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Work and Energy

1. Work and Energy


2. Work done by a Constant Force
3. Work done by a Variable Force
4. Work - Energy Theorem

5. Power

Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 1


Lesson Objectives
At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:
1. define work, kinetic energy, potential energy and power.
2. state the work-energy theorem.
3. state the relation between work done and the change in energy.
4. determine the work done by a particular force.
5. solve problems involving change in energy.
6. calculate the power of a particular system.

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Work done by a constant force
Work done on an object by a constant
force is defined as the magnitude of the
displacement times the component of
the force, which is parallel to the
displacement.

Work = force • displacement

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F

θ d

F cos θ
W = F ⋅ d = (F cos θ ) d

d cos θ
F
θ
d
W = F ⋅ d = F (d cos θ )
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Work, is the product of the displacement d and the constant
force F in the direction of d.
(a) W = F⋅ d = Fd (because, F is in the same direction to d,

cos θ at
(b) Force = an
1 (θangle
=0),θ to direction of motion:
W = F⋅ d = Fd cos θ

(a) (b)

W = F ⋅ d = Fd cosθ
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W = (F cos θ ) d = F (d cos θ ) = F ⋅ d

• Work is a scalar quantity.

• The unit of work is the Joule.


1 Joule = 1 Nm.

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W = Fx x = (F cos θ ) x = F x cos
θ

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• Note that only the component of the Fnet parallel
to the motion, F║ contributes to the work.
• F⊥ does no work ; it only changes the direction of
the velocity.
• Example: uniform circular motion
• Centripetal force does no work (W = 0), because
it is ⊥ to dl.

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Work Done by a Variable Force

Imagine that the path a-b followed by


a particle is divided into small elements
∆ li. The force at the position of ith
element ∆ li is Fi.

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y Fi b
θi
d llii

a

x
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The work done by Fi when the particle
moves along the path ∆ li is
approximately:

∆ Wi ≈ Fi ⋅ ∆ li = Fi ∆ li co sθ i

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• Adding the quantities ∆ Wi for all
elements ∆ li, the total work done is
approximately:
b
∆W ≈ ∑ Fi ∆li cos θ i
a

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b b
Wab = lim
∆li →0
∑F ∆l
a
i i cos θ = ∫ F cos θ dl
a
b

Wab = ∫ F⋅ d l
a

Note: In mathematics this is called


a path integral. We will restrict
ourselves to very simple examples.

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Work Done Stretching a Spring

0 x1 x

Natural length of the spring corresponds to x = 0.

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x1 x1

W = ∫ F ⋅ dl = ∫ Fx dx Fx = kx
0 0
x1 x
2 1
kx

2
= kx dx = = 1
2
k x1
0
2 0

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-Fx

kx 1
W
0 x1 x
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Positive & Negative Work
 Work is positive if the force has a
component in the direction of
motion (displacement) (0 ≤ θ ≤
90o), cos θ is positive.
 Work is negative if the force has a
component opposite to the
displacement
(90 ≤ θ ≤ 180o), cos θ is
negative.
 Work is zero if the force is
perpendicular to the displacement,
θ = 90o.
cos 90 = 0
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Chapt 6: Work&Energy 02/12/09 17:52 18
Total Work
• We compute the work done by several forces
acting on a body by either:
• (a) computing the work done by each force
separately and then, since work is a scalar
quantity, taking the algebraic sum of the work
done by the individual forces or
• (b) compute the vector sum (resultant) of the
forces and then using this resultant force
compute the work done.

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Example
A particle moves a distance of 10 m under the influence of two
forces one of magnitude 5N acting at an angle of 60o and the other of
magnitude 6N at an angle of 30o from the +ve x-axis (the direction of
the displacement). Calculate the total work done by the two forces on
the particle.
Solution
(a) W1 = F1.d = (5N)(10m) cos 60o = 25 J
W2 = F2.d = (6N)(10m) cos 30o = 52 J
WT = W1+W2= 77 J.
or (b) FTx = F1x + F2x = (5N) cos 60o + (6N) cos 30o

WT = (FTx )( d) = (2.5 + 5.2) x10 m = 77 J

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Conceptual Question

• You pick up a book from the ground and hold it


stationary for half a minute. How much work do
you do during this holding time?
• You move with it horizontally, how much work do
you do during this movement?

