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FINGER PRINTING DNA

Penyaji :
Friska Doreenda Putri ( 70 2009 002 )
Vera Irawanda ( 70 2009 030 )

Pembimbing :
dr. Binsar Silalahi, Sp.F, DFM, SH

SMF FORENSIK
RUMAH SAKIT UMUM DAERAH PALEMBANG BARI
FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH
PALEMBANG
2014



BAB I
PENDAHULUAN






BAB II
TINJAUAN PUSTAKA











DNA
(Deoxyribonucleic acid )

Definisi :
Jenis asam nukleat yang menyimpan semua informasi genetika
manusia, peran DNA di dalam sebuah sel adalah sebagai materi
genetik. DNA umumnya terletak di dalam inti sel. Sehingga
DNA juga berperan dalam menentukan jenis rambut, warna kulit,
dan sifat-sifat khusus manusia
Komponen :
DNA merupakan polimer yang terdiri dari tiga komponen utama,
yaitu gugus fosfat, gula deoksiribosa, dan basa nitrogen.

Finger Printing DNA
DNA fingerprint merupakan gambaran pola potongan DNA dari
setiap individu.
DNA fingerprint tidak dapat dirubah oleh siapapun dan dengan
alat apapun. Oleh karena itu DNA fingerprint adalah metode yang
sangat akurat untuk mengidentifikasi perbedaan diantara satu orang
dengan orang lainnya
Tes DNA adalah metode untuk mengidentifikasi fragmen-
fragmen dari DNA itu sendiri, atau secara sederhananya adalah
metode untuk mengidentifikasi, menghimpun dan menginventarisir
file-file khas karakter tubuh.

1. Tujuan pribadi Penentuan perwalian anak atau penentuan
orang tua dari anak
2. Tujuan hukum Masalah forensik seperti identifikasi korban
yang telah hancur, sehingga untuk mengenali identitasnya
diperlukan pencocokan antara DNA korban dengan terduga
keluarga korban ataupun untuk pembuktian kejahatan misalnya
dalam kasus pemerkosaan atau pembunuhan.
Tujuan Tes DNA

Sampel biologis tubuh yang dapat digunakan untuk sampel tes
DNA adalah darah, rambut, usapan mulut pada pipi bagian dalam
(buccalswab) dan kuku.
Untuk kasus-kasus forensik sperma, daging, tulang, kulit, air liur
atau sampel biologis apa saja yang ditemukan di tempat kejadian
perkara (TKP) dapat dijadikan sampel tes DNA.


The DNA Molecule
The DNA is a double stranded molecule.










Each strand is based on 4 bases:
Adenine (A)
Thymine (T)
Cytosine (C)
Guanine (G)






The DNA Molecule
Those bases are linked through a sugar (desoxyribose)





IMPORTANT:


The linkage between bases has a direction.
There are complementarities between bases (Watson-
Crick).
(A) (T)
(C)(G)







DNA Memory
A string composed of a series of four types of units (nucleotides), DNA may be viewed as logic
memory or gate.







Number System (Base 4):
Nucleotide
A
C
T
G
Complement
Nucleotide
DNA binding process
Two strings of DNA are bonded by paired nucleotides A-C and C-G which may be considered as
complements. Example:

Number TTACAG has a complement AATGTC
DNA Memory








DNA
memory
strands
a t c g g t c a t a
g c a c t
0 0 0
a t c g g
t c a t a
1 0 1
t a g c c c g t g a
Making DNA Sequences








11

1010101011
GATCGACTAC
DNA Computing

DNA computer









DNA-Based Computers Microchip-Based Computers
slow at individual operations fast at individual operations
can do billions of operations simultaneously can do substantially fewer operations simultaneously
can provide huge memory in small space smaller memory
Require considerable preparations before Immediate setup
DNA is sensitive to chemical deterioration electronic data are vulnerable but can be backed up easily
Microchip computer
Vs
Advantages
There is always plentiful supply of it, so it is a cheap resource.

DNA biochips can be made cleanly and are not toxic like silicon chips.

Extremely dense information storage.
1g of DNA can hold about 10^14 MB of data.

DNA computers can be made many times smaller than todays computers.

Enormous parallelism.
A test tube of DNA can do trillions operation at a time.

Extraordinary energy efficiency.
Consuming only 1 joule it can do 10^20 operations.









Limitations
DNA is redundant.


The process required much human intervention.


Automation would be required for a real computer.


The computation time required to solve problems with a DNA computer does not grow exponentially,
but amount of DNA required DOES.

Suited for specific problems, difficult to generalize.


DNA computing involves a relatively large amount of error
a) During chain reaction;
b) About 5% error occur during filteration process.













Self Replication:

Self Repair:

DNA Computer mutation/evolution:

New Meaning Of Virus:










Future possibilities











Development Scale













Research
1950s
R.Feynmans
paper on sub
microscopic
computers
1994
L.Adleman solves Hamiltonian
path problem using DNA
Field started
2000
Self powered DNA computer
Commercial
1970s
DNA used
in bio application
1996
Human
Genome
Sequenced
2000
2002
Olympus
computers
2018
Commercial computer ?
2003
Lucent
builds DNA
motor
Affymetrix sells
GeneChip
DNA analyzer
Development Scale

Olympus Computer

First practical DNA Computer

Tokyo (July 3rd, 2002)

Olympus Optical Co. Ltd.

First commercially practical DNA
computer

Specializes in gene analysis.






Development Scale

Israels First DNA computer
Trillion could fit in a test tube.

Billions of ops/sec 99.8% accuracy.

First programmable autonomous computing machine.

Input, output, software, and hardware all made of DNA.

DNA comp inside cells to monitor cell vitals.




Environment compatibility


DNA computer must aim to be compatible with seven environments to succeed.

Use Already seen the potential for this.

Failure Inherits this from silicon microprocessors.

Scrapping Cleaner to dispose of than current microprocessors.

Political/ecological Could face opposition from technophobes.

Intrapsychic Already complies since it has been conceptualised!

Construction/manufacture This will be answered in time.

Adoption Should inherit customer base of silicon computers.
















Applications of DNA Computing
Massively parallel problem solving.


Combinatorial optimization.


Molecular nano-memory with fast associative search.


Medical diagnosis, drug discovery.


Further impact in biology and medicine:
Wet biological data bases.
Processing of DNA labeled with digital data.
Sequence comparison.
Fingerprinting.




Conclusion
DNA computers showing enormous potential, especially for medical purposes as well as data processing applications.




Still a lot of work and resources required to develop it into a fully fledged product.











References
COMPUTING WITH DNA,Leonard M.Adleman,Scientific American, August 1998.

DNA computing (web):
http://stanford.edu/~alexli/soco/index.html.

Molecular Computation of Solutions to Combinatorial Problems, L.M. Adleman, Science Vol.266 pp1021-
1024, 11 Nov 1994.

http://colleges.ksu.edu.sa/.../DNA_orbit_animated.gif.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA.















Thank You !

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