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BAHAN PERBANDINGAN

Handout-1 (Posisi Pengaturan)


Handout-2 (Tabel perbandingan)
Handout-3 (Model formulasi)
Handout-4 (redaksi asli)
MODEL FORMULASI
PERSIAPAN
Ada 2 model formulasi mengenai pengertian/ruang
lingkup PREPARATION:
perumusan LIMITATIF/RINCI (diuraikan bentuk-bentuknya;
a.l. di Belanda, Yugoslavia, Macedonia)
perumusan UMUM/TERBUKA (tidak dirinci; a.l. di Armenia,
Belarusia, China, Korea).

PEMIDANAAN dan BOBOT PIDANA bervariasi :
Dipidana : lebih ringan dari delik pokok atau percobaan;
Dipidana : sama berat dengan delik pokok;
Dipidana lebih ringan (lesser punishment); ttp. juga bisa tidak
dipidana (exempted from punishment); a.l. di China.

APP (alasan penghapus pidana) : ada yang
merumuskan, ada yang tidak merumuskan.
RUU KUHP 2006-2007
Pasal 15
1) Perbuatan persiapan terjadi apabila pembuat mendapatkan
atau menyiapkan sarana, mengumpulkan informasi atau
menyusun perencanaan tindakan atau melakukan tindakan-
tindakan serupa yang dimaksudkan menciptakan kondisi untuk
dilakukannya suatu perbuatan yang secara langsung ditujukan
bagi penyelesaian tindak pidana, termasuk apabila pembuat
dengan sengaja mendapatkan, membuat, menghasilkan,
mengimpor, mengangkut, mengekspor, atau mempunyai dalam
persediaan atau penyimpanan barang, uang atau alat
pembayaran lainnya, alat penghantar informasi, tempat
persembunyian atau transportasi yang dimaksudkan untuk
melakukan tindak pidana.
2) Persiapan melakukan tindak pidana dipidana, jika ditetapkan
dalam undang-undang.
RUU KUHP 2006-2007 (lanjutan)
Pasal 15 :
3) Pidana untuk persiapan melakukan tindak pidana adalah 1/3
(satu pertiga) dari ancaman pidana pokok yang diancamkan
untuk tindak pidana yang bersangkutan.
4) Dalam hal tindak pidana diancam dengan pidana penjara
seumur hidup atau pidana mati dikenakan pidana penjara
paling lama 10 (sepuluh) tahun.
5) Pidana tambahan untuk persiapan sama dengan tindak
pidana yang bersangkutan.

Pasal 16
Persiapan melakukan tindak pidana tidak dipidana, jika yang
bersangkutan menghentikan, meninggalkan, atau mencegah
kemungkinan digunakan sarana tersebut.

KUHP BELANDA
Pasal 46 (berdasarkan perubahan UU tgl. 27 Januari 1994) :

1) Preparation to commit a serious offence which, by statutory definition,
carries a term of imprisonment of not less than eight years, is punishable,
where the perpetrator intentionally obtains, manufactures, imports,
transits, exports or has at his disposal, object, subtances, monies or other
instruments of payment, information carriers, concealed spaces or means
of transport clearly intended for the joint commission of the serious
offense.

2) In case of preparation, the maximum principal penalty prescribed for the
serious offense is reduced by one half .

3) In case of serious offenses carrying a sentence of life imprisonment, a
term of imprisonment of not more than ten years shall be imposed.

4) The additional penalties for preparation are as for the completed serious
offense.


Penjelasan Prof Nico Keijzer
Until 2002, Art. 46-(1) in English translation was worded as follows:
Preparation to commit a serious offence which, by statutory
definition, carries a term of imprisonment of not less than eight
years, is punishable, where the perpetrator intentionally obtains,
manufactures, imports, transports, exports or has at his disposal
objects, substances, information carriers, spaces or means of
transport clearly intended for the joint commission of the serious
offence.
In order to make this provision also applicable to the
preparation of terrorist acts committed by one single individual, the
word joint was in 2002 deleted.
A Bill is now pending, which proposes to also delete the word
clearly.
The effects of these changes are not restricted to terrorism.

