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2. Newton 1st, 2nd & 3rd Laws of motion

3. Types of Forces: Normal, Frictional,

Tension and Gravitation Forces. etc

4. Free body Diagrams

Lesson Objectives

At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. define force, mass and inertia.

2. state Newton’s laws of motion.

3. explain everyday phenomena in terms of Newton’s

laws of motion.

4. use free-body diagrams to solve problems involving

forces and accelerations.

Dynamics

• Displacement, velocity and acceleration are basic

kinematics quantities. However, when we begin to

think about why objects move, this is the science of

Dynamics.

• The influence that changes the basic kinematics

quantities of a particle is called a force.

• A force, simply put, is a push or a pull.

Force

• The concept of force gives us a quantitative description of the

interaction between two bodies or between a body and its

environment.

• When a force involves direct contact between two bodies, we

call it a contact force. An example is frictional force.

• There are also non-contact forces or action-at-a-distance

forces, including gravitational and electrical forces, which act

even when the bodies are separated by empty space.

• The force of gravitational attraction that the earth exerts on a

body is called the weight of the body.

The idea of a force is made explicit in

Newton’s laws of motion.

(British Physicist)

1642-1727

Newton’s 1st Law of Motion

(The Law of Inertia)

Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform

motion (constant velocity) in a straight line, unless a net

external force acts upon it.

rest or in motion at constant speed along a straight line.

Lighter Side

Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion

net force acting on it in the same direction.

a ∝ ∑ Fnet

→ →

∑F net = ma

The proportionality constant is a quantity known as the mass of

the body denoted by m. Mass is a measure of an object’s inertia.

→ →

∑F net = ma

• Net force is the vector sum of all the forces

acting on it.

• SI Unit of Force: kg.m/s2 = newton (N)

acceleration is inversely proportional to the

mass.

1

a∝

m

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 9

Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion

→ →

∑F net = ma

1st Law

(Newton’s 1st Law is a special case of 2nd Law)

If a = 0, then Σ F = 0

Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion

and opposite reaction.

FAB = − FBA

Action and reaction of forces are equal and opposite.

The two forces acts on different bodies,

so resultant force ≠ 0.

Example:

spacecraft with a force +P and it

pushes back on him with a force –

P.

Conceptual Question

• Why do you forward when your car suddenly

comes to a halt? Why are you pressed

backward against the seat when your car

rapidly accelerates? In your explanation, refer

to the appropriate one of Newton’s three laws

of motion.

Reasoning and Solution

• When the car comes to a sudden halt, the upper part of the body continues

forward (as predicted by Newton's first law) if the force exerted by the lower

back muscles is not great enough to give the upper body the same

deceleration as the car. The lower portion of the body is held in place by the

force of friction exerted by the car seat and the floor.

• When the car rapidly accelerates, the upper part of the body tries to remain

at a constant velocity (again as predicted by Newton's first law). If the force

provided by the lower back muscles is not great enough to give the upper

body the same acceleration as the car, the upper body appears to be pressed

backward against the seat as the car moves forward.

Conceptual Question

• The net external force acting on an object is

zero. Is it possible for the object to be traveling

with a velocity that is not zero? If your answer

is yes, state whether any conditions must be

placed on the magnitude and direction of the

velocity. If your answer is no, provide a reason

for your answer.

Reasoning and Solution

• If the net external force acting on an object is zero, it is

possible for the object to be traveling with a nonzero

velocity. According to Newton’s second law, Σ F = ma,

if the net external force Σ F is zero, the acceleration a is

also zero. If the acceleration is zero, the velocity must be

constant, both in magnitude and in direction. Thus, an

object can move with a constant nonzero velocity when

the net external force is zero.

Free body diagram

When you are solving a dynamics problem, it is

very helpful to draw a free body diagram.

problem is drawn, showing all the forces acting

on it.

Some common forces

• Weight

The weight of an object is the force due to the attraction

between it and the Earth.

W = mg

W

The weight always acts downward, towards the center of

the earth.

• Normal Force

When an object is pressed against a surface, there is

a force in the direction of the normal to the surface.

