Anda di halaman 1dari 123


Renewable energy technologies provide alternatives
to fossil-fueled power plants for the generation of
electricity, an essential step towards reducing our
nations dependence on fossil fuels.

One category of emerging renewable energy
technologies relates to OCEAN ENERGY.

Among other types of renewable energy, oceans
contain energy in the form of


Tidal currents

-History of Wave Energy-
1799: First patent of a device designed to use ocean
waves to generate power
1910: First oscillating water column was built by
Bochaux-Praceique to power his house
1940s: Yoshio Masuda experimented with many
concepts of wave power
2004: Wave power was delivered to an electrical grid
for the first time
Wave Facts:
Waves are caused by a number of forces, i.e. wind, gravitational pull from the sun and moon,
changes in atmospheric pressure, earthquakes etc. Waves created by wind are the most
common waves. Unequal heating of the Earths surface generates wind, and wind blowing over
water generates waves.
This energy transfer results in a concentration of the energy involved: the initial solar power
level of about 1 kW/m2 is concentrated to an average wave power level of 70kW/m of crest
length. This figure rises to an average of 170 kW/m of crest length during the winter, and to
more than 1 MW/m during storms.
Wave energy performance measures are characterized by diffuse energy, enormous forces
during storms, and variation over wide range in wave size, length, period, and direction.
Wave energy is an irregular and oscillating low-frequency energy source that must be converted
to a 60-Hertz frequency before it can be added to the electric utility grid.

Wave Energy - What causes waves?

Where does wave
energy originate?
Differential warming
of the earth causes
pressure differences in
the atmosphere, which
generate winds

As winds move across the surface of
open bodies of water, they transfer
some of their energy to the water and
create waves
Wave energy densities
The power in a wave is proportional to the square of
the amplitude and to the period of the motion
Large amplitude (~2 m), long period (~7-10 s)
waves have energy fluxes commonly exceeding 40-
50 kW/m width of oncoming wave
Wave energy is unevenly distributed over the globe
Wave Energy
The strongest
winds blow
between 30 and
60 in latitude.

coastlines at
these latitudes
experience the
most powerful

Global Wave Energy Resource Distribution
(measuring the amount of power in kW contained in each linear
meter of wave front)
Wave energy densities around the globe
Wave climate in Europe
The wave climate along the western coast of Europe is
characterized by particularly high energy. The UK has
over half the wave energy potential in Europe, up to
75 kW/m off Ireland and Scotland
Wave climate in the US
The West Coast is the most promising area with wave
energy densities in the
25 40 kW/m range
Wave Energy
The amount of energy transferred and the size of the
resulting wave depend on
the wind speed
the length of time for which the wind blows
the distance over which the wind blows, or fetch

Therefore, coasts that have exposure to the
prevailing wind direction and that face long
expanses of open ocean have the greatest wave
energy levels.

How do we harness wave energy?
In order to extract this energy, wave energy
conversion devices must create a system of
reacting forces, in which two or more bodies move
relative to each other, while at least one body
interacts with the waves.

There are many ways that such a system could be

Wave Energy Technologies
Waves retain energy differently depending on
water depth

Wave energy conversion devices
are designed for optimal operation at a particular
depth range

Wave Energy Technologies
Therefore, devices can be characterized in terms of
their placement or location.
At the shoreline
Near the shoreline

One wave energy conversion system that has
proven successful at each of these locations is the

Wave energy converters
Four different types of WECs:

Oscillating water columns (OWC)
Point absorbers
Surging devices
Floating devices

Wave Power Designs
Although many wave energy devices have been invented, only a small proportion have
been tested and evaluated. Only a few of these have been tested at sea, in ocean waves,
rather than in artificial wave tanks. Large scale offshore devices and small scale shoreline
devices have been ocean tested.
The total power of waves breaking on the world's coastlines is estimated at 2 to 3 million
megawatts. In favorable locations, wave energy density can average 65 megawatts per mile
of coastline.

Oscillating Water Columns (OWC)
These devices generate electricity from the wave-driven rise and fall of water in a
cylindrical shaft. The rising and falling water column drives air into and out of the
top of the shaft, powering an air-driven turbine.
Floats or Pitching Devices
These devices generate electricity from the bobbing or pitching action of a floating
object. The object can be mounted to a floating raft or to a device fixed on the
ocean floor.
Wave Surge or Focusing Devices
These shoreline devices, also called "tapered channel" systems, rely on a shore-
mounted structure to channel and concentrate the waves, driving them into an
elevated reservoir. These focusing surge devices are sizable barriers that channel
large waves to increase wave height for redirection into elevated reservoirs.