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Work and Energy
• Energy is one of the most important concepts
used in physics.
• It permits one of the great laws of physics, the
law of conservation of energy.
• We begin with two ideas.
• Work, which is the result of the displacement of
an object due to the application of a force.
• Kinetic energy, which is a property of an object
in motion.

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Work - Energy Theorem
Force Fx acting on a mass m causing it to
accelerate in the x-direction. The work
done as the mass moves from x1 to x2 is:
x2
W = ∫ Fx dx
x1

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But, according to Newton’s second law:
dv
Fx = ma = m
dt
Using the chain rule for derivatives,
we write:
dv dv dx dv
= =v
dt dx dt dx

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x2
W = ∫ Fx dx
x1
x2 v2
⌠ dv
W =  mv dx = ∫ mv dv
⌡ dx v1
x1

= mv − mv
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
1

Work done = Change of kinetic energy

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• Or, consider object, m, moving in a straight line with initial speed
ν 1.
• Constant force Fnet is exerted on it parallel to its motion over a
distance, x.

 v22 − v12 
Wnet = Fnet x = ma x = m
 2x x
 
1 1
= mv 2 − mv1
2 2

2 2
= K 2 − K1 = ∆K

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• In words: “the work done by the resultant
external force on a particle is equal to the
change in kinetic energy of the particle.”
• This result is called the work-energy
theorem.
• Kinetic energy, like work, is a scalar
quantity. It can never be negative, although
work can be either positive or negative.
• Kinetic energy is energy associated with
motion. The unit is Joule, J.

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Potential Energy
• Potential energy (P.E) is associated with the position
or configuration, of an object.
• It might be elastic energy of the extension or
compression of a spring, or
• Energy of position in a gravitational or electric field.
• The absolute value of potential energy has no
physical significance, but
• A change in potential energy, equals to the work
done producing it, does have a definite value.

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Potential Energy
• Consider the gravitational potential energy of an object near the surface
of the Earth.
• A person must do work in order to lift an object without acceleration
from position y1 to y2.

W p = Fp ⋅ h = mgh cos θ
[if θ = 0, cos θ = = mgh = mg ( y2 − y1 )
1]
• Gravity does work
WG = FG ⋅ h = − mgh cosθ
[if θ = 0, cos θ = = − mgh = − mg( y 2 − y1 )
1]

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-

y2

y1

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Potential Energy (in General)
When an object is moved against a force, its energy
of position or potential energy (U) is increased.
The change ∆ U is given by:

∆U = −∫ F ⋅ dl
∆ U is equals to the −(work done by the force).
Applies to only conservative forces such as gravity

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Gravitational Potential Energy
Consider an object, mass m, moving upwards from
distance r1 to r2 from the earth. The gravitational
force is

GMm
F= 2
r

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The change in potential energy is
r2

∆U = −∫ F .dr
r1
r2 r2
1  1
=GMm ∫ 2 dr =GMm − 
r1
r  r r1

GMm GMm
∆U = − +
r2 r1

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GMm GMm
∆U = − +
r2 r1

Since r2 > r1, ∆ U > 0. If we set r2 = ∞,


and suppose that U(r) = 0 for r = ∞,
then relative to that
GMm
U (r ) = −
r

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Gravitational Potential Energy

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Gravitational Potential Energy
When r increases Fg does negative work and Ug
increases (becomes less negative).
When r decreases, the body falls toward the
earth and Wg is positive and Ug decreases
(becomes more negative).
U always becomes less negative with
increasing r.

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Gravitational Potential Energy
Example: Find the gravitational potential energy of a
12.0 kg meteorite when it is (a) one Earth radius above the
surface of the earth, and (b) on the surface of the earth.
Solution:
(a) In the distance r = 2RE, Ug = − GmME /2RE =
12.0kg(5.97 × 1024 kg
U g = − ( 6.67 × 10 Nm /kg )
−11 2 2
= − 3. 75 × 108
J
2(6.37 × 10 m)
6