N = mg N = mg cos θ

θ

W = mg W = mg

• Tension

When a rope is attached to an object and pulled taut, the

rope is under tension.

W = mg

W = mg

W = mg

The direction of tension is always away from the object.

• Friction

When an object slides over a surface there is a force

resisting the motion. The frictional force is parallel

to the surface and in the direction opposite to that of

the motion.

motion

(a) Weight W and the normal reaction force FN on a stationary body.

(b) The resultant frictional force FsF due to the applied force FT but

with no resultant motion,

(c) the resultant frictional force FkF due to the applied force FT that

causes the body to move with velocity v.

FN FN FN

v

FT FT

FsF FkF

w w w

(a) (b) (c)

Frictional Force

• Normal force, FN is one of the force that a surface exerts on an object with

which it is in contact-namely the component that perpendicular to the

surface.

• The component parallel to the surface is the frictional forces, which are

• static friction force, FsF when the body at rest (stationary).

• kinetic friction, FkF when the body is moving

• By definition FN and FsF or FkF are always perpendicular to each other.

• The direction of the friction force is always such as to oppose relative

motion of the two surfaces.

Static Friction FSF

• Frictional forces can act even

when there is no relative motion

of the two surfaces in contact.

This is called static friction

force.

• When the force FT is gradually

increased, the frictional force FsF

also increases staying equal in

magnitude to FT as long as the

body remains at rest.

Static Friction

• For some given pair of surfaces the maximum value of FsF depends on the normal force FN and can have

any value between zero and a maximum value just before the body moves.

where the proportionality constant µ SF is called the

coefficient of static friction.

Kinetic Friction FkF

• At some point, FT becomes greater than the maximum frictional force FsF that the surface can exert and

the body starts to slide along the surface with velocity v.

• In many instances, the magnitude of the sliding friction FkF is found to be approximately proportional to

FN, that is

where the proportionality constant µ kF is called

the coefficient of kinetic friction.

Typical Coefficients of Friction

Materials Kinetic, µk Static, µ s

Rubber on concrete(dry) 0.80 0.90

Steel on steel 0.57 0.74

Glass on glass 0.40 0.94

Wood on leather 0.40 0.50

Copper on steel 0.36 0.53

Rubber on concrete (wet) 0.25 0.30

Steel on ice 0.06 0.10

Waxed ski on snow 0.05 0.10

Teflon on Teflon 0.04 0.04

Measurement of Friction

Measurement of Friction

FN

∑F y = FN − mg cos θ = 0 mg =

cosθ

∑F x = mg sin θ − FSF = 0 FSF = mg sin θ

•Increase θ until the block just begins to slide. At this critical

angle θ c

FSF = FN tan θc We have FSF = µSF FN

Thus µsF = tan θc

• In general, if an object is on the verge of slipping

when the surface on which it rests is tilted at an

angle θ c, the coefficient of static friction between

the object and the surface is µ sF = tan θ c..

•Its independent of the mass of the object.

•Fsf has a maximum value.

Apparent Weight

• Apparent weight is the force that the object exerts on

the scale with which it is in contact, in an

acceleration system.

• For example, the sensation of feeling heavier or lighter

in an accelerating elevator.

• The apparent weight of a passenger with a mass m

riding in an elevator with acceleration ay can be

understood better by looking at the free body diagram.

The free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the person

riding in the elevator accelerating upwards at ay.

∑F = F N − W = ma y

FN = W + ma y

= m ( g + ay )

(Apparent weight is equal to the

normal force acting on the body)

FN = m( g + a y )

Weightlessness

• When ay is positive, the elevator accelerated upward, and Fa is

greater than the passenger’s weight, w=mg.

• When the elevator is accelerated downward, ay is negative, and Fa

is less than the weight, w=mg.

• When the chain broken the elevator accelerated with ay= -g,

when its in free fall. In this case Fa =0 and the passenger seems to

be weightless. (

F =m g−g =0

a )

• Similarly, an astronaut orbiting the earth in a space capsule

experiences apparent a weightlessness.

