Anda di halaman 1dari 51

LINGKUNGAN

PENGENDAPAN
Petroleum system : elements + processes

elements : petroleum source rock, reservoir rock, seal
rock, and overburden rock.
processes : trap formation, generation-migration-
accumulation of petroleum, and preservation of
accumulation.
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Press & Siever (1998)
Depositional environments : deposition of reservoir sediments
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Reservoir Rocks
A subsurface porous and permeable rock body in
which oil and/or gas is stored (Tver & Berry, 1980).

For a rock to act as a reservoir it must have pores to
contain the oil or gas (porosity), and the pores must
be connected to allow the movement of oil and gas
(permeability).

AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Sandstone and Carbonate Reservoirs
The primary porosity and permeability of sandstones are dependent on
the grain size, sorting and packing of particulate sediments. Many
siliciclastic reservoirs have a strong diagenetic overprinting that
modifies the depositional porosities and permeabilities (like presence
of authigenic clay minerals in the pore space will reduce porosity).

Carbonate reservoirs are characterized by extremely heterogeneous
porosity and permeability on a number of scales. These heterogeneities
are dependent on the environment of deposition of the carbonate
facies and on the subsequent diagenetic alteration (dissolution,
dolomitization, fracturing, recrystallization, cements).

AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Lingkungan Pengendapan
Lingkungan pengendapan adalah tempat
mengendapnya material sedimen beserta kondisi fisik,
kimia, dan biologi yang mencirikan terjadinya
mekanisme pengendapan tertentu (Gould, 1972).
Interpretasi lingkungan pengendapan dapat ditentukan
dari struktur sedimen yang terbentuk.
Struktur Sedimen
Digunakan secara luas untuk memecahkan berbagai masalah
geologi, karena struktur ini terbentuk pada tempat dan waktu
pengendapan, sehingga struktur ini merupakan kriteria yang sangat
berguna untuk interpretasi lingkungan pengendapan.
Terbentuknya struktur sedimen disebabkan oleh mekanisme
pengendapan, arah arus purba, kedalaman air relatif, dan
kecepatan arus relatif pada suatu lingkungan pengendapan.
Selain itu beberapa struktur sedimen juga dapat digunakan untuk
menentukan atas dan bawah suatu lapisan.
Didalam sedimen umumnya turut terendapkan sisa-sisa organisme
atau tumbuhan, yang terawetkan ini dinamakan fossil.
Dari studi lingkungan pengendapan dapat digambarkan atau
direkonstruksi geografi purba dimana pengendapan terjadi.


Ada 3 pembagian umum:
Continent / Darat
Coastal / Transisi
Marine / Laut
DARAT
Alluvial Fan / Kipas Darat : ditransport oleh air
Lacustrine / Danau : ditransport oleh air
Fluvial / Sungai : ditansport oleh air
Eolian : ditransport oleh angin
Gletsyer : ditansport oleh es
TRANSISI
Endapan transisi adalah endapan yang terdapat
di daerah antara darat dan laut seperti:
Pantai / Shore
Estuaria
Delta
Lagoon
Litoral
MARINE
Shelf / neritik : kedalaman 0 200 m
Slope / batial : 200 2000 m
Abisal : > 2000 m
Contoh Lingkungan Pengendapan Pantai :
Proses Fisik : ombak dan akifitas gelombang laut
Proses Kimia : pelarutan dan pengendapan
Proses Biologi : Burrowing.
Ketiga proses tersebut berasosiasi dan membentuk
karakteristik pasir pantai, sebagai material sedimen
yang meliputi geometri, tekstur sedimen, struktur
dan mineralogi.

Parameter Lingkungan Pengendapan

Parameter fisik meliputi:
Elemen fisik statis meliputi geometri cekungan(Basin);
material yang diendapkan seperti kerakal silisiklastik, pasir,
dan lumpur; kedalaman air; suhu; dan kelembapan.
Elemen fisik dinamik adalah faktor seperti energi dan arah
aliran dari angin, air dan es; air hujan; dan hujan salju.
Parameter kimia: salinitas, pH, Eh, dan karbondioksida dan
oksigen yang merupakan bagian dari air yang terdapat pada
lingkungan pengendapan.
Parameter biologi: aktifitas organism, seperti pertumbuhan
tanaman, penggalian dan pengeboran.



Proses transportasi
Proses transportasi adalah proses perpindahan / pengangkutan
material yang diakibatkan oleh tenaga kinetis yang ada pada
sungai sebagai efek dari gaya gravitasi.
Sungai mengangkut material hasil erosinya dengan berbagai cara,
yaitu
Traksi, yaitu material yang diangkut akan terseret pada dasar
sungai.
Rolling, yaitu material akan terangkut dengan cara
menggelinding pada dasar sungai.
Saltasi, yaitu material akan terangkut dengan cara meloncat
pada dasar sungai.
Suspensi, yaitu proses pengangkutan material secara
mengambang dan bercampur dengan air sehingga
menyebabkan air sungai menjadi keruh.
Solution, yaitu pengangkutan material larut dalam air dan
membentuk larutan kimia.


Alluvial Fan Environment
A continental environment characterized by coarse
sediments, shaped like an open fan, deposited by an
emerging mountain stream with an outlet into a plain or
broad valley.

Alluvial fan deposits are not generally reservoir rocks
for petroleum because they fail to connect laterally to
source rocks, do not contain good source rock facies,
are not sufficiently extensive laterally, do not have
proper seals, have low permeability and porosities.
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Serra (1989)
Alluvial Fan
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Desert Environment
A continental environment characterized by deposits
resulting from wind action (aeolian). Three aeolian
subenvironments : dune, interdune, sand sheet.

