.com/2009/08/what-is-eye-cataract.html
EYE ANATOMY
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eye_orbit_anatomy_anterior2.jpg

The orbital bone
The eye socket
Formed by:
Cheekbone
Forehead
Temple
Side of nose
Eye is cushioned within orbit
by pads of fat
Lacrimal gland
Produces tears
Tears drain through the
nasolacrimal duct

http://mwsu-bio101.ning.com/forum/topics/distinct-human-celltypes-1?commentId=2263214%3AComment%3A10331
EYE ANATOMY
Bones of the Orbit
Roof: Front-less
frontal, lesser wing of sphenoid bone
Lateral Wall: Great-Z
greater wing of sphenoid, zygomatic bone
Medial Wall: Smel(l)
sphenoid, maxillary, ethmoid, lacrimal bones
Floor: Zip My Pants
zygomatic, maxillary, palatine bones

EYE ANATOMY

Eyelids (L):
Protection:
Protects eye from foreign matter (dust,
dirt, debris)
Protects against bright light that might
damage the eye
Help spread tears over surface of
eye- moist & comfort
Eyelashes (L):
Filter out foreign matter
prevent it from getting into eye

http://www.medical-look.com/human_anatomy/organs/Eyelids_and_eyelashes.html
EYE ANATOMY

Conjunctiva (Conj):
Thin, clear layer of skin
Covering of the front of eye
Covers the sclera and the inside
of the eyelids
Function:
Keeps bacteria and foreign material
from getting behind eye


http://www.images.missionforvisionusa.org/anatomy/2005/11/conjunctiva-answers.html
EYE ANATOMY

Sclera (S):
White of the eye
Tough, opaque tissue that
extends around the eye
Surrounds the eye and gives the
eye its shape
The sclera is attached to the
extraocular muscles

http://www.thirdeyehealth.com/sclera.html
EYE ANATOMY

Extraocular Muscles
6 extraocular muscles that are
attached to each eye
Help move the eye left, right, up,
down and diagonally
These 6 muscles are:
Superior rectus
Inferior rectus
Medial rectus
Lateral rectus
Inferior oblique
Superior oblique

http://media.photobucket.com/image/introduction%20to%20eye%20anatomy/trimurtulu/Eye.jpg
EYE ANATOMY

Cornea (K):
Clear layer at the front &
center of eye
Located in front of the iris
(colored part of eye)
Function:
Focus light as it enters eye
Avascular
Only organ that has no blood
vessels

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cornea.jpg
EYE ANATOMY

Anterior Chamber (AC):
Fluid-filled space
Behind the cornea & in front
of the iris
Fluid = Aqueous humor (AH)
AH helps nourish the cornea &
the lens


http://www.djo.harvard.edu/files/2528_310.jpg
http://www.goodhope.org.uk/departments/eyedept/angleclosureetc.htm
EYE ANATOMY
Pupil (P):
Central opening of iris
Iris (I):
Ring shaped tissue
Colored part of eye
Controls the amount of light that
enters the eye
Two muscle fibers:
Contraction
Constricts pupil in bright light
Dilation
Dilates pupil in dark


http://www.bioconsulting.com/Bio_Tech_Assessment.html
http://www.goodhope.org.uk/departments/eyedept/angleclosureetc.htm
EYE ANATOMY
Anterior Chamber Angle
Located where the cornea meets
the iris
Trabecular Meshwork
Site where aqueous humor drains
out of eye
If AH cannot properly drain out
Pressure build up inside eye
Causes optic nerve damage &
evetually vision loss = glaucoma

http://seniorhealth.about.com/library/conditions/blglaucoma2.htm
EYE ANATOMY

Posterior Chamber (PC):
Fluid-filled space
Aqueous Humor!
Immediately behind the iris but
infront of the lens


http://seniorhealth.about.com/library/conditions/blglaucoma2.htm
EYE ANATOMY

Crystalline Lens:
Clear, flexible structure
Behind the iris & pupil
Surrounded by a ring of
muscular tissue ciliary
body
The lens & ciliary body help
control fine focusing of light
as it passes through the eye

http://www.smartplanet.com/business/blog/smart-takes/artificial-lens-implant-to-give-patients-
high-definition-vision-better-than-2020/2558/
EYE ANATOMY

Vitreous Chamber:
Located behind the lens & in
front of the retina
Filled with a gel-like fluid
called the vitreous humor
The vitreous help maintain
the shape of the eye

http://www.ophthobook.com/questions/question-how-many-chambers-are-there-in-the-eye
EYE ANATOMY

Retina:
Acts like the film in a camera to create
an image
Consists of a specialized layer of cells
Converts light signals into nerve signal
then send these signals to the optic
nerve
Optic nerve carries the signals to the brain
The brain helps process the image
Rods- low light situations
Cones- allows you to see color

hhttp://www1.appstate.edu/~kms/classes/psy3203/EyePhysio/human_retina.htm
http://www.answersingenesis.org/tj/v13/i1/retina.asp
EYE ANATOMY

Macula
Located in the central part of
the retina
Responsible for giving sharp
central vision
Used for reading, recognizing
faces, and watching TV
Any disease that affects the
macula will cause a change &
impairment in the central vision

http://www.dukehealth.org/eye_center/specialties/macular_degeneration/care_guides/macular_degener
ation_frequently_asked_questions
EYE ANATOMY

Choroid
A layer of tissue that is:
Located under the retina
Separates retina & sclera
Mostly made up of blood vessels
Helps nourish the retina by
carrying the blood supply to the
eyes internal structures
http://www.cnib.ca/en/your-eyes/eye-conditions/amd/the-eye/basics/Default.aspx
EYE ANATOMY

Optic Nerve
A bundle of 1 million nerve fibers
Responsible for transmitting
nerve signals from the eye to the
brain
The optic disc is the front surface
of the optic nerve
The optic disc is visible on the retina
http://cssd.us/body.cfm?id=802
http://www.wollongong.youronlinecommunity.com.au/wollongong-online/2008/50/walkthrulife/eye-
health.html