(b) the distance from the center of the earth is r = RE


Thus Ug = − GmME/RE = − 7.5x108J, which is twice what it
was in part (a), while the distance between it and the center
of the6: Work&Energy
Chapt earth has been halved. 02/12/09 17:52 37
Work and Conservative Forces
Consider an object moving under gravity
from point a to point b:

y
yb b
θ
dl
ya
a mg
x

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y
yb b
θ
dl
ya
a mg
x
The work done in moving the object along the section dl
is: dW = F.d l = −mg cos θ dl
But cos θ dl = dy, so that the total work is:
b yb
W = ∫ F.d l = −∫ amg cos θ dl = − ∫y mg dy
b

a a

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The work done depends on the change of y only and is
independent of path.
y
yb b
Path 1

ya Path 2
a
x
Work done from a to b (path 1) = Work done from a to b (path 2)

In this case the force is said to be conservative.

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• If the work done by a force when an
object moves from one point to another
is independent of the path taken by the
object, then the force is said to be a
conservative force.

• Non-conservative forces are those in


which work done produces heat.

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Note :

If it is not independent, then we say that


the force involve is a non-conservative
force such as the frictional force.
• In that is the case, then the net work done
would be the sum of work done by
conservative and non-conservative forces.

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Note:

• The work done by a conservative force is


recoverable (n.c.f. friction dissipates energy).

• The work done by a conservative force around a


closed path is zero.

• The total mechanical energy of a system stays the


same and is therefore conserved ( KE + PE )

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The Potential Energy Curve

unstable equilibrium
dU
neutral
equilibrium =0
dx
no force
stable
equilibrium

dU ( x) The force is −(slope) of


F ( x) = −
dx the potential energy
curve U(x).

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Work and Energy
• The sum of the kinetic and potential energies of an
object is called the mechanical energy.
• Although the conversion of kinetic energy to potential
energy, and vice versa, can occur, it must happen in
such a way that their total is constant.
• The mechanical energy of an isolated mechanical
system is conserved.
• The total energy in any isolated system is constant,
no matter what happens within it.

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Energy Changes

Elastic PE:

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Gravitational PE:

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Power
• Power is defined as the rate at which
work is done.
work done
P=
time
Energy transformed
P=
time

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• Another convenient way of expressing
power is in term of the conservative force and
the velocity

W F •d
P= = = F •v
t t
• But you can only apply this equation to
a case of constant velocity motion

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Exercises
Exercise 1: A roller-coaster car is moving at 20 m/s along a
straight horizontal track. What will its speed be after climbing the
15-m hill shown in the figure if friction is ignored?

Conservation of mechanical energy:


KE + PE (on track) = KE + PE (on hill)
1 2 1 2
mvi + 0 = mv f + mgh
2 2
1 2 1 2 1
= vi − gh = ( 20) − ( 9.81)(15) = 52.85
2
vf
2 2 2
v f = 10.3 m/s

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10 m/s
Exercise 2: A 1.0-kg mass is suspended from a spring with k = 16 N/m.
The mass is pulled 0.25 m downward from its equilibrium position and
allowed to oscillate.
(a) What is the maximum kinetic energy of the mass?
(b) What is the maximum velocity of the mass?

(a) Conservation of mechanical energy:


KE maximum = PE maximum
1 2 1 2 1
mv = kx = (16)( 0.25) 2 = 0.50 J
2 2 2
1
(b) (1.0) v 2 = 0.50 J
2
2( 0.50 )
v= = 1.0 m/s
1.0

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Exercise 3: A 40-kg packing crate is pulled with constant speed
across a rough floor with a rope that is at an angle of 40.0° above
the horizontal. If the tension of the rope is 125 N, what is the work
done to move it 5.0 m?

W = F • d = Fd cosθ
= (125 N )( 5.0 m ) cos 40.0°
= 479 J

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Exercise 3b: A 40-kg packing crate is pulled with constant speed
across a rough floor with a rope that is at an angle of 40.0° above
the horizontal. If the tension of the rope is 125 N, what is the
coefficient of static friction between the crate and the floor?

∑F y = FN + 125 N sin 40.0° − mg = 0


T FN = ( 40)( 9.81) N − 125 N sin 40.0°
= 392 N − 80 N = 312 N

∑F x = 125 cos 40.0° − F f = 0


F f = µFN = 125 cos 40.0° = 96 N
96 N
µ= = 0.31
312 N

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