Aeolian deposits are complex, heterogeneous reservoirs
due to : lateral discontinuity, impermeable and
permeable alternations, various permeabilities and
related textural changes causing low transmissivity
across laminae, isolated reservoir.
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Skinner et al (2004)
Desert
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Braided Stream Environment
A continental environment characterized by deposits resulting
from a river system of an interlaced network of low sinuousity
channels.

Braided river deposits may constitute potentially good reservoir
rocks up to 30 % porosity and permeabilities of thousands of
millidarcys.
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Serra (1989)
Braided Stream
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Serra (1989)
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Meander Stream Environment
A continental environment characterized by deposits
resulting from a river system of high sinuousity
channels generated by a mature stream across its flood
plain on a gentle slope.

Meandering river deposits may constitute potentially
good reservoir rocks up to 30 % porosity and
permeabilities of thousands of millidarcys, but they are
laterally restricted. They often contain their own source
rocks (plant debris, peat, lignit, coal).
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Toyota Foundation (2004)
Meander
Amazon River, South America
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Delta Environment
A transitional environment characterized by sediments that have
been transported to the end of channel and deposited at the margin
of the standing water (lake, sea, ocean).

A Delta is the sedimentary deposit that forms at the mouth of a river
where intersects a coastline, although not all river mouths have
deltas (Lambiase, 2004).

Deltaic sands have generally good reservoir rocks up to 35 %
porosity and permeabilities of thousands of millidarcys in mouth bar
deposits, the permeabilities are still good. Due to general coarsening
upward, reservoir qualities are better developed towards the top; this
is contrary with fluvial deposits which are fining upward. Deltaic
reservoirs are being close proximity to potential sources. Growth
faulting is common, structural and stratigraphic traps are abundant.
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Delta
Press and Siever (1998)
Mississippi Delta, Gulf of Mexico
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
(after Dalrymple 1992)
pro-delta
delta front
tidal
fluvial
Fluvial dominanated delta
Tide dominanated delta Wave dominanated delta
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Lobe Switching of delta
(Lambiase, 2004)
Allen and Mercier (1985)
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Allen and Mercier (1985)
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Allen and Mercier (1985)
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Mouth bars shift seaward as a distributary system advances,
depositing long linear sand bodies called Bar Finger Sand.

bar finger sand
(Fisk et al 1954 at Lambiase 2004.)
Pantai
Pantai dan Estuari
Shallow Marine Siliciclastic
Environments
Environments characterized by detrital deposits in
moderate water depth (10-200 m), or on nearshore
continent, under tides, waves, wind, longshore currents, or
storms as dominant sediment-moving forces. They include
deposits such as : estuarine, tidal flats, intertidal sand bars,
storm deposits, barrier islands, beach ridges, shorelines.

Sand bodies have, generally, good reservoir characteristics.
Their volumes depend on each depositional facies
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Skinner et al. (2004)
Shallow Marine
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
shoreface
offshore transition
shelf
foreshore
Reservoir Properties
Shoreface sands on wave-
dominated coasts
generally have excellent
reservoir potential

Sands are clean and
homogeneous and with
few permeability barriers

Sand bodies are laterally
continuous and are
orientated parallel to the
shoreline
(Lambiase, 2004).
Shallow Water Carbonate Environments
Environments characterized by carbonate deposits generated by
biochemical processes in shallow water (< 100 m).

Carbonate rocks can have good reservoir characteristics depending on
the importance of diagenetic effects. When dissolution has occurred,
the porosity and permeability are very high. Other diagenetic effects
reduce the porosity. The permeability is often related to the presence of
fractures which occur frequently in such rocks. Carbonate reservoirs
can be very thick and have a large extension. Source rocks are often
close to the reservoir rocks. Cap rocks are composed of either shale or
anhydrite beds.
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Skinner et al. (2004)
Coral Reefs, Society Islands, Pacific Ocean
Coral Reefs
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Deep Sea Clastic Environment
Environments characterized by sediments deposited in a
large body of water below the action of waves, resulting
from sediment gravity flow mechanisms.

Due to the general immaturity of the sands, their
characteristics are often moderate to poor. The
permeability increases from distal to proximal fans. Distal
sands constitute sheet-like beds with no vertical
permeability. Proximal sands can be thick, with good
vertical permeability, with a shoestring shape.
Overpressures are often observed.
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Skinner et al. (2004)
bathimetric contour in meter
Deep sea fans of Indus and Bengal, Indian Ocean
Deep Sea
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Serra (1989)
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
Skinner et al. (2004)
AWANG H. SATYANA BPMIGAS
C
L
A
Y
S
I
L
T
F
G

S
A
N
D
S
T
O
N
E
M
G

S
A
N
D
S
T
O
N
E
C
G
S
A
N
D
S
T
O
N
E
G
R
A
N
U
L
E Gamma Ray
Tekstur Log
Litologi
Dolomitic/-ized Limestone
0 150
C
L
A
Y
S
I
L
T
F
G

S
A
N
D
S
T
O
N
E
M
G

S
A
N
D
S
T
O
N
E
C
G
S
A
N
D
S
T
O
N
E
G
R
A
N
U
L
E
Log
Litologi
Tekstur
Gamma Ray
0 150
C
L
A
Y
S
I
L
T
F
G

S
A
N
D
S
T
O
N
E
M
G

S
A
N
D
S
T
O
N
E
C
G
S
A
N
D
S
T
O
N
E
G
R
A
N
U
L
E
Log
Litologi
Tekstur
Gamma Ray
0 150
Tugas 1
Nama :
Nim :
Siltstone
Claystone
Sandstone
Conglomerate
Keterangan :