Anda di halaman 1dari 57

Dynamics

1. Definition of Force and Mass


2. Newton 1st, 2nd & 3rd Laws of motion
3. Types of Forces: Normal, Frictional,
Tension and Gravitation Forces. etc
4. Free body Diagrams

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 1


Lesson Objectives
At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:
1. define force, mass and inertia.
2. state Newton’s laws of motion.
3. explain everyday phenomena in terms of Newton’s
laws of motion.
4. use free-body diagrams to solve problems involving
forces and accelerations.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 2


Dynamics
• Displacement, velocity and acceleration are basic
kinematics quantities. However, when we begin to
think about why objects move, this is the science of
Dynamics.
• The influence that changes the basic kinematics
quantities of a particle is called a force.
• A force, simply put, is a push or a pull.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 3


Force
• The concept of force gives us a quantitative description of the
interaction between two bodies or between a body and its
environment.
• When a force involves direct contact between two bodies, we
call it a contact force. An example is frictional force.
• There are also non-contact forces or action-at-a-distance
forces, including gravitational and electrical forces, which act
even when the bodies are separated by empty space.
• The force of gravitational attraction that the earth exerts on a
body is called the weight of the body.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 4


The idea of a force is made explicit in
Newton’s laws of motion.

Sir Isaac Newton


(British Physicist)
1642-1727

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 5


Newton’s 1st Law of Motion
(The Law of Inertia)
Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform
motion (constant velocity) in a straight line, unless a net
external force acts upon it.

Inertia is the natural tendency of an object to remain at


rest or in motion at constant speed along a straight line.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 6


Lighter Side

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 7


Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion

The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the


net force acting on it in the same direction.

 
a ∝ ∑ Fnet
→ →
∑F net = ma
The proportionality constant is a quantity known as the mass of
the body denoted by m. Mass is a measure of an object’s inertia.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 8


→ →
∑F net = ma
• Net force is the vector sum of all the forces
acting on it.
• SI Unit of Force: kg.m/s2 = newton (N)

For a given net force, the magnitude of


acceleration is inversely proportional to the
mass.
1
a∝
m
EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 9
Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion
→ →
∑F net = ma

When Σ Fnet = 0, then a = 0


1st Law
(Newton’s 1st Law is a special case of 2nd Law)

If a = 0, then Σ F = 0

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 10


Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion

To every action there is always an equal


and opposite reaction.
 
FAB = − FBA
Action and reaction of forces are equal and opposite.
The two forces acts on different bodies,
so resultant force ≠ 0.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 11


Example:

The astronaut pushes on the


spacecraft with a force +P and it
pushes back on him with a force –
P.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 12


Conceptual Question
• Why do you forward when your car suddenly
comes to a halt? Why are you pressed
backward against the seat when your car
rapidly accelerates? In your explanation, refer
to the appropriate one of Newton’s three laws
of motion.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 13


Reasoning and Solution
• When the car comes to a sudden halt, the upper part of the body continues
forward (as predicted by Newton's first law) if the force exerted by the lower
back muscles is not great enough to give the upper body the same
deceleration as the car. The lower portion of the body is held in place by the
force of friction exerted by the car seat and the floor.
• When the car rapidly accelerates, the upper part of the body tries to remain
at a constant velocity (again as predicted by Newton's first law). If the force
provided by the lower back muscles is not great enough to give the upper
body the same acceleration as the car, the upper body appears to be pressed
backward against the seat as the car moves forward.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 14


Conceptual Question
• The net external force acting on an object is
zero. Is it possible for the object to be traveling
with a velocity that is not zero? If your answer
is yes, state whether any conditions must be
placed on the magnitude and direction of the
velocity. If your answer is no, provide a reason
for your answer.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 15


Reasoning and Solution
• If the net external force acting on an object is zero, it is
possible for the object to be traveling with a nonzero
velocity. According to Newton’s second law, Σ F = ma,
if the net external force Σ F is zero, the acceleration a is
also zero. If the acceleration is zero, the velocity must be
constant, both in magnitude and in direction. Thus, an
object can move with a constant nonzero velocity when
the net external force is zero.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 16


Free body diagram
When you are solving a dynamics problem, it is
very helpful to draw a free body diagram.

In such a diagram, a sketch of each object in the


problem is drawn, showing all the forces acting
on it.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 17


Some common forces
• Weight
The weight of an object is the force due to the attraction
between it and the Earth.

W = mg
W
The weight always acts downward, towards the center of
the earth.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 18


• Normal Force
When an object is pressed against a surface, there is
a force in the direction of the normal to the surface.
N = mg N = mg cos θ

θ
W = mg W = mg

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 19


• Tension
When a rope is attached to an object and pulled taut, the
rope is under tension.