Oscillating Water Column
The type of turbine used is a key element to the
conversion efficiency of an OWC.

Traditional turbines function by gas or liquid
flowing in one direction and at a constant velocity.
When the flow is not always from the same
direction or at a constant velocity such as in the
OWC traditional turbines become ineffective.
Oscillating Water Column
An Oscillating Water Column (OWC) consists of a
partially submerged structure that opens to the
ocean below the water surface. This structure is
called a wave collector.

This design creates a water column in the central
chamber of the collector, with a volume of air
trapped above it.

Wave energy converters
The oscillating water
Partly submerged
structure with an
opening to the sea
below the water line
Waves cause the
water column to rise
and fall, which
compresses and
depressurizes the air
~This air flows
through a turbine
which drives an
electric generator
Oscillating Water Column
As a wave enters the
collector, the surface of the
water column rises and
compresses the volume of
air above it.
The compressed air is
forced into an aperture at
the top of the chamber,
moving past a turbine.
As the wave retreats, the air
is drawn back through the
turbine due to the reduced
pressure in the chamber.
Oscillating Water Columns
The Nearshore OWC rests directly on the seabed and is
designed to operate in the near-shore environment in a
nominal mean water depth of 15m.
Nearshore OWC units also act like artificial reefs,
improving environments for fishing while calming the
water for a harbor.
OWC designs typically require high maintenance, costly,
taut moorings or foundations for operation while only
using the extreme upper strata of an ocean site for energy
conversion. While focusing devices are less susceptible to
storm damage, massive structuring renders them most
costly among wave power plant types.
Since 1965, Japan has installed hundreds of OWC-
powered navigational buoys and is currently operating
two small demonstration OWC power plants. China
constructed a 3 kW OWC and India has a 150 kW OWC
caisson breakwater device.
A 75 kW shore-based demonstration plant by Queens
University, Belfast, using the OWC process described
above has operated on the Scottish island of Islay for 10
These shoreline systems consist of a
tapered channel which feeds into a
reservoir constructed on a cliff. The
narrowing of the channel causes the
waves to increase their amplitude
(wave height) as they move towards
the cliff face which eventually spills
over the walls of the channel and
into the reservoir which is
positioned several meters above
mean sea level. The kinetic energy of
the moving wave is converted into
potential energy as the water is
stored in the reservoir. The water
then passes through hydroelectric
turbines on the way back to sea level
thus generating electricity.
Oscillating Water Column
Different types of turbines have been developed for
the OWC to address this problem.

The technologies have been demonstrated to work
in a number of locations, with varying degrees of
Wavegens LIMPET
Energetechs Australia Wave Energy System

Turning Waves into Usable Energy
Oscillating water column
Incoming waves force air up
column to turn the turbine
Outgoing waves suck air down
column to turn the turbine
Pictured here is the
LIMPET (Land Installed
Marine Powered Energy
Transformer), an
Oscillating Water Column
located on the Isle of Islay,
Scotland, and designed by


Constructed in a man-
made gully on a rocky
shoreline facing the
open Atlantic ocean
To overcome the problems of
traditional turbines, LIMPET
employs a Wells turbine that
turns in the same direction
irrespective of the airflow

The collector is tilted such that the resonance of
the internal water column coincides with the peak
energy period of the waves, easing passage of water
into the water column
The collector was divided into 3 chambers, with
large holes at the top of each dividing wall to allow
the air above the 3 water columns to combine to
feed the turbine-generation system
This design optimized performance for annual
average wave intensities of 15 25 kW/m

The system contains a pair of Wells turbines, each
of which is connected to a 250 kW induction
LIMPET has a generation capacity of 500 kW
Designed to supply power into the Islay grid
On-shore versus Off-shore
In spite of the success of this technology in an on-
shore application, most wave energy experts agree
that off-shore or near-shore devices offer greater
potential than shoreline devices.