Example

• A 5.0 kg salmon is weighed by hanging it from a a fish scale attached to

the ceiling of an elevator. What is the apparent weight of the salmon, Wa,

if the elevator (a) is at rest, (b) moves with an upward acceleration 2.5

m/s2, or (c) moves with a downward acceleration of 3.2 m/s2

Solution: The weight W = mg,

(a) ∑F = Wa- W = may = 0, (ay=0)

ay = 2.5m/s2.

ay= -3.2m/s2 Thus Wa= mg – ma = 49N - (5kg)(3.2m/s2) =

It33N

is observed that when it moves (accelerating) up its apparent weight

is greater than the original weight and when it moves down is less.

Example:

• A block of mass m1 slides on a frictionless tabletop. It is connected

to a string that passes over a pulley and suspends a mass m2. Find

the acceleration of the masses and the tension in the string.

To solve:

• There is no friction in the pulley and we consider the string is massless.

• The tension T is the same throughout and it applies a force of magnitude

T to each body.

• The weights are m1g and m2g.

• If the string does not stretch, the two masses must move equal distances

in equal time. Their speeds are equal at any instance.

• When the speeds change, they changed with equal amounts and gives

equal acceleration at the same time.

• Draw separate free body diagram for each body and apply Newton’s 2nd

Law

N

Σ Fy = N – W1 = 0 Σ Fx = 0

Σ Fx = T = m1 a (1) Σ Fy = W2 −T

Combine (1) and (2): = m2 g −T = m2 a (2)

m2 g −m1 a = m2 a

m2 g m1m2 g

a= T = m1a =

( m1 + m2 ) ( m1 + m2 )

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 39

Exercise

A 4-kg block is connected to a 2-kg block by

means of a massless rope through a frictionless

pulley as shown in the figure. If the coefficient of

static friction between the 4-kg block and the

surface is 0.3, what is the acceleration of the

blocks?

N T

Ff T

mg mg

N

For m2:

For m1: Σ Fx = 0

Σ Fy = N – W1 = 0 Σ Fy = W2 −T

Σ Fx = T = m1 a (1) = m2 g −T = m2 a (2)

Combine (1) and (2): m1m2 g

m2 g −m1 a = m2 a T = m1a =

( m1 + m2 )

a=

m2 g ( 2 )( 9.81)

( m1 + m2 ) = ( 4 + 2) = 3.27 m/s = (4)(3.27) = 13.1 N

N T

y

Ff T

x

mg mg

Σ Fy = N – W1 = 0 Σ Fx = 0

Σ Fx = T – Ff = m1 a Σ Fy = W2 −T

T – µ m1 g = m1 a (1) = m2 g −T = m2 a (2)

T – µ m1 g = m1 a (1) m2 g − T = m2 a (2)

m2 g − µ m1 g = m1 a + m2 a

m2 g − µm1 g

a=

( m1 + m2 ) From (1):

=

( 4 + 2) = 4(1.3) + ( 0.3) ( 4 )( 9.81)

= 1.3 m/s 2

= 17.0 N

Example

A jet plane is flying with a constant speed along a straight line at an angle

of 30° above the horizontal. The plane has a weight,

W = 86500 N, an its engine provide a forward thrust, T = 103000 N. What

are the lift force, L, perpendicular to the wings and the air resistance force,

R, opposite the motion act on the plane?

y

Solution

x

Example

• A flatbed truck slowly tilts its bed upward to dispose of

a 95.0-kg crate. For small angles of tilt the crate stays

put, but when the tilt angle exceeds 23.2° the crate

begins to slide. What is the coefficient of static friction

between the bed of the truck and the crate.

Choose the positive x axis along the surface of the bed. They are

three forces acting on the crate, NF, Wg and Fs. .

When the crate begins to slide it is in its verge of slipping, The static

force Fs=-µ sN.

We resolve the force vectors acting on the crate into x and y-

components.

Nx = 0 Ny = N

Fs ,x = −Fs ,max = −µs N Fs , y = 0

Wx = mg sin θ W y = mg cos θ

Since the crate is at rest,

∑ Fy = N y + Fs ,y + Wy = N + 0 − mg cosθ = ma y = 0

Thus N = mg cos θ

∑F x = N x + Fs ,x + Wx = 0 − µ s N + mg sinθ = ma x = 0

= 0 − µ s mg cos θ + mg sinθ = 0

Thus µ s mg cos θ = mg sin θ or

mg sin θ

µs = = tan θ = tan 23.2° = 0.429

mg cos θ

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 48

Conceptual Checkpoint:

A car drives with its tires rolling freely. Is the friction between the tires

and the road

a) Kinetic or b) static?