W = mg
W = mg
W = mg
The direction of tension is always away from the object.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 20


• Friction
When an object slides over a surface there is a force
resisting the motion. The frictional force is parallel
to the surface and in the direction opposite to that of
the motion.
motion

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 21


(a) Weight W and the normal reaction force FN on a stationary body.
(b) The resultant frictional force FsF due to the applied force FT but
with no resultant motion,
(c) the resultant frictional force FkF due to the applied force FT that
causes the body to move with velocity v.
FN FN FN

v
FT FT
FsF FkF

w w w
(a) (b) (c)

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 22


Frictional Force
• Normal force, FN is one of the force that a surface exerts on an object with
which it is in contact-namely the component that perpendicular to the
surface.
• The component parallel to the surface is the frictional forces, which are
• static friction force, FsF when the body at rest (stationary).
• kinetic friction, FkF when the body is moving
• By definition FN and FsF or FkF are always perpendicular to each other.
• The direction of the friction force is always such as to oppose relative
motion of the two surfaces.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 23


Static Friction FSF
• Frictional forces can act even
when there is no relative motion
of the two surfaces in contact.
This is called static friction
force.
• When the force FT is gradually
increased, the frictional force FsF
also increases staying equal in
magnitude to FT as long as the
body remains at rest.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 24


Static Friction
• For some given pair of surfaces the maximum value of FsF depends on the normal force FN and can have
any value between zero and a maximum value just before the body moves.

• In such cases it is found that FsF is approximately proportional to FN , i.e

FSF ∝ FN Thus FSF ≅ µ SF FN


where the proportionality constant µ SF is called the
coefficient of static friction.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 25


Kinetic Friction FkF
• At some point, FT becomes greater than the maximum frictional force FsF that the surface can exert and
the body starts to slide along the surface with velocity v.
• In many instances, the magnitude of the sliding friction FkF is found to be approximately proportional to
FN, that is

FkF ∝ FN Thus FkF = µ kF FN


where the proportionality constant µ kF is called
the coefficient of kinetic friction.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 26


Typical Coefficients of Friction
Materials Kinetic, µk Static, µ s
Rubber on concrete(dry) 0.80 0.90
Steel on steel 0.57 0.74
Glass on glass 0.40 0.94
Wood on leather 0.40 0.50
Copper on steel 0.36 0.53
Rubber on concrete (wet) 0.25 0.30
Steel on ice 0.06 0.10
Waxed ski on snow 0.05 0.10
Teflon on Teflon 0.04 0.04

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 27


Measurement of Friction

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 28


Measurement of Friction

FN
∑F y = FN − mg cos θ = 0 mg =
cosθ
∑F x = mg sin θ − FSF = 0 FSF = mg sin θ

•By eliminating mg from (1) and (2) gives FSF = FN tan θ


•Increase θ until the block just begins to slide. At this critical
angle θ c
FSF = FN tan θc We have FSF = µSF FN
Thus µsF = tan θc

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 29


• In general, if an object is on the verge of slipping
when the surface on which it rests is tilted at an
angle θ c, the coefficient of static friction between
the object and the surface is µ sF = tan θ c..
•Its independent of the mass of the object.

FSF = FN tan θ c = µ sF FN or µsF = tan θ c


•Fsf has a maximum value.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 30


Apparent Weight
• Apparent weight is the force that the object exerts on
the scale with which it is in contact, in an
acceleration system.
• For example, the sensation of feeling heavier or lighter
in an accelerating elevator.
• The apparent weight of a passenger with a mass m
riding in an elevator with acceleration ay can be
understood better by looking at the free body diagram.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 31


The free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the person
riding in the elevator accelerating upwards at ay.

∑F = F N − W = ma y

FN = W + ma y
= m ( g + ay )
(Apparent weight is equal to the
normal force acting on the body)

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 32


FN = m( g + a y )

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 33


Weightlessness
• When ay is positive, the elevator accelerated upward, and Fa is
greater than the passenger’s weight, w=mg.
• When the elevator is accelerated downward, ay is negative, and Fa
is less than the weight, w=mg.
• When the chain broken the elevator accelerated with ay= -g,
when its in free fall. In this case Fa =0 and the passenger seems to
be weightless. (
F =m g−g =0
a )
• Similarly, an astronaut orbiting the earth in a space capsule
experiences apparent a weightlessness.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 34


Example
• A 5.0 kg salmon is weighed by hanging it from a a fish scale attached to
the ceiling of an elevator. What is the apparent weight of the salmon, Wa,
if the elevator (a) is at rest, (b) moves with an upward acceleration 2.5
m/s2, or (c) moves with a downward acceleration of 3.2 m/s2

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 35


Solution: The weight W = mg,
(a) ∑F = Wa- W = may = 0, (ay=0)

So The apparent weight, Wa= mg = 5.0 kg (9.81m/s2) = 49N

(b) It moves up so ∑F = Wa-W =may = ma where


ay = 2.5m/s2.

