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Soil Improvement

An Introduction
Soil Improvement
If poor soil conditions are encountered:
Bypass poor soil, use deep foundations
Remove poor soil, replace with engineered fill
Improve soil properties in place
Factors to be considered in Selecting
Soil Improvement Method
Soil type; fines content (silt and clay size)
Area and depth of treatment
Soil properties strength compressibility
Proposed structure and settlement criteria
Availablity of skills, equipment and materials
Adjacent improvements

Primary objectives of soil
Increase bearing capacity or slobe stability
Reduce foundation settleement
Reduce liquefaction potential
Increase bearing capacity
Reduce foundation settlement
Mechanism of Soil improvement for Clay
Soil-Cement columns
Vibro-Replacement stone columns
Geopiers and Vibro Piers
Mechanism of Soil improvement for Sand
By vibration
Impacts at surface : dynamic Compaction
Depth vibrator: Vibro-Compaction
By vibration and Displacement of backfill
Vibro-replacement stone column
Vibro Piers
By displacement of backfill material
Compaction grouting
Soil Improvement Methods
Method Clay Sand
Preloading X
Dynamic Compaction X
Soil-Cement Columns X X
Vibro-Compaction X
Stone Columns X X
Geopiers and Vibro Piers X X
Compaction grouting X
Performed by placing fill over soft clay
A proportion of the final settlement can be achieved prior
to construction by pre-loading the soil
The larger the pre-load, the less time it will take to achieve
the final settlement
Pre-consolidating the ground in this way tends to be an
expensive solution compared with the use of piles to
support localized loads such as columns
Pre-consolidation may be a cost-effective way of reducing
the settlement due to lightly distributed loads from roads
or warehouse or supermarket floors provided that material
is readily available to provide the pre-loading.
Pumping water out of the ground will cause a
local lowering of the ground water level and a
decrease in water pressure
Low permeability implies slow
Decreasing the water pressure increases the
effective stress, which increases the shear
strength and causes settlement.
Dynamic Compaction (Densification)
Dynamic Compaction is the dropping of heavy weights
on the ground surface to densify soils at depth

Dynamic Compaction Applications
Reduce foundation settlements
Reduce seismic subsidence
Permit construction on fills
Densify garbage dumps
Improve mine spoils
Induce settlements in collapsible soils

Important Dynamic Compaction Construction Conditions
Minimum 100-150 ft clearance from any structure
Review site for vibration sensitivity

Vibro-Compaction is used to densify clean, cohesionless soils. The action of
the vibrator, usually accompanied by water jetting, reduces the inter-
granular forces between the soil particles, allowing them to move into a
denser configuration

Vibro-Replacement Stone Columns
Vibro-Replacement Stone Columns extends the range of
soils that can be improved by vibratory techniques to
include cohesive soils.