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# Work and Energy

## 1. Work and Energy

2. Work done by a Constant Force
3. Work done by a Variable Force
4. Work - Energy Theorem

5. Power

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 1

Lesson Objectives
At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:
1. define work, kinetic energy, potential energy and power.
2. state the work-energy theorem.
3. state the relation between work done and the change in energy.
4. determine the work done by a particular force.
5. solve problems involving change in energy.
6. calculate the power of a particular system.

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 2

Work done by a constant force
Work done on an object by a constant
force is defined as the magnitude of the
displacement times the component of
the force, which is parallel to the
displacement.

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 3

F

θ d

F cos θ
W = F ⋅ d = (F cos θ ) d

d cos θ
F
θ
d
W = F ⋅ d = F (d cos θ )
Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 4
Work, is the product of the displacement d and the constant
force F in the direction of d.
(a) W = F⋅ d = Fd (because, F is in the same direction to d,

cos θ at
(b) Force = an
1 (θangle
=0),θ to direction of motion:
W = F⋅ d = Fd cos θ

(a) (b)

W = F ⋅ d = Fd cosθ
Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 5
W = (F cos θ ) d = F (d cos θ ) = F ⋅ d

1 Joule = 1 Nm.

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 6

W = Fx x = (F cos θ ) x = F x cos
θ

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 7

• Note that only the component of the Fnet parallel
to the motion, F║ contributes to the work.
• F⊥ does no work ; it only changes the direction of
the velocity.
• Example: uniform circular motion
• Centripetal force does no work (W = 0), because
it is ⊥ to dl.

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 8

Work Done by a Variable Force

## Imagine that the path a-b followed by

a particle is divided into small elements
∆ li. The force at the position of ith
element ∆ li is Fi.

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 9

y Fi b
θi
d llii

a

x
Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 10
The work done by Fi when the particle
moves along the path ∆ li is
approximately:

∆ Wi ≈ Fi ⋅ ∆ li = Fi ∆ li co sθ i

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 11

• Adding the quantities ∆ Wi for all
elements ∆ li, the total work done is
approximately:
b
∆W ≈ ∑ Fi ∆li cos θ i
a

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 12

b b
Wab = lim
∆li →0
∑F ∆l
a
i i cos θ = ∫ F cos θ dl
a
b

Wab = ∫ F⋅ d l
a

## Note: In mathematics this is called

a path integral. We will restrict
ourselves to very simple examples.

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 13

Work Done Stretching a Spring

0 x1 x

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 14

x1 x1

W = ∫ F ⋅ dl = ∫ Fx dx Fx = kx
0 0
x1 x
2 1
kx

2
= kx dx = = 1
2
k x1
0
2 0

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 15

-Fx

kx 1
W
0 x1 x
Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 16
Positive & Negative Work
 Work is positive if the force has a
component in the direction of
motion (displacement) (0 ≤ θ ≤
90o), cos θ is positive.
 Work is negative if the force has a
component opposite to the
displacement
(90 ≤ θ ≤ 180o), cos θ is
negative.
 Work is zero if the force is
perpendicular to the displacement,
θ = 90o.
cos 90 = 0
Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 17
Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 18
Total Work
• We compute the work done by several forces
acting on a body by either:
• (a) computing the work done by each force
separately and then, since work is a scalar
quantity, taking the algebraic sum of the work
done by the individual forces or
• (b) compute the vector sum (resultant) of the
forces and then using this resultant force
compute the work done.

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 19

Example
A particle moves a distance of 10 m under the influence of two
forces one of magnitude 5N acting at an angle of 60o and the other of
magnitude 6N at an angle of 30o from the +ve x-axis (the direction of
the displacement). Calculate the total work done by the two forces on
the particle.
Solution
(a) W1 = F1.d = (5N)(10m) cos 60o = 25 J
W2 = F2.d = (6N)(10m) cos 30o = 52 J
WT = W1+W2= 77 J.
or (b) FTx = F1x + F2x = (5N) cos 60o + (6N) cos 30o

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 20

Conceptual Question

## • You pick up a book from the ground and hold it

stationary for half a minute. How much work do
you do during this holding time?
• You move with it horizontally, how much work do
you do during this movement?