Thus Wa= mg + ma = 49N + (5kg)(2.5m/s2) = 62 N

(c) It moves down, ∑F = Wa-W = may = -ma, where


ay= -3.2m/s2 Thus Wa= mg – ma = 49N - (5kg)(3.2m/s2) =
It33N
is observed that when it moves (accelerating) up its apparent weight
is greater than the original weight and when it moves down is less.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 36


Example:
• A block of mass m1 slides on a frictionless tabletop. It is connected
to a string that passes over a pulley and suspends a mass m2. Find
the acceleration of the masses and the tension in the string.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 37


To solve:
• There is no friction in the pulley and we consider the string is massless.
• The tension T is the same throughout and it applies a force of magnitude
T to each body.
• The weights are m1g and m2g.
• If the string does not stretch, the two masses must move equal distances
in equal time. Their speeds are equal at any instance.
• When the speeds change, they changed with equal amounts and gives
equal acceleration at the same time.
• Draw separate free body diagram for each body and apply Newton’s 2nd
Law

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 38


N

For m1: For m2:


Σ Fy = N – W1 = 0 Σ Fx = 0
Σ Fx = T = m1 a (1) Σ Fy = W2 −T
Combine (1) and (2): = m2 g −T = m2 a (2)
m2 g −m1 a = m2 a
m2 g m1m2 g
a= T = m1a =
( m1 + m2 ) ( m1 + m2 )
EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 39
Exercise
A 4-kg block is connected to a 2-kg block by
means of a massless rope through a frictionless
pulley as shown in the figure. If the coefficient of
static friction between the 4-kg block and the
surface is 0.3, what is the acceleration of the
blocks?
N T
Ff T

mg mg

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 40


N

For m2:
For m1: Σ Fx = 0
Σ Fy = N – W1 = 0 Σ Fy = W2 −T
Σ Fx = T = m1 a (1) = m2 g −T = m2 a (2)
Combine (1) and (2): m1m2 g
m2 g −m1 a = m2 a T = m1a =
( m1 + m2 )
a=
m2 g ( 2 )( 9.81)
( m1 + m2 ) = ( 4 + 2) = 3.27 m/s = (4)(3.27) = 13.1 N

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 41


N T
y
Ff T
x

mg mg

For the 4-kg block: For the 2-kg block :


Σ Fy = N – W1 = 0 Σ Fx = 0
Σ Fx = T – Ff = m1 a Σ Fy = W2 −T
T – µ m1 g = m1 a (1) = m2 g −T = m2 a (2)

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 42


T – µ m1 g = m1 a (1) m2 g − T = m2 a (2)

Add (1) and (2):


m2 g − µ m1 g = m1 a + m2 a

m2 g − µm1 g
a=
( m1 + m2 ) From (1):

( 2 )( 9.81) − ( 0.3)( 4 )( 9.81) T = m1a + µ m1 g


=
( 4 + 2) = 4(1.3) + ( 0.3) ( 4 )( 9.81)
= 1.3 m/s 2
= 17.0 N

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 43


Example
A jet plane is flying with a constant speed along a straight line at an angle
of 30° above the horizontal. The plane has a weight,
W = 86500 N, an its engine provide a forward thrust, T = 103000 N. What
are the lift force, L, perpendicular to the wings and the air resistance force,
R, opposite the motion act on the plane?

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 44


y
Solution
x

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 45


Example
• A flatbed truck slowly tilts its bed upward to dispose of
a 95.0-kg crate. For small angles of tilt the crate stays
put, but when the tilt angle exceeds 23.2° the crate
begins to slide. What is the coefficient of static friction
between the bed of the truck and the crate.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 46


Choose the positive x axis along the surface of the bed. They are
three forces acting on the crate, NF, Wg and Fs. .
When the crate begins to slide it is in its verge of slipping, The static
force Fs=-µ sN.
We resolve the force vectors acting on the crate into x and y-
components.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 47


Nx = 0 Ny = N
Fs ,x = −Fs ,max = −µs N Fs , y = 0
Wx = mg sin θ W y = mg cos θ
Since the crate is at rest,
∑ Fy = N y + Fs ,y + Wy = N + 0 − mg cosθ = ma y = 0
Thus N = mg cos θ
∑F x = N x + Fs ,x + Wx = 0 − µ s N + mg sinθ = ma x = 0
= 0 − µ s mg cos θ + mg sinθ = 0
Thus µ s mg cos θ = mg sin θ or
mg sin θ
µs = = tan θ = tan 23.2° = 0.429
mg cos θ
EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 48
Conceptual Checkpoint:
A car drives with its tires rolling freely. Is the friction between the tires
and the road
a) Kinetic or b) static?

