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Analisis Perancangan Kerja

Pengertian
Suatu ilmu yang mempelajari prinsip-prinsip
dan teknik-teknik untuk mendapatkan suatu
rancangan sistem kerja yang terbaik
Analisis
Perancangan
Kerja
Mampu menghasilkan
output sesuai dengan
tujuan yang ditetapkan,
nyaman, aman, dan sehat
bagi pekerja
Produktivitas kerja
meningkat
Keuntungan penerapan :
Waktu kerja yang semakin pendek
Produktivitas yang lebih tinggi
Perbaikan sistem kerja / lingkungan kerja
Perancangan peralatan
Shopfloor, office, automation, Transportation
Perancangan peralatan
Perancangan lingkungan kerja



Analisis Perancangan Kerja

Manusia
Bahan
Mesin
Peralatan
Uang
Beberapa alternatif
Sistem kerja
Alternatif
Sistem kerja
Kondisi kerja awal
Alat bantu kerja & fasilitas kerja baru
di bagian pengepakan
Produktivitas Kerja Manusia
Produktivitas pada dasarnya akan berkaitan erat dengan sistem
produksi, yaitu sistem dimana faktor-faktor semacam :
Tenaga Kerja (direct atau indirect labor)
Modal atau kapital berupa mesin, peralatan kerja, bahan
baku, bangunan pabrik, dll.
Dikelola dalam suatu cara yang terorganisir untuk mewujudkan
barang atau jasa secara efektif dan efisien.
Produksi
Bahan baku
Tenaga kerja
Mesin dan
fasilitas
produksi
Informasi
Energi
Waktu
Dll
Masukan
(Input)
1.Kegiatan produktif
Transportasi
fisik/non fisik
Proses nilai
tambah
(fungsional dan
ekonomis)
2.Kegiatan non
produktif
Idle/delays
Set-up, loading-
unloading,
material handling,
dll
Proses Produksi
(Through-put)
Produk/Jasa
Limbah (padat,
cair, gas)
Informasi
Keluaran
(Output)
Produksi adalah upaya atau kegiatan untuk menambah nilai pada suatu barang.
Bekerja adalah kegiatan manusia merubah keadaan-keadaan
tertentu dari lingkungan yang ditujukan untuk mempertahankan
dan memelihara kelangsungan hidupnya (Sutalaksana, 1979).

Secara mendalam tersirat makna bahwa berkarya untuk orang
lain (bekerja) seseorang akan mendapatkan penghargaan atas
hasil karyanya dan penghargaan ini merupakan suatu kebutuhan
sesuai dengan tingkat kebutuhan manusia, yaitu kebutuhan dasar
fisiologis, kebutuhan rasa aman, kebutuhan sosial, kebutuhan
akan harga diri dan kebutuhan untuk pernyataan diinginkan.
Sehingga pada
dasarnya bekerja
adalah
perwujudan dari
lima kebutuhan
dasar yang
diungkapkan oleh
Teori Maslow
(Asad, 1980)
Teknik Tata Cara Kerja
Pengaturan Kerja
Prinsip-prinsip mengatur komponen komponen sistem
kerja untuk mendapatkan alternatif-alternatif sistem kerja
terbaik.
Pengaturan kerja meliputi: faktor manusia, studi gerakan,
ekonomi gerakan
Pengukuran Kerja
Bagian dari teknik tata cara kerja yang mempelajari cara-
cara pengukuran sistem kerja.
Pengukuran kerja meliputi: pengukuran waktu, tenaga,
psikologis dan sosiologis.
Penggunaan Teknik Tata Cara Kerja.
Penurunan biaya produksi.
Penentuan waktu baku untuk sistem upah perangsang.

Langkah-langkah Penelitian Sistem
Kerja
Penelitian
Sistem Kerja
Prinsip-prinsip
pengaturan
metode kerja

Ergonomi
Studi Gerakan
Ekonomi Gerakan
Teknik-teknik
pengukuran kerja

Pengukuran Waktu
Pengukuran Tenaga
Pengukuran
dampak psikologis
& sosiologis
Beberapa
Alternatif
Sistem
Kerja
Lebih
Baik
Alternatif
Sistem
Kerja
Terbaik
Produktivitas
Lebih Tinggi
7 Jenis Pemborosan menurut Shingo,
Shigeo [1985]:
1. Over Produksi
2. Waktu Menunggu
3. Transportasi
4. Pemrosesan
5. Tingkat Persediaan Barang
6. Gerakan yang tidak perlu
7. Cacat Produksi
Peta-peta Kerja
Pada umumnya peta-peta kerja sebagai analysis tools
yang ada saat ini bisa dibagi dalam dua kelompok besar
berdasarkan kegiatannya, yaitu:
1.Peta kerja untuk menganalisa kegiatan kerja
keseluruhan
Terdiri dari :
Peta Proses Operasi (Operation Process Chart)
Peta Aliran Process (Flow Process Chart)
Peta Proses kelompok kerja (Work Group Process
Chart)
Diagram Aliran (flow diagram)