On-shore technologies
Easier to access for
construction and
Less installment costs and
grid connection charges
Could be incorporated into
harbor walls or water
breaks, performing a dual
service for the community

Limited number of suitable
sites / high competition for
use of the shoreline
Environmental concerns
for on-shore devices may
be greater
Much less energy available
to on-shore devices
because water depth
usually decreases closer to
the shore
Energetechs Australia Wave Energy System

Pictured here the Australia
Wave Energy System, an
Oscillating Water Column
located off the coast of
Port Kembla, New South
Wales, Australia and
designed by Energetech
Energetechs Australia Wave Energy System
Located 200 meters from the Port Kembla Harbour
Typically waves at Port Kembla
exceed 1m in height 63% of
the time (producing greater
than 110kW on those
occasions) and exceed 2m in height
5.5% of the time (producing
greater than 400 kW on those

Energetechs Australia Wave Energy System
Designed to generate 500 kW, enough to power
500 homes
The system uses a variable pitch turbine called a
Denniss-Auld turbine, potentially with a higher
conversion efficiency than the Wells turbine
The turbine drives an induction generator
Energetechs Australia Wave Energy System
System components are computer controlled
The computer uses a sensor system with a pressure
transducer to measure the pressure exerted on the ocean
floor by each wave as it approaches the collector
The transducer sends a signal proportional to that
pressure to a Programmable Logic Controller which
adjusts various parameters
Optimizes conversion for the particular conditions and energy
content of the wave
Protects system components and ensures safety

Oscillating Water Column

The turning of the
turbine drives a
generator, producing

There is a large supply of wave energy available
The technology already exists for extraction of this
The technical challenges are solvable
The problems lie in facilitating the testing and
development of the technology to make it more
Need federal funding
Need a regulatory process conducive for rapid
deployment of prototypes and research equipment

This vs. That
The energy is free - no fuel needed, no waste produced.
Most designs are inexpensive to operate and maintain.
Waves can produce a great deal of energy.
There are minimal environmental impacts.

Depends on the waves - sometimes you'll get loads of energy, sometimes
Needs a suitable site, where waves are consistently strong.
Must be able to withstand very rough weather.
Disturbance or destruction of marine life
Possible threat to navigation from collisions because the wave energy devices rise
only a few feet above the water.
Degradation of scenic ocean front views from wave energy devices located near
or on the shore, and from onshore overhead electric transmission lines.

Conclusion: Waves harness a lot of the suns power,
but they are better for surfing than generating electricity.

Point absorbers

Wave energy converters
Point absorbers
They provide a heave motion that is converted by
mechanical/ hydraulic systems in linear or rotational
motion for driving electrical generators
Floating Devices
The Salter Duck, Clam, Archimedes wave swing,
and other floating wave energy devices generate
electricity through the harmonic motion of the
floating part of the device. In these systems, the
devices rise and fall according to the motion of the
wave and electricity is generated through their
The Salter Duck is able to produce energy very
efficiently, however its development was stalled
during the 1980s due to a miscalculation in the
cost of energy production by a factor of 10 and it
has only been in recent years when the technology
was reassessed and the error identified.

Floating Devices
(Salter Duck, Clam, Archimedes)
Salter Duck-Electricity is
generated through the
movement of the device
on the wave (bobbing up
and down)
-Wave Power-
Salters Duck design
Could stop 90% of wave motion and could
convert 90% of that to electricity
Shut down because of an error in
calculating the cost, which wasnt
discovered until 2008, and the program
had been shut down in 1982

-How it Works-
The duck device bobs back and forth as waves pass,
this motion moves a pendulum that is connected to a
generator that produces electricity
Wave energy converters
Surging devices
Surging devices
exploit the
horizontal particle
velocity in a wave to
drive a deflector or
to generate pumping
effect of a flexible
bag facing the wave
Offshore devices
The Pelamis
Is a semi-submerged structure composed of cylindrical
sections linked by hinged joints

Offshore devices
The Pelamis
The wave induced motion of these joints is resisted by
hydraulic rams which pump high pressure oil through
hydraulic motors via smoothing accumulators
The hydraulic motors drive electrical generators to
produce electricity
Offshore devices
The Pelamis
Several devices can be connected together and linked to
shore through a single seabed cable

Offshore devices
The Pelamis
A typical 30MW installation would occupy a square
kilometre of ocean and provide sufficient electricity for
20,000 homes
Ocean Power Delivery has won a bid for a 750kW project
off Islay, Scotland and has recently signed a
memorandum of understanding with BC Hydro to
develop a 2 MW project off the coast of Vancouver
Island, Canada

Placement of wave energy converters
Three locations
Near shore
Placement of WECs
Other factors
Engineering challenges
Construction costs
Maintenance and/or installation costs
Transmission costs and losses
Environmental impacts
The scale of electricity production
Advantages of offshore wave energy

Sea waves have high energy densities, the highest among
renewable energy sources
Wave energy is generally considered to provide a clean
source of renewable energy with limited negative
environmental impacts
It could become a significant source of energy not
involving CO2 emissions