Reasoning and Discussion


A reasonable-sounding answer is that because the car is moving, the friction between its tires
and the road must be kinetic friction – but this is not the case.
Actually, the friction is static because the bottom of the tire is in static contact with the road.
To understand this, watch your feet as you walk. Even though you are moving, each foot is in
static contact with the ground once you step down on it. Your foot doesn’t move again until
you lift it up and move it forward for the next step. A tire can be thought of as a succession of
feet arranged in a circle, each of which is momentarily in static contact with the ground.

Answer:
(b) The friction between the tires and the road is static friction.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 49


A tire can be thought of as a succession of feet
arranged in a circle, each of which is momentarily in
static contact with the ground.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 50


Exercise
A crate rests on the flatbed of a truck that is initially traveling at
15 m/s on a level road. The driver applies the brakes and the truck is
brought to a halt in a distance of 38 m. If the deceleration of the truck is
constant, what is the minimum coefficient of friction between the crate
and the truck that is required to keep the crate from sliding?

− (15 m/s )
2 2
2 2
v = v0 + 2as = 0 − v0
a= = = −3 m/s 2
2s 2( 38 m )
N F = ma
Ff Direction of
motion of truck µN = µmg = ma
a 3
mg
µ= = = 0.3
g 9.81
EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 51
In moving a 35.0-kg desk from one side of a classroom to the other, a
professor finds that a horizontal force of 275 N is necessary to set the desk in
motion, and a force of 195 N is necessary to keep it in motion at a constant
speed. What are the coefficients of (a) static and (b) kinetic friction between
the desk and the floor?

N Σ Fy = N – mg = 0
Ff F
N = mg = 35.0 × 9.81
= 343.4 N
mg

(a) Ff = µs N = 275 N (b) Ff = µk N = 275 N

µs = 275 N/343.4 = 0.81 µk = 195 N/343.4 = 0.57

(a) 0.81 (b) 0.57


EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 52
The coefficients of static and kinetic friction between a 50.0-kg box and a
horizontal surface are 0.500 and 0.400 respectively. (a) What is the
acceleration of the object if a 250-N horizontal force is applied to the box?
(b) What is the acceleration if the applied force is 235 N?

N
Ff F Σ Fy = N – mg = 0
mg N = mg = 50.0 × 9.81 = 490.5 N

Maximum static friction = µs N = 0.500 × 490.5 N = 245.25 N


(a) Σ Fx = ma
250 N – µk N = 250 N – (0.400 × 490.5 N) = 53.8 N
a = 53.8 N / 50.0 kg = 1.1 m/s2
(b) Applied force = 235 N < maximum static friction

(a) 1.1 m s 2 (b) 0


EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 53
A hockey player hits a puck with his stick, giving the puck an initial speed of 5
m/s. If the puck slows uniformly and comes to rest in a distance of 20 m, what is
the coefficient of kinetic friction between the ice and the puck?

v2 - v02 0 - 52
v2 = v02 + 2as a= = = 0.63 m/s2
2s 2(20)

Σ F = µN = ma
µ mg = ma
µ = ma / mg = a/g = 0.63/9.81 = 0.064

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 0.064 54


One 5-kg bucket is hanging by a massless cord
from a 4-kg paint bucket, also hanging by a
massless cord, as shown in the figure.
4 kg
(a) Determine the tension in each cord if the
buckets are at rest.
(b) If the two buckets are pulled upward with an
acceleration of 1.60 m/s2 by the upper cord,
5 kg calculate the tension in each cord.

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 55


In the figure shown, m1 = 2.0 kg and m2 = 5.0 kg and the coefficient of kinetic
friction between m1 and the inclined plane is 0.20. What is the acceleration of
the blocks and in which direction are they are moving?
T
N
y T
x
m1 g
Ff
m2 g
Σ Fy = N – m1g cos θ = 0
Σ Fx = T – m1g sin θ - Ff = m1a

= T – m1g sin 37° - µ N = m1a

Σ Fy = m2g - T = m2a

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 56


30°

Two forces F1 and F2 of equal magnitude are applied to a brick lying on the floor
as shown in the figure above. If the coefficient of static friction between the brick
and the floor is 0.4, what is the minimum value of F required to start the brick to
move?

EPF0014 Chapter 4 02/12/09 17:53 57