2. Peta kerja untuk menganalisa kerja setempat
Terdiri dari :
Peta Pekerja dan Machine(Worker and
Machine Process Chart)
Peta Tangan Kiri dan Tangan kanan.
Gang Process Chart
The operation process chart shows the chronological
sequence of all operations, inspections, time allowances, and
materials used in a manufacturing or business process, from
the arrival of raw material to the packaging of the finished
product.
The chart depicts the entrance of all components and
subassemblies to the main assembly.
Just as a blueprint displays such design details as fits,
tolerances, and specifications. the operation process chart
gives manufacturing and business details at a glance
Two symbols are used in constructing the operation process
chart: a small circle, usually 3/8 inch in diameter, which
denotes an operation; and a small square, usually 3/8 inch on
a side, which denotes an inspection
Operation Process Chart
Analysis Tools : OPC
Analysis
Tools : OPC
In general, the flow process chart contains considerably more
detail than the operation process chart.
The flow process chart is especially valuable in recording non
production hidden costs, such as distances traveled, delays,
and temporary storages. Once these non production periods
are highlighted, analysts can take steps to minimize them and
hence their costs.
Flow process charts need several symbols in addition to the
operation and inspection symbols used in operation process
charts. A small arrow signifies transportation, which can be
defined as moving an object from one place to another, except
when the movement takes place during the normal course of
an operation or inspection. A large capital D indicates a delay,
which occurs when a pan is not immediately permitted to be
processed at the next workstation. An equilateral triangle
standing on its vertex signifies a storage, which occurs when a
part is held and protected against unauthorized removal.
Flow Process Chart
These five symbols
are the standard set
of process chart
symbols (ASME, 1972)
Although the flow process chart gives most of the pertinent
information related to a manufacturing process, it does not show a
pictorial plan of the flow of work.
Sometimes this information is helpful in developing a new method.
For example, before a transportation can be shortened, the analyst
needs to see or visualize where room can be made to add a facility
so that the transportation distance can be shortened.
Likewise, it is helpful to visualize potential temporary and
permanent storage areas, inspection stations, and work points.
The best way to provide this information is to take an existing
drawing of the plant areas involved and then sketch in the flow
lines indicating the movement of the material from one activity to
the next.
A pictorial representation of the layout of floors and buildings,
showing the locations of all activities on the flow process chart, is a
flow diagram
Flow Diagram

The string diagram

The string diagram is a scale plan or model on which a thread is used to
trace and measure the path of workers, material or equipment during a
specified sequence of events

The string diagram is a special form of flow diagram, in which a string or
thread is used to measure distance. It is necessary that the string diagram
be drawn correctly to scale.

The string diagram is started in exactly the same way as all other method
studies: by recording all the relevant facts from direct observation.

A string diagram can be used to plot the movements of materials, and,
especially when a work study person wants to find out easily just how far
the materials travel.
Example of a string diagram: Storing tiles after inspection
RECORD
In this operational example, tiles are unloaded from kiln trucks on to the bench, where they are
inspected. After inspection they are placed on platforms according to size and type.
The loaded platforms are taken on hand-lift trucks to the bins where the tiles are stored until they
are required for glazing. Using a string diagram to find out whether the arrangement was in fact the
one involving the least transport.


EXAMINE critically
A study of the diagram shows at once that the most frequent movement is the 10 x 10 and 15 x 15
rows of bins. Tiles are constantly being withdrawn for glazing.
DEVELOP the new layout
The first step in developing the new layout is to locate the bins containing the most handled tiles as
near as possible to the inspection bench and those containing special feature tiles as far away as
possible. The distances covered were reduced from 520 to 340 meters, a saving of 35 per cent.

Worker and Machine Process Charts
The worker and machine process chart is used to
study, analyze, and improve one workstation at a
time.
The chart shows the exact time relationship
between the working cycle of the person and the
operating cycle of the machine.
These facts can lead to a full utilization of both
worker and machine time, and a better balance of
the work cycle
Right hand-Left Hand Operation Chart
Menggambarkan semua gerakan-gerakan saat
bekerja dan waktu menggenggam yang dilakukan
oleh tangan kiri dan tangan kanan, juga
menunjukkan perbandingan antara tugas yang
dibebankan pada tangan kiri dan tangan kanan
ketika melakukan pekerjaan.
Melalui peta ini kita bisa melihat semua operasi
secara cukup lengkap dan mempermudah kita
untuk melakukan perbaikan pada operasi tsb.
Kekurangannya peta ini kurang praktis digunakan
dipakai sebagai alat penganalisa.

The gang process chart is, in a sense, an adaptation of the
worker and machine chart.
A worker and machine process chart helps determine the most
economical number of machines one worker can operate.
However, several processes and facilities are of such
magnitude that instead of one worker operating several
machines, several workers are needed to operate one machine
effectively.
The gang process chart shows the exact relationship between
the idle and operating cycle of the machine and the idle and
operating time per cycle of the workers who service that
machine.
This chart reveals the possibilities for improvement by
reducing both idle operator time and idle machine time.
Gang Process Charts