The natural seasonal variability of wave energy follows
the electricity demand in temperate climates
Negligible demand on land use
Could secure energy supplies in remote regions
Large-scale implementation of wave power technologies
will stimulate declining industries, e.g. shipbuilding
Disadvantages of offshore wave energy

The main wave energy barriers result from the energy
carrier itself: The sea
The peak-to-average load ratio in the sea is very high
and difficult to predict
The structural loading in the event of extreme weather
conditions, such as hurricanes, may be as high as 100
times the average loading
High construction costs induce high power generation
costs, thus making the technology uncompetitive
The incidence of wave power at deep ocean sites is three
to eight times the wave power at adjacent coastal sites,
but the cost of electricity transmission from deep ocean
sites is often prohibitively high
Environmental impacts considerations
Disturbance or destruction of marine life.
Threat to navigation or transportation from collisions
due to the low profile of some wave energy devices
above the water.
Degradation of scenic ocean front views from wave
energy devices near or on the shore.
Disturbance of recreation in near-shore environments.
Alteration of sediment patterns Offshore wave energy
devices may be a potential navigation hazard to ships.
Near shore devices will have a visual impact .
Wave energy devices could have an effect on some
forms of recreation .
Impacts on the marine environment.

S. Sridhar

Why do we want to use Tidal Energy?

reduction CO2
Alternative forms
Renewable Forms
-History of Tidal Energy-
787: simple technique of a waterwheel by the
Spanish, French, and British
1966: La Rance tidal power plant went in
2001: British Parliament states the world can
no longer neglect the massive potential of
wave and tidal energy
2002-present: Large investments in research
and prototypes spark proposals in Turkey,
China, and United States; among others
Energy from the moon
Tides generated by the combination
of the moon and suns gravitational
Greatest affect in spring when moon
and sun combine forces
Bays and inlets amplify the height of
the tide
In order to be practical for energy
production, the height difference
needs to be at least 5 meters
Only 40 sites around the world of
this magnitude
Overall potential of 3000 gigawatts
from movement of tides

How tides Work:
The moons and
suns gravity cause
rise and fall of water
Tides Animation
Most places have 2
high tides and low
tides each day
Tides change every 6
The Tides
Tidal energy comes from the gravitational forces of the Sun
and the Moon on the Earths bodies of water, creating
periodic shifts in these bodies of water.

These shifts are called tides.
Tidal Energy
Millions of gallons of water flow onto shore during
tidal flows and away from shore during ebb tide
The larger the tidal influence, the greater the
displacement of water and therefore the more
potential energy that can be harvested during power
The tides are perfectly predictable, regular, and the US
contains miles of coastline for energy exploitation.
The Tides
Turning Tides into Usable Energy
Ebb generating system
A dam (barrage) is built
across the mouth of an
Sluice gates allow
incoming tides to fill the
As the tide ebbs, the
water is forced through a
turbine system to
generate electricity.
Types of Turbines

Bulb turbine used at La Rance tidal plant on the Brittany coast in France
Turbines, cont.
Rim turbine used at Annapolis Royal in Nova Scotia
Tubular turbine proposed for use in the Severn tidal project in Great Britain
Other Possibilities
Tidal Fences
Completely blocks a
channel so as the tide
rises, water is forced
through the styles to
turn them.
Can be used between
islands or between a
mainland and an
island as opposed to
only across the mouth
of a confined bay.
Tidal Turbines
Only been feasible for
about 5 years
Similar to wind turbines,
they use tidal currents to
turn propellers mounted
on the seabed to generate
The Long History of Tidal Energy
Tidal power buildings were built as early as the
Century throughout Europe.

This building was built in Ohalo, Portugal circa 1280.
Tidal Energy
Tidal energy is one of many forms of hydropower
Tidal power has many advantages as compared to other
forms of renewable energy.
It is predictable
Global Climate Change should only increase its generating
capacity due to higher ocean levels.
It is completely carbon neutral like wind or hydro energy.
Its main drawbacks include: higher cost of installation,
limited availability for ideal siting, environmental impacts
on local area, including flooding and ecological changes,
and the inflexible generation schedule (not timed to peak
Different Types of Tidal Plants
Tidal Barrages
These involve the creation of mammoth concrete dams with
sluices to create grander scale operations than the 12
tide mills.
Tidal Stream Generators
Very similar to the principles in wind power generation
water flows across blades which turn a turbine much like how
wind turns blades for wind power turbines.
Dynamic Tidal Power
This is a technology that is not currently commercial viable,
but in which the UK, Korea, and China invested heavily to
research. It involves a partial dam which raises the tidal
height and several hydropower generators. The differences in
height between the head of the dam and the low tide coast
force water through the generator, much like a traditional
hydropower dam.
Ways to extract energy from tides:
Tidal Stream Farms


Tidal Lagoons
Tidal Stream Farms
Turbines similar to wind turbines placed in
tidal currents

Good locations would be Gulf Stream and
Straits of Gibraltar.