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 21

Work and Energy
• Energy is one of the most important concepts
used in physics.
• It permits one of the great laws of physics, the
law of conservation of energy.
• We begin with two ideas.
• Work, which is the result of the displacement of
an object due to the application of a force.
• Kinetic energy, which is a property of an object
in motion.

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 22

Work - Energy Theorem
Force Fx acting on a mass m causing it to
accelerate in the x-direction. The work
done as the mass moves from x1 to x2 is:
x2
W = ∫ Fx dx
x1

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 23

But, according to Newton’s second law:
dv
Fx = ma = m
dt
Using the chain rule for derivatives,
we write:
dv dv dx dv
= =v
dt dx dt dx

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 24

x2
W = ∫ Fx dx
x1
x2 v2
⌠ dv
W =  mv dx = ∫ mv dv
⌡ dx v1
x1

= mv − mv
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
1

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 25

• Or, consider object, m, moving in a straight line with initial speed
ν 1.
• Constant force Fnet is exerted on it parallel to its motion over a
distance, x.

 v22 − v12 
Wnet = Fnet x = ma x = m
 2x x
 
1 1
= mv 2 − mv1
2 2

2 2
= K 2 − K1 = ∆K

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 26

• In words: “the work done by the resultant
external force on a particle is equal to the
change in kinetic energy of the particle.”
• This result is called the work-energy
theorem.
• Kinetic energy, like work, is a scalar
quantity. It can never be negative, although
work can be either positive or negative.
• Kinetic energy is energy associated with
motion. The unit is Joule, J.

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 27

Potential Energy
• Potential energy (P.E) is associated with the position
or configuration, of an object.
• It might be elastic energy of the extension or
compression of a spring, or
• Energy of position in a gravitational or electric field.
• The absolute value of potential energy has no
physical significance, but
• A change in potential energy, equals to the work
done producing it, does have a definite value.

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 28

Potential Energy
• Consider the gravitational potential energy of an object near the surface
of the Earth.
• A person must do work in order to lift an object without acceleration
from position y1 to y2.

W p = Fp ⋅ h = mgh cos θ
[if θ = 0, cos θ = = mgh = mg ( y2 − y1 )
1]
• Gravity does work
WG = FG ⋅ h = − mgh cosθ
[if θ = 0, cos θ = = − mgh = − mg( y 2 − y1 )
1]

-

y2

y1

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 30

Potential Energy (in General)
When an object is moved against a force, its energy
of position or potential energy (U) is increased.
The change ∆ U is given by:

∆U = −∫ F ⋅ dl
∆ U is equals to the −(work done by the force).
Applies to only conservative forces such as gravity

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 31

Gravitational Potential Energy
Consider an object, mass m, moving upwards from
distance r1 to r2 from the earth. The gravitational
force is

GMm
F= 2
r

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 32

The change in potential energy is
r2

∆U = −∫ F .dr
r1
r2 r2
1  1
=GMm ∫ 2 dr =GMm − 
r1
r  r r1

GMm GMm
∆U = − +
r2 r1

GMm GMm
∆U = − +
r2 r1

## Since r2 > r1, ∆ U > 0. If we set r2 = ∞,

and suppose that U(r) = 0 for r = ∞,
then relative to that
GMm
U (r ) = −
r

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 34

Gravitational Potential Energy

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 35

Gravitational Potential Energy
When r increases Fg does negative work and Ug
increases (becomes less negative).
When r decreases, the body falls toward the
earth and Wg is positive and Ug decreases
(becomes more negative).
U always becomes less negative with
increasing r.

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 36

Gravitational Potential Energy
Example: Find the gravitational potential energy of a
12.0 kg meteorite when it is (a) one Earth radius above the
surface of the earth, and (b) on the surface of the earth.
Solution:
(a) In the distance r = 2RE, Ug = − GmME /2RE =
12.0kg(5.97 × 1024 kg
U g = − ( 6.67 × 10 Nm /kg )
−11 2 2
= − 3. 75 × 108
J
2(6.37 × 10 m)
6