A reasonable-sounding answer is that because the car is moving, the friction between its tires

and the road must be kinetic friction – but this is not the case.

Actually, the friction is static because the bottom of the tire is in static contact with the road.

To understand this, watch your feet as you walk. Even though you are moving, each foot is in

static contact with the ground once you step down on it. Your foot doesn’t move again until

you lift it up and move it forward for the next step. A tire can be thought of as a succession of

feet arranged in a circle, each of which is momentarily in static contact with the ground.

Answer:

(b) The friction between the tires and the road is static friction.

A tire can be thought of as a succession of feet

arranged in a circle, each of which is momentarily in

static contact with the ground.

Exercise

A crate rests on the flatbed of a truck that is initially traveling at

15 m/s on a level road. The driver applies the brakes and the truck is

brought to a halt in a distance of 38 m. If the deceleration of the truck is

constant, what is the minimum coefficient of friction between the crate

and the truck that is required to keep the crate from sliding?

− (15 m/s )

2 2

2 2

v = v0 + 2as = 0 − v0

a= = = −3 m/s 2

2s 2( 38 m )

N F = ma

Ff Direction of

motion of truck µN = µmg = ma

a 3

mg

µ= = = 0.3

g 9.81

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 51

In moving a 35.0-kg desk from one side of a classroom to the other, a

professor finds that a horizontal force of 275 N is necessary to set the desk in

motion, and a force of 195 N is necessary to keep it in motion at a constant

speed. What are the coefficients of (a) static and (b) kinetic friction between

the desk and the floor?

N Σ Fy = N – mg = 0

Ff F

N = mg = 35.0 × 9.81

= 343.4 N

mg

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 52

The coefficients of static and kinetic friction between a 50.0-kg box and a

horizontal surface are 0.500 and 0.400 respectively. (a) What is the

acceleration of the object if a 250-N horizontal force is applied to the box?

(b) What is the acceleration if the applied force is 235 N?

N

Ff F Σ Fy = N – mg = 0

mg N = mg = 50.0 × 9.81 = 490.5 N

(a) Σ Fx = ma

250 N – µk N = 250 N – (0.400 × 490.5 N) = 53.8 N

a = 53.8 N / 50.0 kg = 1.1 m/s2

(b) Applied force = 235 N < maximum static friction

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 53

A hockey player hits a puck with his stick, giving the puck an initial speed of 5

m/s. If the puck slows uniformly and comes to rest in a distance of 20 m, what is

the coefficient of kinetic friction between the ice and the puck?

v2 - v02 0 - 52

v2 = v02 + 2as a= = = 0.63 m/s2

2s 2(20)

Σ F = µN = ma

µ mg = ma

µ = ma / mg = a/g = 0.63/9.81 = 0.064

One 5-kg bucket is hanging by a massless cord

from a 4-kg paint bucket, also hanging by a

massless cord, as shown in the figure.

4 kg

(a) Determine the tension in each cord if the

buckets are at rest.

(b) If the two buckets are pulled upward with an

acceleration of 1.60 m/s2 by the upper cord,

5 kg calculate the tension in each cord.

In the figure shown, m1 = 2.0 kg and m2 = 5.0 kg and the coefficient of kinetic

friction between m1 and the inclined plane is 0.20. What is the acceleration of

the blocks and in which direction are they are moving?

T

N

y T

x

m1 g

Ff

m2 g

Σ Fy = N – m1g cos θ = 0

Σ Fx = T – m1g sin θ - Ff = m1a

Σ Fy = m2g - T = m2a

30°

Two forces F1 and F2 of equal magnitude are applied to a brick lying on the floor

as shown in the figure above. If the coefficient of static friction between the brick

and the floor is 0.4, what is the minimum value of F required to start the brick to

move?

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