Constant and reliable source of energy

Tidal Barrage
The first commercial tidal power plant in
the world since the middle ages is the La
Rance Tidal Barrage in France.

The barrage was constructed in 1960 and
consists of a 330m long dam with a 22km

basin. The effective tidal range is 8m.

The work was completed in 1967 when 24
5.4m diameter bulb turbines, rated at 10MW
each, were connected to the French power
network with a 225kV transmission line.

The French authorities decided on a bulb
turbine with axial power generation because
it suited the style of a tidal barrage as it flows
from the head of the dam to the basin
through the turbine.
sluice gates open
allowing the tide to flow
Then closed at high tide
At low tide water
Generator activated
Energy converted into
How Tidal Barrages Work
-Barrage Tidal Power: Rance Power Station-
Located on Rance River,
750 meters long
24 Turbines
Capacity of 240MW
Annual output of 600GWh
Supplies 0.012% of Frances
power supply.
Opened 1966

How it works
First generation, barrage-
style tidal power plants
Works by building Barrage to
contain water after high tide,
then water has to pass
through a turbine to return
to low tide
Sites in France (La Rance),
Canada (Annapolis), and
Future sites possibly on
Severn River in England, San
Francisco bay,
-Calculations: Tidal Stream Generators-
P = the power generated (in watts)
= the turbine efficiency
= the density of the water (seawater is 1025 kg/m)
A = the sweep area of the turbine (in m)
V = the velocity of the flow
*Power equation is based on the kinetic energy
of the moving water*
-Calculation: Barrage Tidal Power-
E = energy
= the density of the water (seawater is 1025
A = horizontal area of the barrage basin
G = Gravity (9.81m/s
H = Vertical Tide Range

* The potential energy available from a barrage is dependent
on * the volume of water.
Tidal Lagoons
An area of water cut off
from the rest of the sea
Tide drops water is
released through
Tide rises water is
pushed through turbine
-Environmental Impact-
Mortality rates of fish swimming threw the
turbine is around 15%
Sonic guidance to get fish to avoid the
Placement of barrage turbines into estuaries can
change entire ecosystems
Alters flow of saltwater possibly changing
hydrology & salinity
Sediment movement also can effect the
-Environmental Impact-
Noise pollution
Displace productive fishing sites
Change the pattern of beach sand nourishment
Alter food chains and disrupt migration patterns
Offshore devices will displace bottom-dwelling
organisms where they connect into the
Amount of Energy Generated
Huge amounts

E.g. Severn
Generates as much
electricity as 3 nuclear
power stations
-Advantages and Disadvantages-

After construction, tidal energy
is free
It produces no greenhouse
gases or waste
It doesnt need fuel
It is reliable and predictable
Off-shore turbines dont have a
large environmental impact
The energy is free no
fuel needed, no waste
Not expensive to operate
and maintain
Can produce a great deal
of energy

Large structures such as
barrages are very expensive to
Barrages change the environment
It only provides power 10 hours
each day when the tide is moving
There are few suitable locations
for barrages
Depends on the waves
sometimes youll get loads of
energy, sometimes almost
Needs a suitable site, where
waves are consistently strong
Some designs are noisy. But
then again, so are waves, so any
noise is unlikely to be a problem
Must be able to withstand

Is it really renewable?