(Sbr: bhn penataran 2006, Nico Keijzer, Terrorism under Criminal Law)
Terrorist Crimes Act, 2004,
Belanda
The Terrorist Crimes Act (Wet terroristische misdrijven),
of 2004, has for a number of crimes introduced as an
aggravating circumstance: having acted with a terrorist
aim. Such crimes are considered terrorist crimes.
A terrorist aim has by Art. 83a Dutch Penal Code been
defined as:
the aim to seriously intimidate the population or part of the
population of a country, or unduly compel a Government or an
international organisation to perform or abstain from performing
any act, or seriously destabilise or destroy the fundamental
political, constitutional, economic or social structures of a country
or an international organisation.
Conspiracy to commit a serious terrorist crime now
amounts to a criminal offence.
The Terrorist Crimes Act has also introduced Art. 140a Dutch Penal
Code, which makes punishable participating in an organisation
which aims at the perpetration of terrorist crimes. This crime carries
a maximum penalty of 15 years imprisonment. For founders or
directors of such an organisation, the maximum penalty is life
imprisonment.
The Terrorist Crimes Act has amended Art. 205 Dutch Penal Code
(comparable to Pasal 238 KUHP), which now also makes
punishable, by a maximum imprisonment of four years, the recruiting
of another person for armed strife.
Finally, the Terrorist Crimes Act has established jurisdiction
regarding terrorist crimes, wherever committed, provided that
the accused is present in the Netherlands, or
the crime has been committed against a Dutch person, or
the crime has been committed with the aim of intimidating the Dutch
population or part of it, or to compel the Dutch government to do or to
abstain from doing any act, or to destroy or disrupt fundamental political,
constitutional, economic or social structures of the Netherlands or
organizations of the European Union, or
a request for extradition regarding the crime has been refused.

Sbr. : Nico Keijzer.
KUHP POLANDIA
Pasal 14:
1) Preparation occurs when the perpetrator with the purpose of
committing an offense acquires or makes ready the means, collect
information or draws up a plan of action or undertakes other
similar actions intended to create conditions for the undertaking of
an act directly aimed toward the accomplishment, or enters into
the agreement with another person for the purpose of committing
an offense.
2) Preparation for an offense is subject to a penalty only when the
law so provides.

Pasal 15 :
One shall not be subject to a penalty for preparations, who
voluntarily has abandoned them, in particular by destroying the
prepared means or by preventing the possibility of them being
used in the future.
KUHP KOREA
Article 28 Conspiracy and Preparation
Where a conspiracy to commit, or conduct
preparatory to, a crime has not reached the
commencement stage of its commission,
punishment shall not be imposed, except as
otherwise provided by law.
KUHP YUGOSLAVIA
Pasal 18 :
1) A person who prepares to commit a criminal act with premeditation
shall be punished insofar as the act in question is punishable by law
for the particular social danger of the preparation alone.

2) Preparation of a criminal act may be defined by law as a separate
criminal act, or the law may provide punishment for the preparation
of a particular criminal act.

3) When the law prescribes a punishment for the preparation of a
particular criminal act, the preparation may comprise procuring or
making operational means for the commission of the criminal act,
removing obstacles to the commission of the criminal act, planning
or organizing with others the commission of a criminal act, as well
as other activities which create conditions for the direct commission
of a criminal act and which are not part of the commission itself.


KUHP CHINA 1979 (mengalami
perubahan 1997)
Diatur dalam Pasal 22 Aturan Umum
(Part I) :
Preparation for a crime is preparation of the
instruments or creation of the conditions for
the commission of a crime. One who prepares
for a crime may, in comparison with one who
consummates the crime, be given a lesser
punishment or a mitigated punishment or be
exempted from punishment.
KUHP ARMENIA
Pasal 35 :
Preparation of a crime is the procurement of
means or tools or their adaptation for
committal of a direct willful crime, as well as
willful creation of other conditions for
committal of crime, if the crime was not
finished for reasons beyond the persons
control.
KUHP BULGARIA
Art. 17
(1) Preparation shall be the getting ready of the
means, the finding of accomplices and the creating of
conditions in general for the perpetration of intended
crime, before the commencement of its perpetration.

(2) Preparation shall be punishable only in the cases
provided for by the law.

(3) The acting person shall not be punished where he
has given up the perpetration of the crime of his own
accord.
KUHP MACEDONIA
Article 18

1) A person intentionally preparing a crime shall be punished only
when this is explicitly so determined by law.

2) The preparation of a crime may be determined by law as a special
crime, or it may be prescribed by law that the preparation of a
certain crime is punishable.

3) When the law prescribes punishment for the preparation of a certain
crime, the preparation may consist of procurement or adaptation of
means for the perpetration of a crime; of removing hindrances for
committing the crime; of making agreements, planning or organizing
together with other perpetrators of a crime; as well as of other
activities with which conditions are created for direct perpetration of
the crime, and which do not represent an action of perpetration.
MONOGRAFI HK. ADAT
KALIMANTAN II, BPHN,
1988/1989

Peragang atau tugang teraka :

tindakan seorang lelaki yang bermaksud
jahat terhadap seorang perempuan.

Sebenarnya ini baru rencana, tetapi kalau
ketahuan rencananya dan dilaporkan kpd
yang berwajib, dikenakan membayar
adat.

(Cttn. BNA : berarti persiapan/
preparation).