## (b) the distance from the center of the earth is r = RE

Thus Ug = − GmME/RE = − 7.5x108J, which is twice what it
was in part (a), while the distance between it and the center
of the6: Work&Energy
Chapt earth has been halved. 02/12/09 17:52 37
Work and Conservative Forces
Consider an object moving under gravity
from point a to point b:

y
yb b
θ
dl
ya
a mg
x

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 38

y
yb b
θ
dl
ya
a mg
x
The work done in moving the object along the section dl
is: dW = F.d l = −mg cos θ dl
But cos θ dl = dy, so that the total work is:
b yb
W = ∫ F.d l = −∫ amg cos θ dl = − ∫y mg dy
b

a a

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 39

The work done depends on the change of y only and is
independent of path.
y
yb b
Path 1

ya Path 2
a
x
Work done from a to b (path 1) = Work done from a to b (path 2)

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 40

• If the work done by a force when an
object moves from one point to another
is independent of the path taken by the
object, then the force is said to be a
conservative force.

## • Non-conservative forces are those in

which work done produces heat.

Note :

## If it is not independent, then we say that

the force involve is a non-conservative
force such as the frictional force.
• In that is the case, then the net work done
would be the sum of work done by
conservative and non-conservative forces.

Note:

## • The work done by a conservative force is

recoverable (n.c.f. friction dissipates energy).

## • The work done by a conservative force around a

closed path is zero.

## • The total mechanical energy of a system stays the

same and is therefore conserved ( KE + PE )

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 43

The Potential Energy Curve

unstable equilibrium
dU
neutral
equilibrium =0
dx
no force
stable
equilibrium

## dU ( x) The force is −(slope) of

F ( x) = −
dx the potential energy
curve U(x).

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 44

Work and Energy
• The sum of the kinetic and potential energies of an
object is called the mechanical energy.
• Although the conversion of kinetic energy to potential
energy, and vice versa, can occur, it must happen in
such a way that their total is constant.
• The mechanical energy of an isolated mechanical
system is conserved.
• The total energy in any isolated system is constant,
no matter what happens within it.

Energy Changes

Elastic PE:

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 46

Gravitational PE:

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 47

Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 48
Power
• Power is defined as the rate at which
work is done.
work done
P=
time
Energy transformed
P=
time

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 49

• Another convenient way of expressing
power is in term of the conservative force and
the velocity

W F •d
P= = = F •v
t t
• But you can only apply this equation to
a case of constant velocity motion

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 50

Exercises
Exercise 1: A roller-coaster car is moving at 20 m/s along a
straight horizontal track. What will its speed be after climbing the
15-m hill shown in the figure if friction is ignored?

## Conservation of mechanical energy:

KE + PE (on track) = KE + PE (on hill)
1 2 1 2
mvi + 0 = mv f + mgh
2 2
1 2 1 2 1
= vi − gh = ( 20) − ( 9.81)(15) = 52.85
2
vf
2 2 2
v f = 10.3 m/s

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 51

10 m/s
Exercise 2: A 1.0-kg mass is suspended from a spring with k = 16 N/m.
The mass is pulled 0.25 m downward from its equilibrium position and
allowed to oscillate.
(a) What is the maximum kinetic energy of the mass?
(b) What is the maximum velocity of the mass?

## (a) Conservation of mechanical energy:

KE maximum = PE maximum
1 2 1 2 1
mv = kx = (16)( 0.25) 2 = 0.50 J
2 2 2
1
(b) (1.0) v 2 = 0.50 J
2
2( 0.50 )
v= = 1.0 m/s
1.0

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 0.50 J 52

Exercise 3: A 40-kg packing crate is pulled with constant speed
across a rough floor with a rope that is at an angle of 40.0° above
the horizontal. If the tension of the rope is 125 N, what is the work
done to move it 5.0 m?

W = F • d = Fd cosθ
= (125 N )( 5.0 m ) cos 40.0°
= 479 J

## Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 53

Exercise 3b: A 40-kg packing crate is pulled with constant speed
across a rough floor with a rope that is at an angle of 40.0° above
the horizontal. If the tension of the rope is 125 N, what is the
coefficient of static friction between the crate and the floor?

## ∑F y = FN + 125 N sin 40.0° − mg = 0

T FN = ( 40)( 9.81) N − 125 N sin 40.0°
= 392 N − 80 N = 312 N

## ∑F x = 125 cos 40.0° − F f = 0

F f = µFN = 125 cos 40.0° = 96 N
96 N
µ= = 0.31
312 N