Tidal energy is

The tides will continue
to ebb and flow, and
the energy is there for
the taking.
Abundant (estimated that it could produce 16% of worlds
Pollution free (except during construction)
Relatively consistent (unlike wind that is inconsistent and
is highly concentrated in certain areas depending on the
Water is a free resource
Presents no difficulty to migrating aquatic animals
Disturbance/Destruction to marine life (effect wave climate
that effects shallow/shore plant life)
Expensive to construct (estimated 1.2 billion dollars.)
Reliability ( have not been around long so we do not know
long-term reliability is.)
Recreational costs (visual impact, sport fishing, swimming,
Cost of Maintenance Higher
Power transmission from offshore facilities harder
Power quality (waves fluctuation)
Present use of Tidal Energy

Tidal power has on a small scale been used through out the
history of mankind. It was not until the twentieth century
that large scale tidal projects were considered. Today, sites
suitable for the utilization of tidal power exist in many
places around the world.
United Kingdom (Apsley Strait)
Former Soviet Union
United States

The extraction of large quantities of tidal energy is possible
however, large scale tidal power operations are not
technologically or economically feasible at the present time.
Tidal sites are therefore limited to more modest
Presently costly
Expensive to build and maintain
A 1085MW facility could cost as much as 1.2 billion dollars
to construct and run
Connection to the grid
Technology is not fully developed
Barrage style only produces energy for about 10
hours out of the day
Barrage style has environmental affects
Such as fish and plant migration
Silt deposits
Local tides change- affects still under study

No pollution
Renewable resource
More efficient than wind because of the density of
Predictable source of energy vs. wind and solar
Second generation has very few disadvantages
Does not affect wildlife
Does not affect silt deposits
Less costly both in building and maintenance
Tidal Barrage Contd
Calculating the total energy production of the La
Rance plant is easy if you know some key facts:
The La Rance plant has 24 generators with a 10MW
The equation is as follows:

Maximum Electricity generated per annum (kWh) =
Generator capacity * time + Cf (capacity factor)

The particular generator used in this plant had a Cf of
40%, resulting in 3504MWh per year per generator.
Tidal Barrage Drawbacks
There are notable complications with tidal barrage
energy generation
While they generate comparable power to hydropower
plants, they also have economic and environmental
The necessary infrastructure to build a tidal barrage is
cost prohibitive.

Tidal barrages negatively affect the turbidity, water
levels, and ecology of the separated areas.

Tidal Barrage Drawbacks Contd
Benthic habitats may change due to the bottom
stress from modified waves and currents.
Migratory fish may be impeded although fish
passes can be constructed to facilitate migrations.
Fish and marine mammals may suffer injuries and
death when colliding with the barrage/turbines.
Estuaries that are currently providing breeding
spaces for fish, may not be suitable for this
purpose after construction.
Other Ecological Effects
The increasing sea exchange (due to pumping to
increase water head, and therefore generating
capacity) has increased the invertebrate breeding
The outer estuary is now being fed by the inner
estuary, which is a role reversal due solely to the
barrages effect on the ecology and hydrology of the
Ecological Effects Contd
Shorebird prevalence has increased, but this is a nationwide
trend across France.
The primary attributing force for the increased shorebird populations
are the increasing invertebrate life which is the primary source of
food for shorebirds.
Like shorebirds, fish diversity and biomass have increased due to
the greater availability of invertebrate life that sustains these fish
However, some fish species cannot traverse through the barrage and
these species are no longer present.
The new types of fish have displaced these original fish stocks and
have thrived.
Due to the dual flow nature of tidal barrages, fish mortality from
turbine blades is nearly twice that of other hydropower.

Economic Issues
The capital costs of a barrage like La Rance are
tremendous because of the sheer scope of a project
and the few sites around the world that are suitable for
tidal power generation.
The company that administers the La Rance power
plant now claims that the capital investments in the
barrage have been paid off and currently the power
plant generates cheaper electricity than a nuclear
power plant. (1.6 cents per kWh vs. 2.5 cents per kWh
for a nuclear plant).

The Future of Tidal Barrages
Tidal Stream Generators

Tidal Stream Generators
Tidal Stream Generator Specifics
Tidal Stream Generators
The worlds only operational
commercial-scale tidal turbine,
SeaGen, was installed in Strangford
Narrows in Northern Ireland in 2008.

The prototype SeaGen turbine
produces 1.2MW with currents of
2.4m/s or more. The capacity factor
exceeds 60%.

The facility is an accredited UK
power station, and can contribute up
to 6,000MWh annually to the UK grid,
the equivalent of approximately 1500

Drawbacks of
Tidal Stream Generators
High start-up and construction costs: due to limited
experience of installing, operating and maintaining plants,
contractors perceptions of risk are likely to be reflected in
higher costs.
Like the wind, waves and tidal streams are variable
renewable energy sources. Their intermittent generation
has implications for large scale grid integration.
Because the amount of energy tidal streams naturally varies
over time, the power output of wave energy converters and
tidal stream energy generators will also vary. This has
implications for grid integration, particularly balancing
supply and demand.
Environmental Impacts of Tidal
Stream Generation